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Toxins 2017, 9(11), 368; doi:10.3390/toxins9110368 (registering DOI)

The Apoptogenic Toxin AIP56 Is Secreted by the Type II Secretion System of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida

1
Fish Immunology and Vaccinology Group, IBMC-Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
2
i3S-Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, 4200-235 Porto, Portugal
3
Departamento de Microbioloxía e Parasitoloxía, Instituto de Acuicultura, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Holger Barth
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1370 KB, uploaded 21 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

AIP56 (apoptosis-inducing protein of 56 kDa) is a key virulence factor of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp), the causative agent of a septicaemia affecting warm water marine fish species. Phdp-associated pathology is triggered by AIP56, a short trip AB toxin with a metalloprotease A domain that cleaves the p65 subunit of NF-κB, an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that regulates the expression of inflammatory and anti-apoptotic genes and plays a central role in host responses to infection. During infection by Phdp, AIP56 is systemically disseminated and induces apoptosis of macrophages and neutrophils, compromising the host phagocytic defence and contributing to the genesis of pathology. Although it is well established that the secretion of AIP56 is crucial for Phdp pathogenicity, the protein secretion systems operating in Phdp and the mechanism responsible for the extracellular release of the toxin remain unknown. Here, we report that Phdp encodes a type II secretion system (T2SS) and show that mutation of the EpsL component of this system impairs AIP56 secretion. This work demonstrates that Phdp has a functional T2SS that mediates secretion of its key virulence factor AIP56. View Full-Text
Keywords: exotoxin; secretion; T2SS; polar localisation exotoxin; secretion; T2SS; polar localisation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

do Vale, A.; Pereira, C.; R. Osorio, C.; M. S. dos Santos, N. The Apoptogenic Toxin AIP56 Is Secreted by the Type II Secretion System of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. Toxins 2017, 9, 368.

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