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Toxins 2018, 10(1), 1; doi:10.3390/toxins10010001

High Incidence and Levels of Ochratoxin A in Wines Sourced from the United States

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181, USA
Biomolecular Sciences Institute, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33181, USA
Current address: Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Ochratoxins-Collection)
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Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most prevalent mycotoxin contaminants of food crops. Among the agricultural products consequently contaminated by OTA is wine. In the present study, a sample of wines sourced from the United States was assessed for OTA. Wines were primarily analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) coupled to a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique which was developed and validated as a simplified sample preparation approach. More than 85% of the wines evaluated were found to contain OTA, at levels above the limit-of-detection (LOD = 0.1 µg L−1), and 76% were above the limit-of-quantitation (LOQ = 0.3 µg L−1) for the LLE/HPLC-FD method. More than two-thirds of the wines above the LOQ were found to exceed 1 µg L−1. Complementary analysis by HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) confirmed OTA in 74% of the OTA-positive wines (i.e., >LOQ by HPLC-FD). Overall, both the occurrence and measured levels of OTA were generally high, specifically relative to previous assessments of OTA in wine, and two of the wines were above the only current (European Union) regulatory limit of two parts-per-billion (ppb, ~2 µg L−1). Possible trends with respect to geographical region and/or growing climate are noted. As the first assessment of U.S. wines in more than a decade, the overall high occurrence and levels of OTA in wine, and possible geographic and climatic trends, point to a need for regular surveillance of wines, as well as investigation of the relevant contributors to OTA occurrence toward mitigating contamination and exposure risks. View Full-Text
Keywords: ochratoxin A; wine; United States; HPLC-FD; liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) ochratoxin A; wine; United States; HPLC-FD; liquid/liquid extraction (LLE)

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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De Jesus, C.L.; Bartley, A.; Welch, A.Z.; Berry, J.P. High Incidence and Levels of Ochratoxin A in Wines Sourced from the United States. Toxins 2018, 10, 1.

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