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Cancers, Volume 8, Issue 12 (December 2016)

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle A Comparison of Singlet Oxygen Explicit Dosimetry (SOED) and Singlet Oxygen Luminescence Dosimetry (SOLD) for Photofrin-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy
Cancers 2016, 8(12), 109; doi:10.3390/cancers8120109
Received: 3 September 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 6 December 2016
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Abstract
Accurate photodynamic therapy (PDT) dosimetry is critical for the use of PDT in the treatment of malignant and nonmalignant localized diseases. A singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry (SOED) model has been developed for in vivo purposes. It involves the measurement of the key components
[...] Read more.
Accurate photodynamic therapy (PDT) dosimetry is critical for the use of PDT in the treatment of malignant and nonmalignant localized diseases. A singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry (SOED) model has been developed for in vivo purposes. It involves the measurement of the key components in PDT—light fluence (rate), photosensitizer concentration, and ground-state oxygen concentration ([3O2])—to calculate the amount of reacted singlet oxygen ([1O2]rx), the main cytotoxic component in type II PDT. Experiments were performed in phantoms with the photosensitizer Photofrin and in solution using phosphorescence-based singlet oxygen luminescence dosimetry (SOLD) to validate the SOED model. Oxygen concentration and photosensitizer photobleaching versus time were measured during PDT, along with direct SOLD measurements of singlet oxygen and triplet state lifetime (τΔ and τt), for various photosensitizer concentrations to determine necessary photophysical parameters. SOLD-determined cumulative [1O2]rx was compared to SOED-calculated [1O2]rx for various photosensitizer concentrations to show a clear correlation between the two methods. This illustrates that explicit dosimetry can be used when phosphorescence-based dosimetry is not feasible. Using SOED modeling, we have also shown evidence that SOLD-measured [1O2]rx using a 523 nm pulsed laser can be used to correlate to singlet oxygen generated by a 630 nm laser during a clinical malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) PDT protocol by using a conversion formula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Cancer Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle The Enrichment of Survivin in Exosomes from Breast Cancer Cells Treated with Paclitaxel Promotes Cell Survival and Chemoresistance
Cancers 2016, 8(12), 111; doi:10.3390/cancers8120111
Received: 11 October 2016 / Revised: 9 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
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Abstract
The generation and release of membrane-enclosed packets from cancer cells, called extracellular vesicles (EVs), play important roles in propagating transformed phenotypes, including promoting cell survival. EVs mediate their effects by transferring their contents, which include specific proteins and nucleic acids, to target cells.
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The generation and release of membrane-enclosed packets from cancer cells, called extracellular vesicles (EVs), play important roles in propagating transformed phenotypes, including promoting cell survival. EVs mediate their effects by transferring their contents, which include specific proteins and nucleic acids, to target cells. However, how the cargo and function of EVs change in response to different stimuli remains unclear. Here, we discovered that treating highly aggressive MDAMB231 breast cancer cells with paclitaxel (PTX), a chemotherapy that stabilizes microtubules, causes them to generate a specific class of EV, namely exosomes, that are highly enriched with the cell survival protein and cancer marker, Survivin. Treating MDAMB231 cells with a variety of other chemotherapeutic agents, and inhibitors that block cell growth and survival, did not have the same effect as PTX, with the exception of nocodazole, another inhibitor of microtubule dynamics. Exosomes isolated from PTX-treated MDAMB231 cells strongly promoted the survival of serum-starved and PTX-treated fibroblasts and SKBR3 breast cancer cells, an effect that was ablated when Survivin was knocked-down from these vesicles using siRNA. These findings underscore how the enrichment of a specific cargo in exosomes promotes cell survival, as well as can potentially serve as a marker of PTX resistance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparative miRNA Analysis of Urine Extracellular Vesicles Isolated through Five Different Methods
Cancers 2016, 8(12), 112; doi:10.3390/cancers8120112
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 25 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 10 December 2016
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Abstract
Urine extracellular vesicles are a valuable low-invasive source of information, especially for the cells of the genitourinary tract. In the search for biomarkers, different techniques have been developed to isolate and characterize the cargo of these vesicles. In the present work, we compare
[...] Read more.
Urine extracellular vesicles are a valuable low-invasive source of information, especially for the cells of the genitourinary tract. In the search for biomarkers, different techniques have been developed to isolate and characterize the cargo of these vesicles. In the present work, we compare five of these different isolation methods (three commercial isolation kits, ultracentrifugation, and lectin-based purification) and perform miRNA profiling using a multiplex miRNA assay. The results showed high correlation through all isolation techniques, and 48 out of 68 miRNAs were detected above the detection limit at least 10 times. The results obtained by multiplex assay were validated through Taqman qPCR. In addition, using this technique combined with a clinically friendly extracellular vesicle (uEV)-enrichment method, we performed the analysis of selected miRNAs in urine from patients affected with bladder cancer, benign prostate hyperplasia, or prostate cancer. Importantly, we found that those miRNAs could be detected in almost 100% of the samples, and no significant differences were observed between groups. Our results support the feasibility of analyzing exosomes-associated miRNAs using a methodology that requires a small volume of urine and is compatible with a clinical environment and high-throughput analysis. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Advances in Cancer Immunotherapy in Solid Tumors
Cancers 2016, 8(12), 106; doi:10.3390/cancers8120106
Received: 26 July 2016 / Revised: 13 November 2016 / Accepted: 13 November 2016 / Published: 24 November 2016
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Abstract
Immunotherapy is heralded as one of the most important advances in oncology. Until recently, only limited immunotherapeutic options were available in selected immunogenic cancers like melanoma and renal cell carcinomas. Nowadays, there is an improved understanding that anti-tumor immunity is controlled by a
[...] Read more.
Immunotherapy is heralded as one of the most important advances in oncology. Until recently, only limited immunotherapeutic options were available in selected immunogenic cancers like melanoma and renal cell carcinomas. Nowadays, there is an improved understanding that anti-tumor immunity is controlled by a delicate balance in the tumor microenvironment between immune stimulatory and immune inhibitory pathways. Either by blocking the inhibitory pathways or stimulating the activating pathways that regulate cytotoxic lymphocytes, anti-tumor immunity can be enhanced leading to durable anti-tumor responses. Drugs which block the immune regulatory checkpoints namely the PD-1/PDL1 and CTLA 4 pathway have shown tremendous promise in a wide spectrum of solid and hematological malignancies, significantly improving overall survival in newly diagnosed and heavily pretreated patients alike. Hence there is renewed enthusiasm in the field of immune oncology with current research focused on augmenting responses to checkpoint inhibitors by combination therapy as well as studies looking at other immune modulators and adoptive T cell therapy. In this article, we highlight the key clinical advances and concepts in immunotherapy with particular emphasis on checkpoint inhibition as well as the future direction in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Immunotherapies)
Open AccessReview Ligand Activation of TAM Family Receptors-Implications for Tumor Biology and Therapeutic Response
Cancers 2016, 8(12), 107; doi:10.3390/cancers8120107
Received: 17 September 2016 / Revised: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 26 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
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Abstract
The TAM family of receptors (i.e., Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk), and their ligands Growth arrest specific factor 6 (Gas6) and Protein S (Pros1) contribute to several oncogenic processes, such as cell survival, invasion, migration, chemo-resistance, and metastasis, whereby expression often correlates with poor
[...] Read more.
The TAM family of receptors (i.e., Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk), and their ligands Growth arrest specific factor 6 (Gas6) and Protein S (Pros1) contribute to several oncogenic processes, such as cell survival, invasion, migration, chemo-resistance, and metastasis, whereby expression often correlates with poor clinical outcomes. In recent years, there has been great interest in the study of TAM receptors in cancer, stemming both from their roles as oncogenic signaling receptors, as well as their roles in tumor immunology. As a result, several classes of TAM inhibitors that include small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, decoy receptors, as well as novel strategies to target TAM ligands are being developed. This paper will review the biology of TAM receptors and their ligands with a focus on cancer, as well as evidence-based data for the continued pursuit of TAM/Gas6 inhibitors in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TAM family receptors in cancer biology and therapeutic resistance)
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Open AccessReview Androgen Receptor: A Complex Therapeutic Target for Breast Cancer
Cancers 2016, 8(12), 108; doi:10.3390/cancers8120108
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 1 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
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Abstract
Molecular and histopathological profiling have classified breast cancer into multiple sub-types empowering precision treatment. Although estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) are the mainstay therapeutic targets in breast cancer, the androgen receptor (AR) is evolving as a molecular target
[...] Read more.
Molecular and histopathological profiling have classified breast cancer into multiple sub-types empowering precision treatment. Although estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) are the mainstay therapeutic targets in breast cancer, the androgen receptor (AR) is evolving as a molecular target for cancers that have developed resistance to conventional treatments. The high expression of AR in breast cancer and recent discovery and development of new nonsteroidal drugs targeting the AR provide a strong rationale for exploring it again as a therapeutic target in this disease. Ironically, both nonsteroidal agonists and antagonists for the AR are undergoing clinical trials, making AR a complicated target to understand in breast cancer. This review provides a detailed account of AR’s therapeutic role in breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AR Signaling in Human Malignancies: Prostate Cancer and Beyond)
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Open AccessReview Biology, Therapy and Implications of Tumor Exosomes in the Progression of Melanoma
Cancers 2016, 8(12), 110; doi:10.3390/cancers8120110
Received: 23 September 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
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Abstract
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, and about 6% of the estimated cancer diagnoses this year will be melanoma cases. Melanomas are derived from transformation of the pigment producing cells of the skin, melanocytes. Early stage melanoma
[...] Read more.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, and about 6% of the estimated cancer diagnoses this year will be melanoma cases. Melanomas are derived from transformation of the pigment producing cells of the skin, melanocytes. Early stage melanoma is usually curable by surgical resection, but late stage or subsequent secondary metastatic tumors are treated with some success with chemotherapies, radiation and/or immunotherapies. Most cancer patients die from metastatic disease, which is especially the case in melanoma. A better understanding of tumor metastasis will provide insights and guide rational therapeutic designs. Recently, the importance of melanoma-derived exosomes in the progression of that cancer has become more apparent, namely, their role in various stages of metastasis, including the induction of migration, invasion, primary niche manipulation, immune modulation and pre-metastatic niche formation. This review focuses on the critical roles that melanoma exosomes play in the progression of this deadly disease. Full article
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessProject Report Ensuring Quality in Online Palliative Care Resources
Cancers 2016, 8(12), 113; doi:10.3390/cancers8120113
Received: 11 October 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 13 December 2016
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Abstract
Evidence and information is an integral part of the processes enabling clinical and service delivery within health. It is used by health professionals in clinical practice and in developing their professional knowledge, by policy makers in decision making, and is sought by health
[...] Read more.
Evidence and information is an integral part of the processes enabling clinical and service delivery within health. It is used by health professionals in clinical practice and in developing their professional knowledge, by policy makers in decision making, and is sought by health consumers to help them manage their health needs and assess their options. Increasingly, this evidence and information is being disseminated and sought through online channels. The internet is fundamentally changing how health information is being distributed and accessed. Clinicians, patients, community members, and decision makers have an unprecedented capacity to find online information about palliative care and end-of-life care. However, it is clear that not all individuals have the skills to be able to find and assess the quality of the resources they need. There are also many issues in creating online resources that are current, relevant and authoritative for use by health professionals and by health consumers. This paper explores the processes and structures used in creating a major national palliative care knowledge resource, the CareSearch website, to meet the needs of health professionals and of patients and their families and carers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue End-of-Life Cancer Care)
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Open AccessErratum Erratum: Roche, J. et al. Global Decrease of Histone H3K27 Acetylation in ZEB1-Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Lung Cancer Cells. Cancers, 2013, 5, 334–356
Cancers 2016, 8(12), 114; doi:10.3390/cancers8120114
Received: 7 December 2016 / Revised: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract The authors wish to make the following correction to their paper [...] Full article

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