Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Toxins, Volume 4, Issue 10 (October 2012), Pages 768-955

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-12
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Antibody to Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) Inhibits Human T-Cell Lymphoptropic Virus Type I (HTLV-I) Production by Transformed Rabbit T-Cell Lines
Toxins 2012, 4(10), 768-777; doi:10.3390/toxins4100768
Received: 11 June 2012 / Revised: 12 September 2012 / Accepted: 14 September 2012 / Published: 26 September 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adult T cell leukemia is a fatal malignant transformation caused by the human T-cell lymphoptropic virus type I (HTLV-I). HTLV-I is only associated with the development of this disease in a small percentage of infected individuals. Using two rabbit transformed T-cell lines; RH/K30
[...] Read more.
Adult T cell leukemia is a fatal malignant transformation caused by the human T-cell lymphoptropic virus type I (HTLV-I). HTLV-I is only associated with the development of this disease in a small percentage of infected individuals. Using two rabbit transformed T-cell lines; RH/K30 (asymptomatic) and RH/K34 (leukemogenic), we have investigated the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) 90 and 70 and the role of anti-HSPs antibodies on virus production. HSPs surface expression was higher on RH/K34 than RH/K30 cells. Heat treatment of cells increased the expression of HSPs proteins and virus production; HSPs augmentation was stabilized after 12 h and virus production reached a maximum between 8 h–12 h then returned to normal level after 24 h of culture. Incubation of cells only with rabbit anti-HSP 70 antibodies prevented virus production specifically in the leukemogenic cell line. The results indicate a relationship between HSP 70 and virus production. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Toxicity and Therapeutic Interventions in the Immune System)
Open AccessArticle Occurrence and Distribution of 13 Trichothecene Toxins in Naturally Contaminated Maize Plants in Germany
Toxins 2012, 4(10), 778-787; doi:10.3390/toxins4100778
Received: 31 May 2012 / Revised: 19 September 2012 / Accepted: 20 September 2012 / Published: 28 September 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to monitor the occurrence and distribution of a spectrum of trichothecene toxins in different parts of maize plants. Therefore maize plants were sampled randomly from 13 fields in southwest Germany and the fractions kernels, cobs, husks,
[...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to monitor the occurrence and distribution of a spectrum of trichothecene toxins in different parts of maize plants. Therefore maize plants were sampled randomly from 13 fields in southwest Germany and the fractions kernels, cobs, husks, stalks, leaves and rudimentary ears were analyzed for eight A-type and five B-type trichothecenes. Each of the toxins was found in at least three of the total of 78 samples. The study revealed that both A-type and B-type trichothecenes may be present in all parts of the maize plant but may be unevenly distributed. For the contents of deoxynivalenol, 3- and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, nivalenol, scirpentriol, 15-monoacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 and T-2 toxin significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between different parts of the maize plants whereas no significant differences were observed for fusarenon-X, 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol, neosolaniol, T-2 triol and T-2 tetraol. Up to twelve toxins co-occurring in one sample were detected. As a group B-type trichothecenes dominated over A-type trichothecenes concerning incidences and levels. Contamination was strongest with rudimentary ears based on incidence and mean and maximum contents; mean contents with few exceptions tended towards a higher level than in other fractions with significant (p < 0.05) differences compared to leaves for seven toxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessArticle Effectiveness of the High Dose/Refuge Strategy for Managing Pest Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Plants Expressing One or Two Toxins
Toxins 2012, 4(10), 810-835; doi:10.3390/toxins4100810
Received: 6 June 2012 / Revised: 21 September 2012 / Accepted: 8 October 2012 / Published: 18 October 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (556 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To delay resistance development to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plants expressing their own insecticide, the application of the Insect Resistance Management strategy called “High Dose/Refuge Strategy” (HD/R) is recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). This strategy was developed for
[...] Read more.
To delay resistance development to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plants expressing their own insecticide, the application of the Insect Resistance Management strategy called “High Dose/Refuge Strategy” (HD/R) is recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). This strategy was developed for Bt plants expressing one toxin. Presently, however, new Bt plants that simultaneously express two toxins are on the market. We used a mathematical model to evaluate the efficiency of the HD/R strategy for both these Bt toxins. As the current two-toxin Bt plants do not express two new Cry toxins but reuse one toxin already in use with a one-toxin plant, we estimated the spread of resistance when the resistance alleles are not rare. This study assesses: (i) whether the two toxins have to be present in high concentration, and (ii) the impact of the relative size of the refuge zone on the evolution of resistance and population density. We concluded that for Bt plants expressing one toxin, a high concentration is an essential condition for resistance management. For the pyramided Bt plants, one toxin could be expressed at a low titer if the two toxins are used for the first time, and a small refuge zone is acceptable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insecticidal Toxins)
Open AccessArticle Estimation of Multi-Mycotoxin Contamination in South African Compound Feeds
Toxins 2012, 4(10), 836-848; doi:10.3390/toxins4100836
Received: 11 July 2012 / Revised: 17 September 2012 / Accepted: 8 October 2012 / Published: 18 October 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (298 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A total of 92 commercial compound feeds from South Africa were investigated for various mycotoxins. The data reveal the highest incidence of feed contamination for fumonisins (FB) (range: 104–2999 µg/kg) followed by deoxynivalenol (DON) (range: 124–2352 µg/kg) and zearalenone (ZEA) (range: 30–610 µg/kg).
[...] Read more.
A total of 92 commercial compound feeds from South Africa were investigated for various mycotoxins. The data reveal the highest incidence of feed contamination for fumonisins (FB) (range: 104–2999 µg/kg) followed by deoxynivalenol (DON) (range: 124–2352 µg/kg) and zearalenone (ZEA) (range: 30–610 µg/kg). The incidence of ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins (AF)-contaminated samples were generally low, i.e., 4% and 30% of samples with levels ranging between 6.4 and 17.1 µg/kg (mean: 9.9 µg/kg) for OTA and 0.2 to 71.8 µg/kg (mean: 9.0 µg/kg) for AF. No samples contained T-2 toxin or HT-2 toxin. However, all samples analyzed were contaminated with at least one mycotoxin with a majority containing several mycotoxins. In particular, 3 of 4 positive samples mainly cattle feeds that had relatively high contents of OTA (ranging from 7 to 17.1 µg/kg) also contained high amounts of AF (>27.5 µg/kg) together with FB, DON and ZEA. Apart from a few samples, the levels of mycotoxins may be regarded as safe for livestock production in South Africa. However, the persistent co-occurrence of mycotoxins in samples, especially those at high concentrations, i.e., AF and OTA, together with other mycotoxins studied, may elicit synergistic or additive effects in animals. This should raise concern as multiple contaminations may pose a risk to livestock production and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessArticle Do Only Small Uremic Toxins, Chromophores, Contribute to the Online Dialysis Dose Monitoring by UV Absorbance?
Toxins 2012, 4(10), 849-861; doi:10.3390/toxins4100849
Received: 30 June 2012 / Revised: 25 September 2012 / Accepted: 27 September 2012 / Published: 18 October 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (768 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this work was to evaluate the contributions of the main chromophores to the total UV absorbance of the spent dialysate and to assess removal dynamics of these solutes during optical on-line dialysis dose monitoring. High performance chromatography was used to
[...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the contributions of the main chromophores to the total UV absorbance of the spent dialysate and to assess removal dynamics of these solutes during optical on-line dialysis dose monitoring. High performance chromatography was used to separate and quantify UV-absorbing solutes in the spent dialysate sampled at the start and at the end of dialysis sessions. Chromatograms were monitored at 210, 254 and 280 nm routinely and full absorption spectra were registered between 200 and 400 nm. Nearly 95% of UV absorbance originates from solutes with high removal ratio, such as uric acid. The contributions of different solute groups vary at different wavelengths and there are dynamical changes in contributions during the single dialysis session. However, large standard deviation of the average contribution values within a series of sessions indicates remarkable differences between individual treatments. A noteworthy contribution of Paracetamol and its metabolites to the total UV absorbance was determined at all three wavelengths. Contribution of slowly dialyzed uremic solutes, such as indoxyl sulfate, was negligible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uremic Toxins)
Open AccessArticle Vixapatin (VP12), a C-Type Lectin-Protein from Vipera xantina palestinae Venom: Characterization as a Novel Anti-angiogenic Compound
Toxins 2012, 4(10), 862-877; doi:10.3390/toxins4100862
Received: 30 August 2012 / Revised: 29 September 2012 / Accepted: 8 October 2012 / Published: 18 October 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (763 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A C-type lectin-like protein (CTL), originally identified as VP12 and lately named Vixapatin, was isolated and characterized from Israeli viper Vipera xantina palestinae snake venom. This CTL was characterized as a selective α2β1 integrin inhibitor with anti-melanoma metastatic activity. The major aim of
[...] Read more.
A C-type lectin-like protein (CTL), originally identified as VP12 and lately named Vixapatin, was isolated and characterized from Israeli viper Vipera xantina palestinae snake venom. This CTL was characterized as a selective α2β1 integrin inhibitor with anti-melanoma metastatic activity. The major aim of the present study was to prove the possibility that this protein is also a potent novel anti-angiogenic compound. Using an adhesion assay, we demonstrated that Vixapatin selectively and potently inhibited the α2 mediated adhesion of K562 over-expressing cells, with IC50 of 3 nM. 3 nM Vixapatin blocked proliferation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC); 25 nM inhibited collagen I induced migration of human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells; and 50 nM rat C6 glioma and human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. 1 µM Vixapatin reduced HDMEC tube formation by 75% in a Matrigel assay. Furthermore, 1 µM Vixapatin decreased by 70% bFGF-induced physiological angiogenesis, and by 94% C6 glioma-induced pathological angiogenesis, in shell-less embryonic quail chorioallantoic membrane assay. Vixapatin’s ability to inhibit all steps of the angiogenesis process suggest that it is a novel pharmacological tool for studying α2β1 integrin mediated angiogenesis and a lead compound for the development of a novel anti-angiogenic/angiostatic/anti-cancer drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Properties of Well-Characterized Toxins)
Open AccessArticle Within-Mat Variability in Anatoxin-a and Homoanatoxin-a Production among Benthic Phormidium (Cyanobacteria) Strains
Toxins 2012, 4(10), 900-912; doi:10.3390/toxins4100900
Received: 21 September 2012 / Revised: 14 October 2012 / Accepted: 16 October 2012 / Published: 19 October 2012
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Benthic Phormidium mats can contain high concentrations of the neurotoxins anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a. However, little is known about the co-occurrence of anatoxin-producing and non-anatoxin-producing strains within mats. There is also no data on variation in anatoxin content among toxic genotypes isolated from the
[...] Read more.
Benthic Phormidium mats can contain high concentrations of the neurotoxins anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a. However, little is known about the co-occurrence of anatoxin-producing and non-anatoxin-producing strains within mats. There is also no data on variation in anatoxin content among toxic genotypes isolated from the same mat. In this study, 30 Phormidium strains were isolated from 1 cm2 sections of Phormidium-dominated mats collected from three different sites. Strains were grown to stationary phase and their anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a and dihydrohomoanatoxin-a concentrations determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Each strain was characterized using morphological and molecular (16S rRNA gene sequences) techniques. Eighteen strains produced anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a or homoanatoxin-a. Strains isolated from each mat either all produced toxins, or were a mixture of anatoxin and non-anatoxin-producing genotypes. Based on morphology these genotypes could not be separated. The 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed a difference of at least 17 nucleotides among anatoxin and non-anatoxin-producing strains and these formed two separate sub-clades during phylogenetic analysis. The total anatoxin concentration among toxic strains varied from 2.21 to 211.88 mg kg−1 (freeze dried weight), representing a 100 fold variation in toxin content. These data indicate that both the relative abundance of anatoxin and non-anatoxin-producing genotypes, and variations in anatoxin producing capability, can influence the overall toxin concentration of benthic Phormidium mat samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyanotoxins)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Calyculin A from Discodermia Calyx Is a Dual Action Toxin that Blocks Calcium Influx and Inhibits Protein Ser/Thr Phosphatases
Toxins 2012, 4(10), 940-954; doi:10.3390/toxins4100940
Received: 11 September 2012 / Revised: 17 October 2012 / Accepted: 17 October 2012 / Published: 22 October 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (890 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Calyculin A (Caly A) is cell permeable toxin widely used in cell biology research as an inhibitor of type 1 and type 2A protein Ser/Thr phosphatases of the PPP family. Here we tested effects of low concentrations of Caly A on proliferation of
[...] Read more.
Calyculin A (Caly A) is cell permeable toxin widely used in cell biology research as an inhibitor of type 1 and type 2A protein Ser/Thr phosphatases of the PPP family. Here we tested effects of low concentrations of Caly A on proliferation of human cancer and non-cancer cell lines. We found that long-term 0.3 nM Caly A prevented G1 to S phase cell cycle progression in human Hs-68 fibroblasts and ARPE19 epithelial cells, but not human breast cancer MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells. These conditions produced no change in cyclin D1 levels or in the phosphorylation of endogenous proteins. However, acute application of 0.3 nM Caly A blocked serum-induced increase in intracellular calcium levels in Hs-68 fibroblasts, but not in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells. We propose that subnanomolar Caly A prevents cell cycle progression because it blocks calcium uptake by fibroblasts. This probably involves non-selective cation channels and cancer cell proliferation was not affected because calcium enters these cells by other channels. Our results suggest that calyculin A has dual actions and acts as a channel blocker, in addition to its well-established effects as a phosphatase inhibitor. Full article
Figures

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Current Situation of Mycotoxin Contamination and Co-occurrence in Animal Feed—Focus on Europe
Toxins 2012, 4(10), 788-809; doi:10.3390/toxins4100788
Received: 1 August 2012 / Revised: 13 September 2012 / Accepted: 14 September 2012 / Published: 1 October 2012
Cited by 122 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed,
[...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A) are covered by EU legislation (regulation or recommendation). Transgressions of these limits are rarely observed in official monitoring programs. However, low level contamination by Fusarium toxins is very common (e.g., deoxynivalenol (DON) is typically found in more than 50% of the samples) and co-contamination is frequently observed. Multi-mycotoxin studies reported 75%–100% of the samples to contain more than one mycotoxin which could impact animal health at already low doses. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins is likely to arise for at least three different reasons (i) most fungi are able to simultaneously produce a number of mycotoxins, (ii) commodities can be contaminated by several fungi, and (iii) completed feed is made from various commodities. In the present paper, we reviewed the data published since 2004 concerning the contamination of animal feed with single or combinations of mycotoxins and highlighted the occurrence of these co-contaminations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessReview Anthrax Lethal Toxin and the Induction of CD4 T Cell Immunity
Toxins 2012, 4(10), 878-899; doi:10.3390/toxins4100878
Received: 30 July 2012 / Revised: 8 October 2012 / Accepted: 10 October 2012 / Published: 19 October 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (453 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacillus anthracis secretes exotoxins which act through several mechanisms including those that can subvert adaptive immunity with respect both to antigen presenting cell and T cell function. The combination of Protective Antigen (PA) and Lethal Factor (LF) forming Lethal Toxin (LT), acts within
[...] Read more.
Bacillus anthracis secretes exotoxins which act through several mechanisms including those that can subvert adaptive immunity with respect both to antigen presenting cell and T cell function. The combination of Protective Antigen (PA) and Lethal Factor (LF) forming Lethal Toxin (LT), acts within host cells to down-regulate the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade. Until recently the MAPK kinases were the only known substrate for LT; over the past few years it has become evident that LT also cleaves Nlrp1, leading to inflammasome activation and macrophage death. The predicted downstream consequences of subverting these important cellular pathways are impaired antigen presentation and adaptive immunity. In contrast to this, recent work has indicated that robust memory T cell responses to B. anthracis antigens can be identified following natural anthrax infection. We discuss how LT affects the adaptive immune response and specifically the identification of B. anthracis epitopes that are both immunogenic and protective with the potential for inclusion in protein sub-unit based vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthrax Toxin)
Open AccessReview Clinical Uses of Botulinum Neurotoxins: Current Indications, Limitations and Future Developments
Toxins 2012, 4(10), 913-939; doi:10.3390/toxins4100913
Received: 13 August 2012 / Revised: 9 October 2012 / Accepted: 12 October 2012 / Published: 19 October 2012
Cited by 44 | PDF Full-text (1072 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause flaccid paralysis by interfering with vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release in the neuronal cells. BoNTs are the most widely used therapeutic proteins. BoNT/A was approved by the U.S. FDA to treat strabismus, blepharospam, and hemificial spasm as early as
[...] Read more.
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause flaccid paralysis by interfering with vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release in the neuronal cells. BoNTs are the most widely used therapeutic proteins. BoNT/A was approved by the U.S. FDA to treat strabismus, blepharospam, and hemificial spasm as early as 1989 and then for treatment of cervical dystonia, glabellar facial lines, axillary hyperhidrosis, chronic migraine and for cosmetic use. Due to its high efficacy, longevity of action and satisfactory safety profile, it has been used empirically in a variety of ophthalmological, gastrointestinal, urological, orthopedic, dermatological, secretory, and painful disorders. Currently available BoNT therapies are limited to neuronal indications with the requirement of periodic injections resulting in immune-resistance for some indications. Recent understanding of the structure-function relationship of BoNTs prompted the engineering of novel BoNTs to extend therapeutic interventions in non-neuronal systems and to overcome the immune-resistance issue. Much research still needs to be done to improve and extend the medical uses of BoNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Use of Botulinum Toxins)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessCorrection Correction: Duke, S.O., et al., Modes of Action of Microbially-Produced Phytotoxins. Toxins 2011, 3, 1038–1064
Toxins 2012, 4(10), 955; doi:10.3390/toxins4100955
Received: 22 October 2012 / Revised: 22 October 2012 / Accepted: 22 October 2012 / Published: 23 October 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (107 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract The authors are sorry to report that the structure of rhizobitoxine in Figure 2 in their published paper [1] was incorrect. [...] Full article

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Toxins Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
toxins@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Toxins
Back to Top