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Cells 2013, 2(2), 244-265; doi:10.3390/cells2020244

A Preliminary Evaluation of Lyophilized Gelatin Sponges, Enhanced with Platelet-Rich Plasma, Hydroxyapatite and Chitin Whiskers for Bone Regeneration

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, 401 West Main St, P.O. Box 843067, Richmond, VA 23284, USA
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Parks College of Engineering, Aviation, and Technology, Saint Louis University, 3507 Lindell Blvd, St. Louis, MO 63103, USA
3
Department of Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1000 West Cary St, Room 126, Richmond, VA 23284, USA
These authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 January 2013 / Revised: 13 March 2013 / Accepted: 15 April 2013 / Published: 26 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to perform a number of preliminary in vitro evaluations on an array of modified gelatin gel sponge scaffolds for use in a bone graft application. The gelatin gels were modified through the addition of a number of components which each possess unique properties conducive to the creation and regeneration of bone: a preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF, a bioactive, lyophilized form of platelet-rich plasma), hydroxyapatite, and chitin whiskers. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an emerging practice that has proven effective in a number of clinical applications, including enhancing bone repair through improved deposition of new bony matrix and angiogenesis. As such, the inclusion of PRGF in our gelatin scaffolds was intended to significantly enhance scaffold bioactivity, while the addition of hydroxyapatite and chitin whiskers were anticipated to increase scaffold strength. Additionally, the gelatin sponges, which readily dissolve in aqueous solutions, were subjected to 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) cross-linking, either during or post-gelation, to control their rate of degradation. Scaffolds were evaluated in vitro with respect to compressive strength, mass loss/degradation, protein release, and cellular interaction, with results demonstrating the potential of the gelatin gel sponge scaffold for use in the regeneration of bone.
Keywords: tissue engineering; bone graft; gelatin; chitin; hydroxyapatite; platelet-rich plasma; scaffold tissue engineering; bone graft; gelatin; chitin; hydroxyapatite; platelet-rich plasma; scaffold
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodriguez, I.A.; Sell, S.A.; McCool, J.M.; Saxena, G.; Spence, A.J.; Bowlin, G.L. A Preliminary Evaluation of Lyophilized Gelatin Sponges, Enhanced with Platelet-Rich Plasma, Hydroxyapatite and Chitin Whiskers for Bone Regeneration. Cells 2013, 2, 244-265.

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