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Toxins 2017, 9(11), 362; doi:10.3390/toxins9110362

Proteomic Characterization of the Venom of Five Bombus (Thoracobombus) Species

1
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey
2
Department of Fundamental Neurosciences, University of Lausanne, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland
3
Faculty of Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Ankara University, 06830 Ankara, Turkey
Current Address: Institute of Clinical Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Academy, 41390 Gothenburg, Sweden.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hang Fai (Henry) Kwok
Received: 5 October 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 11 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [839 KB, uploaded 11 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

Venomous animals use venom, a complex biofluid composed of unique mixtures of proteins and peptides, to act on vital systems of the prey or predator. In bees, venom is solely used for defense against predators. However, the venom composition of bumble bees (Bombus sp.) is largely unknown. The Thoracobombus subgenus of Bombus sp. is a diverse subgenus represented by 14 members across Turkey. In this study, we sought out to proteomically characterize the venom of five Thoracobombus species by using bottom-up proteomic techniques. We have obtained two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel (2D-PAGE) images of each species’ venom sample. We have subsequently identified the protein spots by using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We have identified 47 proteins for Bombus humilis, 32 for B. pascuorum, 60 for B. ruderarius, 39 for B. sylvarum, and 35 for B. zonatus. Moreover, we illustrated that intensities of 2DE protein spots corresponding to putative venom toxins vary in a species-specific manner. Our analyses provide the primary proteomic characterization of five bumble bee species’ venom composition. View Full-Text
Keywords: bumble bees; toxins; MALDI-TOF MS; proteomics; 2D-PAGE; venom bumble bees; toxins; MALDI-TOF MS; proteomics; 2D-PAGE; venom
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Barkan, N.P.; Bayazit, M.B.; Ozel Demiralp, D. Proteomic Characterization of the Venom of Five Bombus (Thoracobombus) Species. Toxins 2017, 9, 362.

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