Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
A Review of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome and the Possible Role of Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of This Syndrome
Previous Article in Journal
Mathematic Modeling for Optimum Conditions on Aflatoxin B1 Degradation by the Aerobic Bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Botulinum Toxin A for Oral Cavity Cancer Patients: In Microsurgical Patients BTX Injections in Major Salivary Glands Temporarily Reduce Salivary Production and the Risk of Local Complications Related to Saliva Stagnation
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2012, 4(11), 1196-1222; doi:10.3390/toxins4111196

Emerging Opportunities for Serotypes of Botulinum Neurotoxins

University of Florida Center for Movement Disorders & Neurorestoration, Department of Neurology, 3450 Hull Road Gainesville, FL 32607, USA
ATIX Foundation, Avda. 11 de Septiembre 1363, office 1502, Santiago, Chile
University for Development, Av. Plaza 680, San Carlos de Apoquindo, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
University of Florida Emerging Pathogens Institute, 2055 Mowry Road Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 July 2012 / Revised: 2 October 2012 / Accepted: 29 October 2012 / Published: 7 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Use of Botulinum Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1054 KB, uploaded 7 November 2012]   |  


Background: Two decades ago, botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) type A was introduced to the commercial market. Subsequently, the toxin was approved by the FDA to address several neurological syndromes, involving muscle, nerve, and gland hyperactivity. These syndromes have typically been associated with abnormalities in cholinergic transmission. Despite the multiplicity of botulinal serotypes (designated as types A through G), therapeutic preparations are currently only available for BoNT types A and B. However, other BoNT serotypes are under study for possible clinical use and new clinical indications; Objective: To review the current research on botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A-G, and to analyze potential applications within basic science and clinical settings; Conclusions: The increasing understanding of botulinal neurotoxin pathophysiology, including the neurotoxin’s effects on specific neuronal populations, will help us in tailoring treatments for specific diagnoses, symptoms and patients. Scientists and clinicians should be aware of the full range of available data involving neurotoxin subtypes A-G.
Keywords: Botulinum toxin serotypes; neurotoxins subtypes; neuro-pharmacology toxins Botulinum toxin serotypes; neurotoxins subtypes; neuro-pharmacology toxins

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Peng Chen, Z.; Morris, J.G., Jr.; Rodriguez, R.L.; Shukla, A.W.; Tapia-Núñez, J.; Okun, M.S. Emerging Opportunities for Serotypes of Botulinum Neurotoxins. Toxins 2012, 4, 1196-1222.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top