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Cancers 2013, 5(1), 184-204; doi:10.3390/cancers5010184

Increasing Melanoma—Too Many Skin Cell Damages or Too Few Repairs?

Hallberg Independent Research, Brattforsgatan 3, 123 50 Farsta, Sweden
The Experimental Dermatology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 December 2012 / Revised: 30 January 2013 / Accepted: 6 February 2013 / Published: 18 February 2013


Skin melanoma rates have been increasing for a long time in many Western countries. The object of this study was to apply modern problem-solving theory normally used to clear industrial problems to search for roots and causes of this medical question. Increasing cancer rates can be due to too many cell damage incidents or to too few repairs. So far, it has been assumed that the melanoma epidemic mainly is caused by increasing sun tanning habits. In order to explore this problem in more detail, we used cancer statistics from several countries over time and space. Detailed analysis of data obtained and a model study to evaluate the effects from increased damages or decreased repairs clearly indicate that the main reason behind the melanoma problem is a disturbed immune system. The possibility to introduce efficient corrective actions is apparent. View Full-Text
Keywords: melanoma; incidence; mortality; DNA damage; DNA repair; radiation; problem melanoma; incidence; mortality; DNA damage; DNA repair; radiation; problem

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Hallberg, Ö.; Johansson, O. Increasing Melanoma—Too Many Skin Cell Damages or Too Few Repairs? Cancers 2013, 5, 184-204.

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