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Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 342; doi:10.3390/catal7110342

Green Synthesis of Ultraviolet Absorber 2-Ethylhexyl Salicylate: Experimental Design and Artificial Neural Network Modeling

1
Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
3
Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung 81157, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 October 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocatalysis and Biotransformations)
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Abstract

2-Ethylhexyl salicylate, an ultraviolet filter, is widely used to protect skin against sunlight-induced harmful effects in the cosmetic industry. In this study, the green synthesis of 2-ethylhexyl salicylate using immobilized lipase through a solvent-free and reduced pressure evaporation system was investigated. A Box–Behnken design was employed to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The parameters for an optimal architecture of an ANN were set out: a quick propagation algorithm, a hyperbolic tangent transfer function, 10,000 iterations, and six nodes within the hidden layer. The best-fitting performance of the ANN was determined by the coefficient of determination and the root-mean-square error between the correlation of predicted and experimental data, indicating that the ANN displayed excellent data-fitting properties. Finally, the experimental conditions of synthesis were well established with the optimal parameters to obtain a high conversion of 2-ethylhexyl salicylate. In conclusion, this study efficiently replaces the traditional solvents with a green process for the synthesis of 2-ethylhexyl salicylate to avoid environmental contamination, and this process is well-modeled by a methodological ANN for optimization, which might be a benefit for industrial production. View Full-Text
Keywords: 2-ethylhexyl salicylate; ultraviolet filters; lipase; Box–Behnken design; artificial neural network 2-ethylhexyl salicylate; ultraviolet filters; lipase; Box–Behnken design; artificial neural network
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, S.-M.; Hung, T.-H.; Liu, Y.-C.; Kuo, C.-H.; Shieh, C.-J. Green Synthesis of Ultraviolet Absorber 2-Ethylhexyl Salicylate: Experimental Design and Artificial Neural Network Modeling. Catalysts 2017, 7, 342.

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