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Catalysts 2017, 7(8), 233; doi:10.3390/catal7080233

Selective Alkylation of Benzene by Propane over Bifunctional Pd-Acid Catalysts

Department of Chemistry, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZD, UK
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Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Polyoxometalate-Catalyzed Reactions)
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Abstract

The alkylation of benzene by propane to yield isopropylbenzene (iPrPh) was studied using bifunctional Pd-acid catalysts, such as Pd-heteropoly acid and Pd-zeolite, in a fixed bed reactor at 300 °C and 1 bar pressure. Keggin-type tungstosilicic acid H4SiW12O40 (HSiW) and zeolite HZSM-5 were used as the acid components in these catalysts. The reaction occurred most efficiently over 2%Pd/25%HSiW/SiO2, giving iPrPh with up to 88% selectivity. The Pd-HSiW catalyst was more selective than the Pd-HZSM-5; the latter gave only 11–18% iPrPh selectivity. The reaction proceeded via a bifunctional mechanism including the dehydrogenation of propane to form propene on Pd sites, followed by the alkylation of benzene with the propene on acid sites. The effect of Pd loading in Pd-HSiW and Pd-HZSM-5 catalysts indicated that the first step reached quasi-equilibrium at 1.5–2% Pd loading and the second step became rate limiting. The addition of gold to Pd-HSiW enhanced the activity of this catalyst, although the Au-HSiW without Pd was inert. View Full-Text
Keywords: alkylation with alkanes; propane; benzene; isopropylbenzene; Pd-heteropoly acid; Pd-zeolite catalysts alkylation with alkanes; propane; benzene; isopropylbenzene; Pd-heteropoly acid; Pd-zeolite catalysts
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Alotaibi, A.; Hodgkiss, S.; Kozhevnikova, E.F.; Kozhevnikov, I.V. Selective Alkylation of Benzene by Propane over Bifunctional Pd-Acid Catalysts. Catalysts 2017, 7, 233.

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