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Cancers, Volume 10, Issue 6 (June 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Until today, older patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Crosstalk between ERα and Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signalling and Implications for the Development of Anti-Endocrine Resistance
Cancers 2018, 10(6), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10060209
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Although anti-endocrine therapies have significantly advanced the treatment of breast cancer, they pose the problem of acquired drug resistance. The oestrogen receptor (ER)-expressing breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D alongside their in vitro derived resistant counterparts MCF-7-TR (tamoxifen-resistant) and T47D-FR (fulvestrant-resistant) showed
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Although anti-endocrine therapies have significantly advanced the treatment of breast cancer, they pose the problem of acquired drug resistance. The oestrogen receptor (ER)-expressing breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D alongside their in vitro derived resistant counterparts MCF-7-TR (tamoxifen-resistant) and T47D-FR (fulvestrant-resistant) showed dual resistance to fulvestrant and tamoxifen in the presence of upregulated HER1 and HER2 growth factor receptors. Our study demonstrated that tamoxifen resistance and fulvestrant resistance are associated with collateral sensitivity to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) lapatinib (p < 0.0001) and afatinib (p < 0.0001). Further, we found that over time, the TKIs reactivated ERα protein and/or mRNA in tamoxifen- and fulvestrant-resistant cells. Combinations of anti-endocrine agents with afatinib gave rise to significantly enhanced levels of apoptosis in both T47D-FR and MCF-7-TR in a synergistic manner versus additive effects of agents used singly. This was associated with p27kip1 induction for anti-endocrine-resistant cells versus parental cells. Our data supports the use of combination treatment utilising dual HER1/2 inhibitors in breast cancer patients showing resistance to multiple anti-endocrine agents. Full article
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Open AccessConference Report Innovative Technologies Changing Cancer Treatment
Cancers 2018, 10(6), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10060208
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Conventional therapies for cancer such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy remain a mainstay in treatment, but in many cases a targeted approach is lacking, and patients can be vulnerable to drug resistance. In recent years, novel concepts have been emerging to improve the traditional
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Conventional therapies for cancer such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy remain a mainstay in treatment, but in many cases a targeted approach is lacking, and patients can be vulnerable to drug resistance. In recent years, novel concepts have been emerging to improve the traditional therapeutic options in cancers with poor survival outcomes. New therapeutic strategies involving areas like energy metabolism and extracellular vesicles along with advances in immunotherapy and nanotechnology are driving the next generation of cancer treatments. The development of fields such as theranostics in nanomedicine is also opening new doors for targeted drug delivery and nano-imaging. Here we discuss the use of innovative technologies presented at the Irish Association for Cancer Research (IACR) Annual Meeting, highlighting examples of where new approaches may lead to promising new treatment options for a range of cancer types. Full article
Open AccessReview Hypersialylation in Cancer: Modulation of Inflammation and Therapeutic Opportunities
Cancers 2018, 10(6), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10060207
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Cell surface glycosylation is dynamic and often changes in response to cellular differentiation under physiological or pathophysiological conditions. Altered glycosylation on cancers cells is gaining attention due its wide-spread occurrence across a variety of cancer types and recent studies that have documented functional
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Cell surface glycosylation is dynamic and often changes in response to cellular differentiation under physiological or pathophysiological conditions. Altered glycosylation on cancers cells is gaining attention due its wide-spread occurrence across a variety of cancer types and recent studies that have documented functional roles for aberrant glycosylation in driving cancer progression at various stages. One change in glycosylation that can correlate with cancer stage and disease prognosis is hypersialylation. Increased levels of sialic acid are pervasive in cancer and a growing body of evidence demonstrates how hypersialylation is advantageous to cancer cells, particularly from the perspective of modulating immune cell responses. Sialic acid-binding receptors, such as Siglecs and Selectins, are well-positioned to be exploited by cancer hypersialylation. Evidence is also mounting that Siglecs modulate key immune cell types in the tumor microenvironment, particularly those responsible for maintaining the appropriate inflammatory environment. From these studies have come new and innovative ways to block the effects of hypersialylation by directly reducing sialic acid on cancer cells or blocking interactions between sialic acid and Siglecs or Selectins. Here we review recent works examining how cancer cells become hypersialylated, how hypersialylation benefits cancer cells and tumors, and proposed therapies to abrogate hypersialylation of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation and Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Constitutive Activation of STAT3 in Myeloma Cells Cultured in a Three-Dimensional, Reconstructed Bone Marrow Model
Cancers 2018, 10(6), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10060206
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
Malignant cells cultured in three-dimensional (3D) models have been found to be phenotypically and biochemically different from their counterparts cultured conventionally. Since most of these studies employed solid tumor types, how 3D culture affects multiple myeloma (MM) cells is not well understood. Here,
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Malignant cells cultured in three-dimensional (3D) models have been found to be phenotypically and biochemically different from their counterparts cultured conventionally. Since most of these studies employed solid tumor types, how 3D culture affects multiple myeloma (MM) cells is not well understood. Here, we compared MM cells (U266 and RPMI8226) in a 3D culture model with those in conventional culture. While the conventionally cultured cells were present in single cells or small clusters, MM-3D cells grew in large spheroids. We discovered that STAT3 was the pathway that was more activated in 3D in both cell lines. The active form of STAT3 (phospho-STAT3 or pSTAT3), which was absent in MM cells cultured conventionally, became detectable after 1–2 days in 3D culture. This elevated pSTAT3 level was dependent on the 3D environment, since it disappeared after transferring to conventional culture. STAT3 inhibition using a pharmacological agent, Stattic, significantly decreased the cell viability of MM cells and sensitized them to bortezomib in 3D culture. Using an oligonucleotide array, we found that 3D culture significantly increased the expression of several known STAT3 downstream genes implicated in oncogenesis. Since most primary MM tumors are naturally STAT3-active, studies of MM in 3D culture can generate results that are more representative of the disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Oncolytic Reovirus and Immune Checkpoint Inhibition as a Novel Immunotherapeutic Strategy for Breast Cancer
Cancers 2018, 10(6), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10060205
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
As the current efficacy of oncolytic viruses (OVs) as monotherapy is limited, exploration of OVs as part of a broader immunotherapeutic treatment strategy for cancer is necessary. Here, we investigated the ability for immune checkpoint blockade to enhance the efficacy of oncolytic reovirus
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As the current efficacy of oncolytic viruses (OVs) as monotherapy is limited, exploration of OVs as part of a broader immunotherapeutic treatment strategy for cancer is necessary. Here, we investigated the ability for immune checkpoint blockade to enhance the efficacy of oncolytic reovirus (RV) for the treatment of breast cancer (BrCa). In vitro, oncolysis and cytokine production were assessed in human and murine BrCa cell lines following RV exposure. Furthermore, RV-induced upregulation of tumor cell PD-L1 was evaluated. In vivo, the immunocompetent, syngeneic EMT6 murine model of BrCa was employed to determine therapeutic and tumor-specific immune responses following treatment with RV, anti-PD-1 antibodies or in combination. RV-mediated oncolysis and cytokine production were observed following BrCa cell infection and RV upregulated tumor cell expression of PD-L1. In vivo, RV monotherapy significantly reduced disease burden and enhanced survival in treated mice, and was further enhanced by PD-1 blockade. RV therapy increased the number of intratumoral regulatory T cells, which was reversed by the addition of PD-1 blockade. Finally, dual treatment led to the generation of a systemic adaptive anti-tumor immune response evidenced by an increase in tumor-specific IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells, and immunity from tumor re-challenge. The combination of PD-1 blockade and RV appears to be an efficacious immunotherapeutic strategy for the treatment of BrCa, and warrants further investigation in early-phase clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Virotherapy)
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Open AccessReview The Role of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma
Cancers 2018, 10(6), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10060204
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) is a unique disease entity both in its pathology and the young patient population that it primarily affects. Although cure rates are high, survivorship can be linked with significant long-term morbidity associated with both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The most significant
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Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) is a unique disease entity both in its pathology and the young patient population that it primarily affects. Although cure rates are high, survivorship can be linked with significant long-term morbidity associated with both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The most significant recent advances have been with the use of the anti-CD30-drug conjugated antibody brentuximab vedotin (BV) and inhibitors of program death 1 (PD-1). HL is genetically wired to up-regulate program death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in >95% of cases, creating a state of so-called “T cell exhaustion”, which can be reversed with immune checkpoint-inhibitor blockade. The overall and complete response rates to PD-1 inhibitors in patients with relapsed or refractory HL are 70% and 20%, respectively, with a long median duration of response of ~16 months. In fact, PD-1 inhibitors can benefit a wide spectrum of relapsed HL patients, including some who have “progressive disease” by strict response criteria. We review the biology of HL, with a focus on the immune micro-environment and mechanisms of immune evasion. We also provide the rationale supporting the use of PD-1 inhibitors in HL and highlight some of the challenges of monitoring disease response in patients treated with this immunotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hodgkin's Lymphoma)
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Open AccessPerspective Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis and Prognosis of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: The Quest Goes on
Cancers 2018, 10(6), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10060203
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MM) is a highly aggressive tumor characterized by a poor prognosis. Although its carcinogenesis mechanism has not been strictly understood, about 80% of MM can be attributed to occupational and/or environmental exposure to asbestos fibers. The identification of non-invasive molecular
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Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MM) is a highly aggressive tumor characterized by a poor prognosis. Although its carcinogenesis mechanism has not been strictly understood, about 80% of MM can be attributed to occupational and/or environmental exposure to asbestos fibers. The identification of non-invasive molecular markers for an early diagnosis of MM has been the subject of several studies aimed at diagnosing the disease at an early stage. The most studied biomarker is mesothelin, characterized by a good specificity, but it has low sensitivity, especially for non-epithelioid MM. Other protein markers are Fibulin-3 and osteopontin which have not, however, showed a superior diagnostic performance. Recently, interesting results have been reported for the HMGB1 protein in a small but limited series. An increase in channel proteins involved in water transport, aquaporins, have been identified as positive prognostic factors in MM, high levels of expression of aquaporins in tumor cells predict an increase in survival. MicroRNAs and protein panels are among the new indicators of interest. None of the markers available today are sufficiently reliable to be used in the surveillance of subjects exposed to asbestos or in the early detection of MM. Our aim is to give a detailed account of biomarkers available for MM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Biomarkers)
Open AccessArticle Loss of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Alters Oncolytic Adenovirus Replication and Promotes More Efficient Virus Production
Cancers 2018, 10(6), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10060202
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
We elucidate the role of p21/Waf-1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, on the oncolytic infection and replication cycle of adenovirus by studying both mRNA and adenoviral proteins expression. We found that infection in the absence of p21 causes a significant increase in adenoviral genomes
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We elucidate the role of p21/Waf-1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, on the oncolytic infection and replication cycle of adenovirus by studying both mRNA and adenoviral proteins expression. We found that infection in the absence of p21 causes a significant increase in adenoviral genomes and late gene expression. Similarly, the oncolytic adenoviral infected p21−/− cells have earlier formation of replication foci and robust replication kinetics that were not observed in the wild type p21/Waf-1 intact cells. These findings suggest a culmination that the presence of intact p21 in host cells causes defects in the oncolytic viral life cycle which results in the production of immature and noninfectious particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Virotherapy)
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Open AccessReview Designer Oncolytic Adenovirus: Coming of Age
Cancers 2018, 10(6), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10060201
Received: 20 May 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
The licensing of talimogene laherparepvec (T-Vec) represented a landmark moment for oncolytic virotherapy, since it provided unequivocal evidence for the long-touted potential of genetically modified replicating viruses as anti-cancer agents. Whilst T-Vec is promising as a locally delivered virotherapy, especially in combination with
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The licensing of talimogene laherparepvec (T-Vec) represented a landmark moment for oncolytic virotherapy, since it provided unequivocal evidence for the long-touted potential of genetically modified replicating viruses as anti-cancer agents. Whilst T-Vec is promising as a locally delivered virotherapy, especially in combination with immune-checkpoint inhibitors, the quest continues for a virus capable of specific tumour cell killing via systemic administration. One candidate is oncolytic adenovirus (Ad); it’s double stranded DNA genome is easily manipulated and a wide range of strategies and technologies have been employed to empower the vector with improved pharmacokinetics and tumour targeting ability. As well characterised clinical and experimental agents, we have detailed knowledge of adenoviruses’ mechanisms of pathogenicity, supported by detailed virological studies and in vivo interactions. In this review we highlight the strides made in the engineering of bespoke adenoviral vectors to specifically infect, replicate within, and destroy tumour cells. We discuss how mutations in genes regulating adenoviral replication after cell entry can be used to restrict replication to the tumour, and summarise how detailed knowledge of viral capsid interactions enable rational modification to eliminate native tropisms, and simultaneously promote active uptake by cancerous tissues. We argue that these designer-viruses, exploiting the viruses natural mechanisms and regulated at every level of replication, represent the ideal platforms for local overexpression of therapeutic transgenes such as immunomodulatory agents. Where T-Vec has paved the way, Ad-based vectors now follow. The era of designer oncolytic virotherapies looks decidedly as though it will soon become a reality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Virotherapy)
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Open AccessArticle Overcoming Resistance of Human Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma to CD19-CAR CTL Therapy by Celecoxib and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
Cancers 2018, 10(6), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10060200
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
Patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (B-NHL) who fail to respond to first-line treatment regimens or develop resistance, exhibit poor prognosis. This signifies the need to develop alternative treatment strategies. CD19-chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell-redirected immunotherapy is an attractive and novel option, which
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Patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (B-NHL) who fail to respond to first-line treatment regimens or develop resistance, exhibit poor prognosis. This signifies the need to develop alternative treatment strategies. CD19-chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell-redirected immunotherapy is an attractive and novel option, which has shown encouraging outcomes in phase I clinical trials of relapsed/refractory NHL. However, the underlying mechanisms of, and approaches to overcome, acquired anti-CD19CAR CD8+ T cells (CTL)-resistance in NHL remain elusive. CD19CAR transduced primary human CTLs kill CD19+ human NHLs in a CD19- and caspase-dependent manner, mainly via the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) apoptotic pathway. To understand the dynamics of the development of resistance, we analyzed several anti-CD19CAR CTL-resistant NHL sublines (R-NHL) derived by serial exposure of sensitive parental lines to excessive numbers of anti-CD19CAR CTLs followed by a limiting dilution analysis. The R-NHLs retained surface CD19 expression and were efficiently recognized by CD19CAR CTLs. However, R-NHLs developed cross-resistance to CD19CAR transduced human primary CTLs and the Jurkat human T cell line, activated Jurkat, and lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells, suggesting the acquisition of resistance is independent of CD19-loss and might be due to aberrant apoptotic machinery. We hypothesize that the R-NHL refractoriness to CD19CAR CTL killing could be partially rescued by small molecule sensitizers with apoptotic-gene regulatory effects. Chromatin modifiers and Celecoxib partially reversed the resistance of R-NHL cells to the cytotoxic effects of anti-CD19CAR CTLs and rhTRAIL. These in vitro results, though they require further examination, may provide a rational biological basis for combination treatment in the management of CD19CAR CTL-based therapy of NHL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CAR-T Cell Therapy-Novel Approaches and Challenges)
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Open AccessReview TGF-β Sustains Tumor Progression through Biochemical and Mechanical Signal Transduction
Cancers 2018, 10(6), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10060199
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling transduces immunosuppressive biochemical and mechanical signals in the tumor microenvironment. In addition to canonical SMAD transcription factor signaling, TGF-β can promote tumor growth and survival by inhibiting proinflammatory signaling and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. In this article,
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Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling transduces immunosuppressive biochemical and mechanical signals in the tumor microenvironment. In addition to canonical SMAD transcription factor signaling, TGF-β can promote tumor growth and survival by inhibiting proinflammatory signaling and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. In this article, we review how TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) activation lies at the intersection of proinflammatory signaling by immune receptors and anti-inflammatory signaling by TGF-β receptors. Additionally, we discuss the role of TGF-β in the mechanobiology of cancer. Understanding how TGF-β dampens proinflammatory responses and induces pro-survival mechanical signals throughout cancer development is critical for designing therapeutics that inhibit tumor progression while bolstering the immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-Beta Signaling in Cancer)
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Open AccessReview Oncolytic Viruses for Multiple Myeloma Therapy
Cancers 2018, 10(6), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10060198
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
Although recent treatment advances have improved outcomes for patients with multiple myeloma (MM), the disease frequently becomes refractory to current therapies. MM thus remains incurable for most patients and new therapies are urgently needed. Oncolytic viruses are a promising new class of therapeutics
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Although recent treatment advances have improved outcomes for patients with multiple myeloma (MM), the disease frequently becomes refractory to current therapies. MM thus remains incurable for most patients and new therapies are urgently needed. Oncolytic viruses are a promising new class of therapeutics that provide tumor-targeted therapy by specifically infecting and replicating within cancerous cells. Oncolytic therapy yields results from both direct killing of malignant cells and induction of an anti-tumor immune response. In this review, we will describe oncolytic viruses that are being tested for MM therapy with a focus on those agents that have advanced into clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Virotherapy)
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Open AccessCommentary Antiviral Drugs for EBV
Cancers 2018, 10(6), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10060197
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infects up to 95% of the adult human population, with primary infection typically occurring during childhood and usually asymptomatic. However, EBV can cause infectious mononucleosis in approximately 35–50% cases when infection occurs during adolescence and early adulthood. Epstein–Barr virus is
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Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infects up to 95% of the adult human population, with primary infection typically occurring during childhood and usually asymptomatic. However, EBV can cause infectious mononucleosis in approximately 35–50% cases when infection occurs during adolescence and early adulthood. Epstein–Barr virus is also associated with several B-cell malignancies including Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. A number of antiviral drugs have proven to be effective inhibitors of EBV replication, yet have resulted in limited success clinically, and none of them has been approved for treatment of EBV infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epstein–Barr Virus Associated Cancers)
Open AccessReview Endogenous Control Mechanisms of FAK and PYK2 and Their Relevance to Cancer Development
Cancers 2018, 10(6), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10060196
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
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Abstract
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and its close paralogue, proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2), are key regulators of aggressive spreading and metastasis of cancer cells. While targeted small-molecule inhibitors of FAK and PYK2 have been found to have promising antitumor activity, their clinical long-term
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Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and its close paralogue, proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2), are key regulators of aggressive spreading and metastasis of cancer cells. While targeted small-molecule inhibitors of FAK and PYK2 have been found to have promising antitumor activity, their clinical long-term efficacy may be undermined by the strong capacity of cancer cells to evade anti-kinase drugs. In healthy cells, the expression and/or function of FAK and PYK2 is tightly controlled via modulation of gene expression, competing alternatively spliced forms, non-coding RNAs, and proteins that directly or indirectly affect kinase activation or protein stability. The molecular factors involved in this control are frequently deregulated in cancer cells. Here, we review the endogenous mechanisms controlling FAK and PYK2, and with particular focus on how these mechanisms could inspire or improve anticancer therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue FAK Signaling Pathway in Cancers)
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Open AccessArticle Ensuring the Safety and Security of Frozen Lung Cancer Tissue Collections through the Encapsulation of Dried DNA
Cancers 2018, 10(6), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10060195
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
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Abstract
Collected specimens for research purposes may or may not be made available depending on their scarcity and/or on the project needs. Their protection against degradation or in the event of an incident is pivotal. Duplication and storage on a different site is the
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Collected specimens for research purposes may or may not be made available depending on their scarcity and/or on the project needs. Their protection against degradation or in the event of an incident is pivotal. Duplication and storage on a different site is the best way to assure their sustainability. The conservation of samples at room temperature (RT) by duplication can facilitate their protection. We describe a security system for the collection of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) stored in the biobank of the Nice Hospital Center, France, by duplication and conservation of lyophilized (dried), encapsulated DNA kept at RT. Therefore, three frozen tissue collections from non-smoking, early stage and sarcomatoid carcinoma NSCLC patients were selected for this study. DNA was extracted, lyophilized and encapsulated at RT under anoxic conditions using the DNAshell technology. In total, 1974 samples from 987 patients were encapsulated. Six and two capsules from each sample were stored in the biobanks of the Nice and Grenoble (France) Hospitals, respectively. In conclusion, DNA maintained at RT allows for the conservation, duplication and durability of collections of interest stored in biobanks. This is a low-cost and safe technology that requires a limited amount of space and has a low environmental impact. Full article
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