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Cells, Volume 1, Issue 2 (June 2012), Pages 27-203

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Comparison of ELISpot and FluoroSpot in the Analysis of Swine Flu-Specific IgG and IgA Secretion by in Vivo Activated Human B Cells
Cells 2012, 1(2), 27-34; doi:10.3390/cells1020027
Received: 13 March 2012 / Revised: 4 April 2012 / Accepted: 6 April 2012 / Published: 20 April 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have evaluated a novel B-cell FluoroSpot assay for the analysis of antibody responses in healthy individuals vaccinated intramuscularly with Influenza A (H1N1) antigen (Pandemrix®, GlaxoSmithKline). Using the FluoroSpot assay and an ELISpot assay run in parallel for comparison, we [...] Read more.
We have evaluated a novel B-cell FluoroSpot assay for the analysis of antibody responses in healthy individuals vaccinated intramuscularly with Influenza A (H1N1) antigen (Pandemrix®, GlaxoSmithKline). Using the FluoroSpot assay and an ELISpot assay run in parallel for comparison, we measured the frequency of cells secreting antigen-specific as well as total IgG or IgA antibodies seven days post vaccination. The assays were based on high affinity monoclonal antibodies for capture and detection of human IgG and IgA. Whereas conventional ELISpot analyzes IgG- and IgA-secreting B cells separately, fluorescent detection enabled simultaneous enumeration of B cells secreting IgG or IgA in the same well. The FluoroSpot protocol was also simpler as the assay could be performed without the need for an amplifying detection step. While having all the advantages of a conventional ELISpot assay, including high sensitivity, robustness and ease of performance, the FluoroSpot assay adds further value in reducing costs, time and material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ELISPOT Research)
Open AccessArticle Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-Specific Perforin and Granzyme B ELISPOT Assays Detect Reactivation of CMV Infection in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Cells 2012, 1(2), 35-50; doi:10.3390/cells1020035
Received: 22 March 2012 / Revised: 12 April 2012 / Accepted: 16 April 2012 / Published: 23 April 2012
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Abstract
The role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in the pathogenesis and exacerbation of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) has been unresolved. Typically, the CMV genome remains dormant in infected cells, but a breakdown of immune surveillance can lead to re-activation of viral replication in [...] Read more.
The role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in the pathogenesis and exacerbation of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) has been unresolved. Typically, the CMV genome remains dormant in infected cells, but a breakdown of immune surveillance can lead to re-activation of viral replication in the gut mucosa, which is not necessarily associated with viremia or changes in antibody titers. We hypothesized that the detection of CMV-specific CD8 effector T cells should permit the distinction between dormant and active CMV infection. As CD8 effector T cells, unlike memory CD8 T cells, have perforin (PFN) and granzyme B (GzB) preformed in their cytoplasmic granules, we employed single cell resolution ELISPOT assays to measure the CMV antigen-triggered release of these molecules by CD8 T cells isolated from subjects with IBD, and age-matched healthy controls. The frequencies of CMV-specific (GzB) and PFN-producing CD8 T cells were increased in IBD patients compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, the increased CMV reactivity was associated with active IBD disease and with longer disease duration. Notably, PCR on serum frequently failed to detect CMV DNA during flares. The data show that during active IBD there is a flare of CD8 T cell activity against CMV in a substantial proportion of IBD patients, suggesting CMV reactivation that serum PCR does not detect. While it remains open whether CMV reactivation is a cause or consequence of IBD, our data suggest that monitoring CMV antigen-specific effector CD8 T cells with GzB and PFN ELISPOT analysis can provide novel insights into the role of CMV infection in IBD. Additionally, our data have implications for the fields of transplantation, HIV, cancer, and autoimmune diseases, in all of which patient care critically depends on sensitive and reliable detection of a reactivation of CMV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ELISPOT Research)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of Spontaneous Immune Responses against Long Peptides Derived from Bcl-X(L) in Cancer Patients Using Elispot
Cells 2012, 1(2), 51-60; doi:10.3390/cells1020051
Received: 26 February 2012 / Revised: 7 March 2012 / Accepted: 3 April 2012 / Published: 26 April 2012
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Abstract
In recent years we and others have used the ELISPOT assay successfully to identify novel tumor antigens by the characterization of spontaneous HLA class I restricted immune responses against a number of minimal 9–10 amino acid long peptide epitopes. In the present [...] Read more.
In recent years we and others have used the ELISPOT assay successfully to identify novel tumor antigens by the characterization of spontaneous HLA class I restricted immune responses against a number of minimal 9–10 amino acid long peptide epitopes. In the present study, we examined the capability of using longer peptides when scrutinizing Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PMBC) from melanoma patients for spontaneous immunity by means of ELISPOT IFN-γ secretion assay. To this end, we examined PBMC for the presence of specific T-cell responses against long peptides derived from the tumor associated antigen BCL-X(L). The protein product of the larger BCL-X(L) differs from Bcl-X(S) protein by an inserted region (amino acids 126–188). Thus, we scrutinized eight long peptides covering this inserted region for spontaneous immunity. The peptides were overlapping and consisted of 20–23 amino acids. PBMC were pre-stimulated with peptide-pulsed autologous dendritic cells (DC) and subjected to the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. Four of the BCL-X(L) derived peptides elicited very frequent responses in several patients. Additionally, in all patients responses against more than one of the peptides could be detected. In conclusion several long BCL-X(L) derived peptide epitopes exist, which may be used in anti-cancer immunity. Furthermore, the ELISPOT assay offers an attractive and sensitive method for the characterization of spontaneous immune reactivity against long peptides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ELISPOT Research)
Open AccessArticle Increased Level of IFN-γ and IL-4 Spot-Forming Cells on ELISPOT Assay as Biomarkers for Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease and Concurrent Infections
Cells 2012, 1(2), 61-73; doi:10.3390/cells1020061
Received: 29 March 2012 / Revised: 24 April 2012 / Accepted: 26 April 2012 / Published: 30 April 2012
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Abstract
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Infections may coexist and in certain circumstances aggravate aGVHD. It was described that type 1 as well as type 2 cytokines are [...] Read more.
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Infections may coexist and in certain circumstances aggravate aGVHD. It was described that type 1 as well as type 2 cytokines are important mediators of aGVHD. We measured spot-forming cells (SFCs) for interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and IL-17 in unstimulated peripheral blood from 80 patients with hematological disorders who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation by using the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay that reflects the ongoing in vivo immune status. A serial monitoring showed that both type 1 and type 2 cytokine SFCs were correlated with aGVHD activity. The numbers of IFN-γ and IL-4 SFCs in patients with grade II-IV aGVHD were significantly higher than those in patients with grade 0 and/or I aGVHD. Elevation of IFN-γ and IL-4 SFCs was significantly correlated with the severity of aGVHD, but not with infection itself, e.g., cytomegalovirus infection. Cytokine SFCs are clinically relevant biomarkers for the diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation of aGVHD and concurrent infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ELISPOT Research)
Open AccessArticle Dissecting the T Cell Response: Proliferation Assays vs. Cytokine Signatures by ELISPOT
Cells 2012, 1(2), 127-140; doi:10.3390/cells1020127
Received: 6 April 2012 / Revised: 30 April 2012 / Accepted: 7 May 2012 / Published: 10 May 2012
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Abstract
Chronic allograft rejection is in part mediated by host T cells that recognize allogeneic antigens on transplanted tissue. One factor that determines the outcome of a T cell response is clonal size, while another is the effector quality. Studies of alloimmune predictors [...] Read more.
Chronic allograft rejection is in part mediated by host T cells that recognize allogeneic antigens on transplanted tissue. One factor that determines the outcome of a T cell response is clonal size, while another is the effector quality. Studies of alloimmune predictors of transplant graft survival have most commonly focused on only one measure of the alloimmune response. Because differing qualities and frequencies of the allospecific T cell response may provide distinctly different information we analyzed the relationship between frequency of soluble antigen and allo-antigen specific memory IFN-g secreting CD4 and CD8 T cells, their ability to secrete IL-2, and their proliferative capacity, while accounting for cognate and bystander proliferation. The results show proliferative responses primarily reflect on IL-2 production by antigen-specific T cells, and that proliferating cells in such assays entail a considerable fraction of bystander cells. On the other hand, proliferation (and IL-2 production) did not reflect on the frequency of IFN-γ producing memory cells, a finding particularly accentuated in the CD8 T cell compartment. These data provide rationale for considering both frequency and effector function of pre-transplant T cell reactivity when analyzing immune predictors of graft rejection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ELISPOT Research)
Open AccessArticle Can ELISPOT Be Applied to A Clinical Setting as A Diagnostic Utility for Neuroborreliosis?
Cells 2012, 1(2), 153-167; doi:10.3390/cells1020153
Received: 1 April 2012 / Revised: 7 May 2012 / Accepted: 8 May 2012 / Published: 8 June 2012
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Abstract
The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of Borrelia (Bb)-induced interferon (IFN)-γ secretion detected by ELISPOT modified to be feasible for clinical laboratories as a supplementary test to the laboratory diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in [...] Read more.
The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of Borrelia (Bb)-induced interferon (IFN)-γ secretion detected by ELISPOT modified to be feasible for clinical laboratories as a supplementary test to the laboratory diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in an endemic setting. Between 2002 and 2004, patients with symptoms of suspected clinical LNB were included in a study conducted on the Åland islands in the Finnish archipelago, which is a hyper-endemic area for Lyme borreliosis (LB). Fourteen patients with confirmed LNB and 103 patients with non-LNB were included, and the numbers of spontaneous and Bb-induced IFN-γ-secreting cells were assayed by the ELISPOT test. The ELISPOT assay showed a weak diagnostic performance with a sensitivity of 36% and a specificity of 82%. The findings in this study show that this ELISPOT-assay modified to be feasible in clinical routine laboratories is not useful as a supplementary diagnostic tool in the laboratory diagnosis of patients with clinically suspected LNB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ELISPOT Research)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Immunohistochemistry of Programmed Cell Death in Archival Human Pathology Specimens
Cells 2012, 1(2), 74-88; doi:10.3390/cells1020074
Received: 24 March 2012 / Revised: 5 April 2012 / Accepted: 28 April 2012 / Published: 7 May 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (367 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for detecting key signal molecules involved in programmed cell death (PCD) in archival human pathology specimens is fairly well established. Detection of cleaved caspase-3 in lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and gastric surface foveolar glandular epithelia but not in synoviocytes [...] Read more.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for detecting key signal molecules involved in programmed cell death (PCD) in archival human pathology specimens is fairly well established. Detection of cleaved caspase-3 in lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and gastric surface foveolar glandular epithelia but not in synoviocytes in RA, gastric fundic glandular epithelia, or nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) cells suggests anti-apoptotic mechanisms in cell differentiation and in oncogenesis such as the induction of survivin. Enzymatically pretreated and ultra-super sensitive detection of beclin-1 in synoviocytes in RA and gastric fundic glandular epithelia suggests enhanced autophagy. The deposition of beclin-1 in fibrinoid necrosis in RA and expression of beclin-1 in detached gastric fundic glandular cells suggest that enhanced autophagy undergoes autophagic cell death (ACD). NKTCL exhibited enhanced autophagy through LC3 labeling and showed densely LC3 labeled cell-debris in regions of peculiar necrosis without deposition of beclin-1, indicating massive ACD in NKTCL and the alternative pathway enhancing autophagy following autophagic vesicle nucleation. Autophagy progression was monitored by labeling aggregated mitochondria and cathepsin D. The cell-debris in massive ACD in NKTCL were positive for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, suggesting DNA oxidation occurred in ACD. Immunohistochemical autophagy and PCD analysis in archival human pathology specimens may offer new insights into autophagy in humans. Full article
Open AccessReview Distinguishing Latent from Active Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Using Elispot Assays: Looking Beyond Interferon-gamma
Cells 2012, 1(2), 89-99; doi:10.3390/cells1020089
Received: 14 March 2012 / Revised: 11 April 2012 / Accepted: 17 April 2012 / Published: 7 May 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (200 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a global heath epidemic, its threat amplified by HIV infection and the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Interferon (IFN)-gamma release assays (IGRAs) have improved the accuracy of detection of MTB exposure in some subject groups as compared to [...] Read more.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a global heath epidemic, its threat amplified by HIV infection and the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Interferon (IFN)-gamma release assays (IGRAs) have improved the accuracy of detection of MTB exposure in some subject groups as compared to the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST). However, as IFN-gamma is produced by both fully rested and more recently activated populations of memory T cells, it is not surprising that the measurement of this cytokine alone cannot accurately distinguish Latent TB Infected (LTBI) subjects from those with active (infectious) disease. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of infectious individuals would allow medication to be properly allocated and other actions taken to more effectively curtail MTB spread. Analysis of multi-cytokine profiles ex vivo after stimulation of PBMCs from LTBI and active MTB subjects indicate the real possibility of successfully discerning these two disease states within 24 hours of a subject’s blood draw. Due to the unparalleled sensitivity, low cost, and ease of use of Elispot assays, we propose that via a multiplex Elispot platform the accurate distinction of LTBI from active MTB-infected individuals is within reach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ELISPOT Research)
Open AccessReview Role of ELISPOT Assays in Risk Assessment Pre- and Post-Kidney Transplantation
Cells 2012, 1(2), 100-110; doi:10.3390/cells1020100
Received: 23 March 2012 / Revised: 30 April 2012 / Accepted: 7 May 2012 / Published: 10 May 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (165 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Immunologic risk in kidney transplantation is typically minimized by avoiding, or at least limiting, the potential of donor specific humoral responses by testing for the presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA). Additionally, selecting donor and recipient pairs with the least number of human [...] Read more.
Immunologic risk in kidney transplantation is typically minimized by avoiding, or at least limiting, the potential of donor specific humoral responses by testing for the presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA). Additionally, selecting donor and recipient pairs with the least number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches has been shown to play a role in transplant outcome. However, numerous other factors may play a role in the success of transplant outcome and patient health. Specifically, the use of T-cell allospecific ELISPOT assays have helped elucidate the role of pre-formed cellular responses as additional factors in post-transplant outcome. In this review, we will evaluate numerous uses of ELISPOT assays to assess the pre- and post-transplant immunologic risk of rejection episodes, graft survival and even viral susceptibility as well as the utility of ELISPOT assays in monitoring tolerance and withdrawal of immunosuppressive medications following kidney transplantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ELISPOT Research)
Open AccessReview ELISPOT Assay for Monitoring Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL) Activity in Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trials
Cells 2012, 1(2), 111-126; doi:10.3390/cells1020111
Received: 28 March 2012 / Revised: 30 April 2012 / Accepted: 7 May 2012 / Published: 10 May 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (104 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The profiling and monitoring of immune responses are key elements in the evaluation of the efficacy and development of new biotherapies, and a number of assays have been introduced for analyzing various immune parameters before, during, and after immunotherapy. The choice of [...] Read more.
The profiling and monitoring of immune responses are key elements in the evaluation of the efficacy and development of new biotherapies, and a number of assays have been introduced for analyzing various immune parameters before, during, and after immunotherapy. The choice of immune assays for a given clinical trial depends on the known or suggested immunomodulating mechanisms associated with the tested therapeutic modality. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity represents a key mechanism in the immune response to various pathogens and tumors. Therefore, the selection of monitoring methods for the appropriate assessment of cell-mediated cytotoxicity is thought to be crucial. Assays that can detect both cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) frequency and function, such as the IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) have gained increasing popularity for monitoring clinical trials and in basic research. Results from various clinical trials, including peptide and whole tumor cell vaccination and cytokine treatment, have shown the suitability of the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay for monitoring T cell responses. However, the Granzyme B ELISPOT assay and Perforin ELISPOT assay may represent a more direct analysis of cell-mediated cytotoxicity as compared to the IFN-γ ELISPOT, since Granzyme B and perforin are the key mediators of target cell death via the granule-mediated pathway. In this review we analyze our own data and the data reported by others with regard to the application of various modifications of ELISPOT assays for monitoring CTL activity in clinical vaccine trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ELISPOT Research)
Open AccessReview Enzyme Linked Immuno-Spot; a Useful Tool in the Search for Elusive Immune Markers in Common Pediatric Immunological Diseases
Cells 2012, 1(2), 141-152; doi:10.3390/cells1020141
Received: 15 April 2012 / Revised: 17 May 2012 / Accepted: 22 May 2012 / Published: 29 May 2012
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Abstract
In order to provide better therapy we strive to increase our knowledge of how the immune system behaves and communicates in common pediatric immunological diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, allergic and celiac diseases. However, when dealing with pediatric diseases, where study [...] Read more.
In order to provide better therapy we strive to increase our knowledge of how the immune system behaves and communicates in common pediatric immunological diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, allergic and celiac diseases. However, when dealing with pediatric diseases, where study subjects are almost exclusively children, blood volumes available for immunological studies are limited and as such must be carefully handled and used to their full extent. Single immune markers can easily be detected by a traditional Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), whereas multiple markers can be detected by a fluorochrome (Luminex) or electrochemiluminescence (MSD) technique. These techniques however are sometimes not sensitive enough to detect low levels of secreted immune markers in limited sample sizes. To detect immune markers at the single-cell level, an Enzyme Linked Immuno-spot (ELISPOT) can be used to pin-point elusive immune markers in common pediatric immunological diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ELISPOT Research)
Open AccessReview Macroautophagy and Cell Responses Related to Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Lipid Metabolism and Unconventional Secretion of Proteins
Cells 2012, 1(2), 168-203; doi:10.3390/cells1020168
Received: 10 May 2012 / Revised: 3 June 2012 / Accepted: 12 June 2012 / Published: 20 June 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (590 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Macroautophagy has important physiological roles and its cytoprotective or detrimental function is compromised in various diseases such as many cancers and metabolic diseases. However, the importance of autophagy for cell responses has also been demonstrated in many other physiological and pathological situations. [...] Read more.
Macroautophagy has important physiological roles and its cytoprotective or detrimental function is compromised in various diseases such as many cancers and metabolic diseases. However, the importance of autophagy for cell responses has also been demonstrated in many other physiological and pathological situations. In this review, we discuss some of the recently discovered mechanisms involved in specific and unspecific autophagy related to mitochondrial dysfunction and organelle degradation, lipid metabolism and lipophagy as well as recent findings and evidence that link autophagy to unconventional protein secretion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autophagy)

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