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Atmosphere, Volume 8, Issue 6 (June 2017)

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Cover Story Concentrated livestock feeding operations have become a source of odorous gas emissions that impact [...] Read more.
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Research

Open AccessArticle Air Quality and Control Measures Evaluation during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing and its Surrounding Cities
Atmosphere 2017, 8(6), 100; doi:10.3390/atmos8060100
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 2 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 June 2017 / Published: 4 June 2017
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Abstract
Air pollution had become a vital concern for the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing. In order to control air pollutant emissions and ensure better air quality during the Games, the Nanjing municipal government took a series of aggressive control measures to reduce
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Air pollution had become a vital concern for the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing. In order to control air pollutant emissions and ensure better air quality during the Games, the Nanjing municipal government took a series of aggressive control measures to reduce pollutant emissions in Nanjing and its surrounding cities during the Youth Olympic Games. The Air Quality Index (AQI) is an index of air quality which is used to inform the public about levels of air pollution and associated health risks. In this study, we use the AQI and air pollutant concentrations data to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of control measures. The results suggest that the emission reduction measures significantly improved air quality in Nanjing. In August 2014, the mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3 were 42.44 μg·m−3, 59.01 μg·m−3, 11.12 μg·m−3, 31.09 μg·m−3, 0.76 mg·m−3 and 38.39 μg·m−3, respectively, and fell by 35.92%, 36.75%, 20.40%, 15.05%, 8.54% and 47.15%, respectively, compared to the prophase mean before the emission reduction. After the emission reduction, the mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and O3 increased by 20.81%, 41.84%, 22.84%, 21.16% and 60.93%, respectively, which is due to the cancellation of temporary atmospheric pollution control measures. The air pollutants diurnal variation curve during the emission reduction was lower than the other two periods, except for CO. In addition, the AQI of Nanjing and its surrounding cities showed a downward trend, compared with July 2014. The most of effective method to control air pollution is to implement the measures of regional cooperation and joint defense and control, and reduce local emissions during the polluted period, such as airborne dust, coal-burning, vehicle emissions, mobile sources and industrial production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Sensible Heat Fluxes Measured by a Large Aperture Scintillometer and Eddy Covariance System over a Heterogeneous Farmland in East China
Atmosphere 2017, 8(6), 101; doi:10.3390/atmos8060101
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
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Abstract
The sensible heat is an important component in surface energy partitioning over the land surface. This paper compared the sensible heat fluxes measured by a large aperture scintillometer system (LAS) and an eddy covariance system (EC) over a rice paddy with a patch
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The sensible heat is an important component in surface energy partitioning over the land surface. This paper compared the sensible heat fluxes measured by a large aperture scintillometer system (LAS) and an eddy covariance system (EC) over a rice paddy with a patch of mulberry seedlings in the east China coastal region during the period from 13 September–11 October 2015. During the observation period, easterlies and northerlies prevailed, and 96% easterlies and northerlies had a speed of 0–6 m s−1. The sensible heat fluxes measured by the two systems reflected that the value of HLAS generally was inclined to be larger than HEC with the average difference of 20.30 W m−2, and the uncertainty for two instruments was less than 17 W m−2. Analysis of the average footprint resulted that the mulberry seedling field always had a higher contribution to LAS than that to EC, which could be the reason that HLAS was always larger than HEC. During the days when the contributions of the mulberry seedling field to the two systems were close to each other, the sensible heat flux measurements of the two instruments were similar. The case analysis on typical sunny days showed that there would be larger sensible heat fluxes over the mulberry seedling field than in the rice paddy field especially under larger net radiation conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosphere/Hydrosphere/Land - Atmosphere Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle Improving Residential Wind Environments by Understanding the Relationship between Building Arrangements and Outdoor Regional Ventilation
Atmosphere 2017, 8(6), 102; doi:10.3390/atmos8060102
Received: 23 April 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 June 2017 / Published: 9 June 2017
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Abstract
This paper explores the method of assessing regional spatial ventilation performance for the design of residential building arrangements at an operational level. Three ventilation efficiency (VE) indices, Net Escape Velocity (NEV), Visitation Frequency (VF) and spatial-mean Velocity Magnitude (VM), are adopted to quantify
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This paper explores the method of assessing regional spatial ventilation performance for the design of residential building arrangements at an operational level. Three ventilation efficiency (VE) indices, Net Escape Velocity (NEV), Visitation Frequency (VF) and spatial-mean Velocity Magnitude (VM), are adopted to quantify the influence of design variation on VE within different regional spaces. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method is applied to calculate VE indices mentioned above. Several residential building arrangement cases are set to discuss the effect of different building length, lateral spacing and layouts on four typical space patterns under wind directions oblique or perpendicular to the main (long) building facade. The simulation results prove that NEV, VF and VM are useful VE indices, which can reflect different features of flow pattern in studied regional domains. Preliminary parametric studies indicate that wind direction might be the most important factor for improving spatial ventilation. When the angle between main building facade and wind direction is more than 30°, ventilation of different exterior spaces could improve evidently. When wind direction is perpendicular to main building façade, decreasing building length can increase NEV of the middle space by 50%, while decreasing lateral spacing would decrease NEV of the intersection space by 35%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Urban Ventilation Assessment and Flow Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle Mitigation of Livestock Odors Using Black Light and a New Titanium Dioxide-Based Catalyst: Proof-of-Concept
Atmosphere 2017, 8(6), 103; doi:10.3390/atmos8060103
Received: 13 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 10 June 2017
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Abstract
Concentrated livestock feeding operations have become a source of odorous gas emissions that impact air quality. Comprehensive and practical technologies are needed for a sustainable mitigation of the emissions. In this study, we advance the concept of using a catalyst for barn walls
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Concentrated livestock feeding operations have become a source of odorous gas emissions that impact air quality. Comprehensive and practical technologies are needed for a sustainable mitigation of the emissions. In this study, we advance the concept of using a catalyst for barn walls and ceilings for odor mitigation. Two catalysts, a new TiO2-based catalyst, PureTi Clean, and a conventional Evonik (formerly Degussa, Evonik Industries, Essen, Germany) P25 (average particle size 25 nm) catalyst, were studied for use in reducing simulated odorous volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions on a laboratory scale. The UV source was black light. Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), diethyl disulfide (DEDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), butyric acid, p-cresol, and guaiacol were selected as model odorants. The effects of the environmental parameters, the presence of swine dust covering the catalyst, the catalyst type and layer density, and the treatment time were tested. The performance of the PureTi catalyst at 10 µg/cm2 was comparable to that of P25 at 250 µg/cm2. The odorant reduction ranged from 100.0 ± 0.0% to 40.4 ± 24.8% at a treatment time of 200 s, simulating wintertime barn ventilation. At a treatment time of 40 s (simulating summertime barn ventilation), the reductions were lower (from 27.4 ± 8.3% to 62.2 ± 7.5%). The swine dust layer on the catalyst surface blocked 15.06 ± 5.30% of UV365 and did not have a significant impact (p > 0.23) on the catalyst performance. Significant effects of relative humidity and temperature were observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation and Parameter Optimization of Monthly Net Long-Wave Radiation Climatology Methods in China
Atmosphere 2017, 8(6), 94; doi:10.3390/atmos8060094
Received: 4 March 2017 / Revised: 13 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
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Abstract
Based on surface radiation balance data and meteorological observations at 19 radiation stations in China from 1993 to 2012, we assessed the applicability of seven empirical formulas for the estimation of monthly surface net long-wave radiation (Rnl). We then established
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Based on surface radiation balance data and meteorological observations at 19 radiation stations in China from 1993 to 2012, we assessed the applicability of seven empirical formulas for the estimation of monthly surface net long-wave radiation (Rnl). We then established a revised method applicable to China by re-fitting the formula using new observational data. The iterative solution method and the multivariate regression analysis method with the minimum root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the objective functions in the revised method. Meanwhile, the accuracy of the CERES (Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System) estimated Rnl was also evaluated. Results show that monthly Rnl over China was underestimated by the seven formulas and the CERES data. The Tong Hongliang formula with lowest errors was the best among the seven formulas for estimating Rnl over China as a whole, followed by the Penman and the Deng Genyun formulas. The estimated Rnl based on the CERES data also showed relatively higher precision in accordance with the three formulas mentioned above. The FAO56-PM formula (Penman–Monteith formula recommended in the No. 56 report of the Food and Agriculture Organization) without calibration was not applicable to China due to its low accuracy. For individual stations, the Deng Genyun formula was the most accurate in the eastern plain area, while the Tong Hongliang formula was suitable for the plateau. Regional formulas were established based on the geographical distribution of water vapor pressure and elevation over China. The revised national and regional formulas were more accurate than the seven original formulas and the CERES data. Furthermore, the regional formulas produced smaller errors than the national formula at most of the stations. The regional formulas were clearly more accurate than the Deng Genyun formula at stations in Northwestern China and on the Tibetan Plateau. They were also more accurate than the Tong Hongliang formula at the stations located in the eastern area. Therefore, the regional formulas developed in this study are recommended as the standard climatology formulas to calculate monthly Rnl over China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Boundary Layer Height on the Model of Ground-Level PM2.5 Concentrations from AOD: Comparison of Stable and Convective Boundary Layer Heights from Different Methods
Atmosphere 2017, 8(6), 104; doi:10.3390/atmos8060104
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 4 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
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Abstract
The aerosol optical depth (AOD) from satellites or ground-based sun photometer spectral observations has been widely used to estimate ground-level PM2.5 concentrations by regression methods. The boundary layer height (BLH) is a popular factor in the regression model of AOD and PM
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The aerosol optical depth (AOD) from satellites or ground-based sun photometer spectral observations has been widely used to estimate ground-level PM2.5 concentrations by regression methods. The boundary layer height (BLH) is a popular factor in the regression model of AOD and PM2.5, but its effect is often uncertain. This may result from the structures between the stable and convective BLHs and from the calculation methods of the BLH. In this study, the boundary layer is divided into two types of stable and convective boundary layer, and the BLH is calculated using different methods from radiosonde data and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data for the station in Beijing, China during 2014–2015. The BLH values from these methods show significant differences for both the stable and convective boundary layer. Then, these BLHs were introduced into the regression model of AOD-PM2.5 to seek the respective optimal BLH for the two types of boundary layer. It was found that the optimal BLH for the stable boundary layer is determined using the method of surface-based inversion, and the optimal BLH for the convective layer is determined using the method of elevated inversion. Finally, the optimal BLH and other meteorological parameters were combined to predict the PM2.5 concentrations using the stepwise regression method. The results indicate that for the stable boundary layer, the optimal stepwise regression model includes the factors of surface relative humidity, BLH, and surface temperature. These three factors can significantly enhance the prediction accuracy of ground-level PM2.5 concentrations, with an increase of determination coefficient from 0.50 to 0.68. For the convective boundary layer, however, the optimal stepwise regression model includes the factors of BLH and surface wind speed. These two factors improve the determination coefficient, with a relatively low increase from 0.65 to 0.70. It is found that the regression coefficients of the BLH are positive and negative in the stable and convective regression models, respectively. Moreover, the effects of meteorological factors are indeed related to the types of BLHs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
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Open AccessArticle Intercomparison of MODIS and VIIRS Fire Products in Khanty-Mansiysk Russia: Implications for Characterizing Gas Flaring from Space
Atmosphere 2017, 8(6), 95; doi:10.3390/atmos8060095
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
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Abstract
Gas flaring is commonly used by industrial plants for processing oil and natural gases in the atmosphere, and hence is an important anthropogenic source for various pollutants including CO2, CO, and aerosols. This study evaluates the feasibility of using satellite data
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Gas flaring is commonly used by industrial plants for processing oil and natural gases in the atmosphere, and hence is an important anthropogenic source for various pollutants including CO2, CO, and aerosols. This study evaluates the feasibility of using satellite data to characterize gas flaring from space by focusing on the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug in Russia, a region that is well known for its dominant gas flaring activities. Multiple satellite-based thermal anomaly data products at night are intercompared and analyzed, including MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Terra level 2 Thermal Anomalies product (MOD14), MODIS Aqua level 2 Thermal Anomalies product (MYD14), VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) Active Fires Applications Related Product (VAFP), and VIIRS level 2 Nightfire product (VNF). The analysis compares and contrasts the efficacy of these sensor products in detecting small, hot sources like flares on the ground in extremely cold environments such as Russia. We found that the VNF algorithm recently launched by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the unprecedented accuracy and efficiency in characterizing gas flares in the region owing primarily to the use of Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) bands. Reconciliation of VNF’s differences and similarities with other nighttime fire products is also conducted, indicating that MOD14/MYD14 and VAFP data are only effective in detecting those gas flaring pixels that are among the hottest in the region; incorporation of shortwave infrared (1.6 µm) band used in VNF may improve the detection of relatively cooler gas flares. The gas flaring locations from the VNF product are validated using Google Earth images. It is shown that VNF’s estimates of the area of gas flaring agree well with the Google image counterparts with a linear correlation of 0.91, highlighting its potential use for routinely monitoring emissions of gas flaring from space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Burning)
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Open AccessArticle Cryogenic Displacement and Accumulation of Biogenic Methane in Frozen Soils
Atmosphere 2017, 8(6), 105; doi:10.3390/atmos8060105
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
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Abstract
Evidences of highly localized methane fluxes are reported from the Arctic shelf, hot spots of methane emissions in thermokarst lakes, and are believed to evolve to features like Yamal crater on land. The origin of large methane outbursts is problematic. Here we show,
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Evidences of highly localized methane fluxes are reported from the Arctic shelf, hot spots of methane emissions in thermokarst lakes, and are believed to evolve to features like Yamal crater on land. The origin of large methane outbursts is problematic. Here we show, that the biogenic methane (13C ≤ −71‰) which formed before and during soil freezing is presently held in the permafrost. Field and experimental observations show that methane tends to accumulate at the permafrost table or in the coarse-grained lithological pockets surrounded by the sediments less-permeable for gas. Our field observations, radiocarbon dating, laboratory tests and theory all suggest that depending on the soil structure and freezing dynamics, this methane may have been displaced downwards tens of meters during freezing and has accumulated in the lithological pockets. The initial flux of methane from the one pocket disclosed by drilling was at a rate of more than 2.5 kg C(CH4) m−2 h−1. The age of the methane was 8–18 thousand years younger than the age of the sediments, suggesting that it was displaced tens of meters during freezing. The theoretical background provided the insight on the cryogenic displacement of methane in support of the field and experimental data. Upon freezing of sediments, methane follows water migration and either dissipates in the freezing soils or concentrates at certain places controlled by the freezing rate, initial methane distribution and soil structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Methane)
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Open AccessArticle Sensitivity Study on High-Resolution WRF Precipitation Forecast for a Heavy Rainfall Event
Atmosphere 2017, 8(6), 96; doi:10.3390/atmos8060096
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
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Abstract
A high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for a heavy rainfall case is configured and the performance of the precipitation forecasting is evaluated. Sensitivity tests were carried out by changing the model configuration, such as domain size, sea surface temperature (SST) data,
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A high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for a heavy rainfall case is configured and the performance of the precipitation forecasting is evaluated. Sensitivity tests were carried out by changing the model configuration, such as domain size, sea surface temperature (SST) data, initial conditions, and lead time. The numerical model employs one-way nesting with horizontal resolutions of 5 km and 1 km for the outer and inner domains, respectively. The model domain includes the capital city of Seoul and its suburban megacities in South Korea. The model performance is evaluated via statistical analysis using the correlation coefficient, deviation, and root mean squared error by comparing with observational data including, but not limited to, those from ground-based instruments. The sensitivity analysis conducted here suggests that SST data show negligible influence for a short range forecasting model, the data assimilated initial conditions show the more effective results rather than the non-assimilated high resolution initial conditions, and for a given domain size of the forecasting model, an appropriate outer domain size and lead time of <6 h for a 1-km high-resolution domain should be taken into consideration when optimizing the WRF configuration for regional torrential rainfall events around Seoul and its suburban area, Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue WRF Simulations at the Mesoscale: From the Microscale to Macroscale)
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Open AccessArticle Theoretical Model of Spiral Rain Clusters and Analysis of Their Horizontal Structure Equation
Atmosphere 2017, 8(6), 106; doi:10.3390/atmos8060106
Received: 17 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
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Abstract
Rain clusters are mesoscale disaster weather systems, and some of rain clusters have spiral structures. In this paper, a theoretical model of spiral rain cluster is established under pseudo-adiabatic approximation, and its horizontal structure equation is obtained. The study shows that the horizontal
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Rain clusters are mesoscale disaster weather systems, and some of rain clusters have spiral structures. In this paper, a theoretical model of spiral rain cluster is established under pseudo-adiabatic approximation, and its horizontal structure equation is obtained. The study shows that the horizontal structure with spiral arm rain clusters has the following characteristics: at locations close enough to the center of the rain clusters, its shape is round and symmetrical; at locations far from the center, there may be spiral arms; the intensity of the vertical ascending motion of the rain cluster decreases with increasing distance from the center; and the vertical ascending motion is larger on the axis of the spiral arms of rain clusters. The conclusions obtained are consistent with not only the numerical results but also the observational facts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle Observed Effects of Vegetation Growth on Temperature in the Early Summer over the Northeast China Plain
Atmosphere 2017, 8(6), 97; doi:10.3390/atmos8060097
Received: 8 January 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
The effect of vegetation on temperature is an emerging topic in the climate science community. Existing studies have mostly examined the effects of vegetation on daytime temperature (Tmax), whereas this study investigates the effects on nighttime temperature (Tmin
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The effect of vegetation on temperature is an emerging topic in the climate science community. Existing studies have mostly examined the effects of vegetation on daytime temperature (Tmax), whereas this study investigates the effects on nighttime temperature (Tmin). Ground measurements from 53 sites across northeastern China (NEC) from 1982 to 2006 show that early summer (June) Tmax and Tmin increased at mean rates of approximately 0.61 °C/10 year and 0.67 °C/10 year, respectively. Over the same period, the satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) decreased by approximately 0.10 (accounting for 18% of the climatological NDVI for 1982–1991). It is highlighted that a larger increase in Tmax (Tmin) co-occurred spatially with a larger (smaller) decrease in NDVI. Deriving from such spatial co-occurrences, we found that the spatial variability of changes in Tmax (i.e., ΔTmax) is negatively correlated with the spatial variability of changes in NDVI (i.e., ΔNDVI), while the spatial variability of changes in Tmin (i.e., ΔTmin) is positively correlated (r2 = 0.10; p < 0.05) with that of ΔNDVI. Similarly, we detected significant positive correlations between the spatial variability of ΔNDVI and the change in surface latent heat flux (r2 = 0.16; p < 0.01) and in surface air specific humidity (r2 = 0.28; p < 0.001). These findings on the spatial co-occurrences suggest that the vegetation growth intensifies the atmospheric water vapor through evapotranspiration, which enhances the atmospheric downward longwave radiation and strengthens the greenhouse warming effects at night. Thereby, the positive correlation between ΔNDVI and ΔTmin is better understood. These results indicate that vegetation growth may not only exert effects on daytime temperature but also exert warming effects on nighttime temperature by increasing atmospheric water vapor and thus intensifying the local greenhouse effect. This study presents new observation evidence of the effects of vegetation on local temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosphere/Hydrosphere/Land - Atmosphere Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization and Sources of Aromatic Hydrocarbons (BTEX) in the Atmosphere of Two Urban Sites Located in Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico
Atmosphere 2017, 8(6), 107; doi:10.3390/atmos8060107
Received: 7 May 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
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Abstract
Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, O3, NOx, CO, PM2.5 and meteorological parameters were measured in urban air of two sites in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico during 2016–2017. Samples were collected using 1.5 h time intervals at three different sampling periods
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Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, O3, NOx, CO, PM2.5 and meteorological parameters were measured in urban air of two sites in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico during 2016–2017. Samples were collected using 1.5 h time intervals at three different sampling periods before being analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The highest concentrations of BTEX occurred during midday and afternoon in spring and summer seasons. Mean concentrations of, BTEX for the Cholul and SEDUMA sites, respectively, were 40.91 μg/m3 and 32.86 μg/m3 for benzene; 6.87 μg/m3 and 3.29 μg/m3 for toluene; 13.87 μg/m3 and 8.29 μg/m3 for p-xylene; and 6.23 μg/m3 and 4.48 μg/m3 for ethylbenzene. The toluene/benzene and xylene/ethylbenzene concentration ratios indicated that BTEX levels at both sites were influenced by local and fresh emissions (vehicular traffic). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed in order to correlate BTEX concentrations with criteria air pollutants to infer their possible sources. Health risk assessment revealed that exposure to benzene exceeded the recommended value for the integrated lifetime cancer risk. These results suggest that Merida’s population is exposed to cancer risk, and changes in the existing environmental policies should therefore be applied to improve air quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropospheric Ozone and Its Precursors)
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Open AccessArticle CCN Activity, Variability and Influence on Droplet Formation during the HygrA-Cd Campaign in Athens
Atmosphere 2017, 8(6), 108; doi:10.3390/atmos8060108
Received: 9 April 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
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Abstract
Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations (cm−3) at five levels of supersaturation between 0.2–1%, together with remote sensing profiling and aerosol size distributions, were performed at an urban background site of Athens during the Hygroscopic Aerosols to Cloud Droplets (HygrA-CD)
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Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations (cm−3) at five levels of supersaturation between 0.2–1%, together with remote sensing profiling and aerosol size distributions, were performed at an urban background site of Athens during the Hygroscopic Aerosols to Cloud Droplets (HygrA-CD) campaign. The site is affected by local emissions and long-range transport, as portrayed by the aerosol size, hygroscopicity and mixing state. Application of a state-of-the-art droplet parameterization is used to link the observed size distribution measurements, bulk composition, and modeled boundary layer dynamics with potential supersaturation, droplet number, and sensitivity of these parameters for clouds forming above the site. The sensitivity is then used to understand the source of potential droplet number variability. We find that the importance of aerosol particle concentration levels associated with the background increases as vertical velocities increase. The updraft velocity variability was found to contribute 58–90% (68.6% on average) to the variance of the cloud droplet number, followed by the variance in aerosol number (6–32%, average 23.2%). Therefore, although local sources may strongly modulate CCN concentrations, their impact on droplet number is limited by the atmospheric dynamics expressed by the updraft velocity regime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Aerosol Composition and its Impact on Clouds)
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Open AccessArticle Characteristics of Strong Cold Air Outbreaks in China’s Central and Eastern Mongolian Region between 1970 and 2013
Atmosphere 2017, 8(6), 98; doi:10.3390/atmos8060098
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
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Abstract
Strong cold air outbreak tracking has been a key meteorological focal point over the years. With observational data and gridded datasets, we used the “three-dimensional wind speed trajectory inverse method” to trace cold air intrusion tracks that occurred during the winter half-years for
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Strong cold air outbreak tracking has been a key meteorological focal point over the years. With observational data and gridded datasets, we used the “three-dimensional wind speed trajectory inverse method” to trace cold air intrusion tracks that occurred during the winter half-years for the central and eastern parts of Inner Mongolia in 1970–2013. The results indicated that there were a total of 303 northwest and 32 westward tracks intruding from along the north end and southern side of the Altai Mountains, respectively, 118 northward tracks intruding from the two individual sides of the Yablonoi Mountains, and 16 occurrences of “other” tracks. The imminent circulation evolution pattern prior to outbreaks essentially causes three categories of cold air masses to undergo dramatic temperature increases, thereby reducing the impacts of source regional differences on the subject air masses. The measure of the annual frequency reduction in northwest tracks was determined to be 0.41 incidents every ten years, while other tracks’ annual frequencies increased, which essentially implies the probable increase of extreme cold in northeast and central China and an increase in the frequency of continuous cold weather exceeding a three-day span in southern China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle Estimating Cloud and Aerosol UV Modification Factors Based on Spectral Measurement from the Brewer Spectrophotometer
Atmosphere 2017, 8(6), 109; doi:10.3390/atmos8060109
Received: 10 May 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
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Abstract
Cloud and aerosol modification factors are investigated in the spectral range of ultraviolet (UV) to correct for cloud and aerosol extinction effects from clear sky irradiance. The cloud modification factor (CMF) and aerosol modification factor (AMF) are estimated using radiative transfer model (RTM)
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Cloud and aerosol modification factors are investigated in the spectral range of ultraviolet (UV) to correct for cloud and aerosol extinction effects from clear sky irradiance. The cloud modification factor (CMF) and aerosol modification factor (AMF) are estimated using radiative transfer model (RTM) simulations and ground-based observations in Seoul, Korea. The modification factors show a spectral dependence within the spectral range of 300 to 360 nm, which is the range used to estimate erythemal UV. The CMF and AMF values are estimated with high spectral resolution with considerations of solar zenith angle (SZA), cloud/aerosol amount, and total ozone variation. From the simulation studies, the variation in the CMFs within the spectral range of 300–360 nm is estimated to be 0.031–0.055, which is twice as large as the decrease in CMFs resulting from a SZA increase of 10°. In addition, the CMFs estimated from observational data show significant spectral dependence, varying from 2.5% to 10.0%. Because of the small aerosol optical depth (AOD) value, however, the variation in the AMF calculated from simulations is estimated to be between 0.007 and 0.045, indicating lower spectral dependence than the CMF. Furthermore, the spectral difference in the AMF calculated from observational data is insignificant relative to the daily-averaged total ozone error and uncertainties related to the reference irradiance spectrum under aerosol-free conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aerosols)
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Open AccessArticle Back-Calculation of Traffic-Related PM10 Emission Factors Based on Roadside Concentration Measurements
Atmosphere 2017, 8(6), 99; doi:10.3390/atmos8060099
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
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Abstract
Many researchers have failed to utilize back-calculation to estimate traffic emissions effectively or have obtained unclear results. In this study, the back-calculation of traffic-related PM10 emission factors based on roadside concentration measurements was analyzed. Experimental conditions were considered to ensure the success
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Many researchers have failed to utilize back-calculation to estimate traffic emissions effectively or have obtained unclear results. In this study, the back-calculation of traffic-related PM10 emission factors based on roadside concentration measurements was analyzed. Experimental conditions were considered to ensure the success of back-calculation. Roadside measurements were taken in a street canyon in Shanghai, China. Concentrations from a background site were often found to exceed the measured concentrations at the roadside on polluted days as more errors occurred in the background concentrations. On clean days, these impacts were negligible. Thus, only samples collected on clean days were used in back-calculation. The mean value from back-calculation was 0.138 g/km, which was much smaller than the results obtained using official emission models. Emission factors for light-duty vehicles (LDV), medium-duty vehicles (MDV), heavy-duty vehicles (HDV), and motorcycles were approximately 0.121, 0.427, 0.445, and 0.096 g/km, respectively. The fleet-averaged non-exhaust emission factor was approximately 0.121 g/km, indicating that road dust accounted for 87.7% of the roadside concentration increments. According to the dispersion simulation of reserved samples, the concentrations simulated using back-calculated emission factors were in better agreement with the measured data than the concentrations derived using modeled emission factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
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Open AccessArticle The Spatiotemporal Distribution of Air Pollutants and Their Relationship with Land-Use Patterns in Hangzhou City, China
Atmosphere 2017, 8(6), 110; doi:10.3390/atmos8060110
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
Air pollution contributes to a large fraction of the total mortality estimated under the global burden of disease project (GBD) of the World Health Organization (WHO). This paper discusses an integrated study to obtain the spatiotemporal characteristics of particulate matter (PM10 and
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Air pollution contributes to a large fraction of the total mortality estimated under the global burden of disease project (GBD) of the World Health Organization (WHO). This paper discusses an integrated study to obtain the spatiotemporal characteristics of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and trace gases (O3, SO2, NO2, and CO) pollutants in Hangzhou City (China) for the years 2014–2016. Our detailed analysis shows a relationship between air pollutants and land-use/land-cover change. Air quality parameters (PM2.5 and PM10) and trace gases (SO2, NO2, and CO) show strong monthly variations in the months of January (higher values) and July (lower values). During monsoon and summer seasons, air quality and trace gases show low values, whereas ozone (O3) is higher in the summer and lower in the winter. The spatial distribution of air pollutants is retrieved using the kriging method at the monitoring sites in Hangzhou City. We have considered normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (LST) from the Landsat 8 data. The correlation between air pollutants and land use at the street-town unit suggests that areas with low NDVI, high road density, large built-up density, and LST are consistent with high concentrations of particulate matter and SO2, NO2, and CO. Among the trace gases, NO2 is found to be the most sensitive element affected by land use patterns, and O3 shows weak correlation with land use. SO2 shows a strong positive correlation with road density and LST, whereas CO shows positive correlation with the built-up density, LST, and population density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Air Pollution)
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Open AccessArticle Parameterization of Evapotranspiration Estimation for Two Typical East Asian Crops
Atmosphere 2017, 8(6), 111; doi:10.3390/atmos8060111
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
Estimation of evapotranspiration plays an important role in understanding the water cycle on the earth, especially the water budget in agricultural ecosystems. The parameterization approach of the Penman-Monteith-Katerji-Perrier (PM-KP) model, accounting for the influence of meteorological variables and aerodynamic resistance on surface resistance,
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Estimation of evapotranspiration plays an important role in understanding the water cycle on the earth, especially the water budget in agricultural ecosystems. The parameterization approach of the Penman-Monteith-Katerji-Perrier (PM-KP) model, accounting for the influence of meteorological variables and aerodynamic resistance on surface resistance, was proposed in the literature, but it has not been applied to Asian croplands, and its error and sensitivity have not been reported yet. In this study, the estimation of evapotranspiration on half-hourly scale was carried out for two typical East Asian cropland research sites, and evaluated by using eddy-covariance measurements corrected with the energy-balance-closure concept. Sensitivity coefficients as well as systematic bias and random errors of the PM-KP approach were used to evaluate the model performance. Different distributions of the calibration coefficients between different crops were reported for the first time, indicating that the calibration of this model was more stable for the rice field than for the potato field. The commonly-used parameterization approach suggested by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) was used as reference and was site-specifically optimized. The results suggest that the PM-KP approach would be a better alternative than the PM-FAO approach for estimating evapotranspiration for the flooded rice field, and an acceptable alternative for rain-fed croplands when the soil is well watered and the air is humid during the summer monsoon. Full article
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