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Agronomy, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2012), Pages 74-131

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Review

Open AccessReview Pea (Pisum sativum L.) in the Genomic Era
Agronomy 2012, 2(2), 74-115; doi:10.3390/agronomy2020074
Received: 13 December 2011 / Revised: 29 February 2012 / Accepted: 18 March 2012 / Published: 4 April 2012
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (2819 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Pea (Pisum sativum L.) was the original model organism used in Mendel’s discovery (1866) of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. However, subsequent progress in pea genomics has lagged behind many other plant species. Although [...] Read more.
Pea (Pisum sativum L.) was the original model organism used in Mendel’s discovery (1866) of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. However, subsequent progress in pea genomics has lagged behind many other plant species. Although the size and repetitive nature of the pea genome has so far restricted its sequencing, comprehensive genomic and post genomic resources already exist. These include BAC libraries, several types of molecular marker sets, both transcriptome and proteome datasets and mutant populations for reverse genetics. The availability of the full genome sequences of three legume species has offered significant opportunities for genome wide comparison revealing synteny and co-linearity to pea. A combination of a candidate gene and colinearity approach has successfully led to the identification of genes underlying agronomically important traits including virus resistances and plant architecture. Some of this knowledge has already been applied to marker assisted selection (MAS) programs, increasing precision and shortening the breeding cycle. Yet, complete translation of marker discovery to pea breeding is still to be achieved. Molecular analysis of pea collections has shown that although substantial variation is present within the cultivated genepool, wild material offers the possibility to incorporate novel traits that may have been inadvertently eliminated. Association mapping analysis of diverse pea germplasm promises to identify genetic variation related to desirable agronomic traits, which are historically difficult to breed for in a traditional manner. The availability of high throughput ‘omics’ methodologies offers great promise for the development of novel, highly accurate selective breeding tools for improved pea genotypes that are sustainable under current and future climates and farming systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Genomics Technologies on Crop Breeding Strategies)
Figures

Open AccessReview Development of Genomic Resources in the Species of Trifolium L. and Its Application in Forage Legume Breeding
Agronomy 2012, 2(2), 116-131; doi:10.3390/agronomy2020116
Received: 9 February 2012 / Revised: 25 April 2012 / Accepted: 27 April 2012 / Published: 9 May 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Clovers (genus Trifolium) are a large and widespread genus of legumes. A number of clovers are of agricultural importance as forage crops in grassland agriculture, particularly temperate areas. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is used in grazed pasture and red [...] Read more.
Clovers (genus Trifolium) are a large and widespread genus of legumes. A number of clovers are of agricultural importance as forage crops in grassland agriculture, particularly temperate areas. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is used in grazed pasture and red clover (T. pratense L.) is widely cut and conserved as a winter feed. For the diploid red clover, genetic and genomic tools and resources have developed rapidly over the last five years including genetic and physical maps, BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) end sequence and transcriptome sequence information. This has paved the way for the use of genome wide selection and high throughput phenotyping in germplasm development. For the allotetraploid white clover progress has been slower although marker assisted selection is in use and relatively robust genetic maps and QTL (quantitative trait locus) information now exist. For both species the sequencing of the model legume Medicago truncatula gene space is an important development to aid genomic, biological and evolutionary studies. The first genetic maps of another species, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) have also been published and its comparative genomics with red clover and M. truncatula conducted. Next generation sequencing brings the potential to revolutionize clover genomics, but international consortia and effective use of germplasm, novel population structures and phenomics will be required to carry out effective translation into breeding. Another avenue for clover genomic and genetic improvement is interspecific hybridization. This approach has considerable potential with regard to crop improvement but also opens windows of opportunity for studies of biological and evolutionary processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Genomics Technologies on Crop Breeding Strategies)

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