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Water, Volume 9, Issue 8 (August 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Excess sediment continues to be a major polluter of surface water with streambank erosion being a [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Application of a Double-Sided Chance-Constrained Integer Linear Program for Optimization of the Incremental Value of Ecosystem Services in Jilin Province, China
Water 2017, 9(8), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080629
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 13 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
The Interconnected River System Network Project (IRSNP) is a significant water supply engineering project, which is capable of effectively utilizing flood resources to generate ecological value, by connecting 198 lakes and ponds in western Jilin, northeast China. In this article, an optimization research
[...] Read more.
The Interconnected River System Network Project (IRSNP) is a significant water supply engineering project, which is capable of effectively utilizing flood resources to generate ecological value, by connecting 198 lakes and ponds in western Jilin, northeast China. In this article, an optimization research approach has been proposed to maximize the incremental value of IRSNP ecosystem services. A double-sided chance-constrained integer linear program (DCCILP) method has been proposed to support the optimization, which can deal with uncertainties presented as integers or random parameters that appear on both sides of the decision variable at the same time. The optimal scheme indicates that after rational optimization, the total incremental value of ecosystem services from the interconnected river system network project increased 22.25%, providing an increase in benefits of 3.26 × 109 ¥ compared to the original scheme. Most of the functional area is swamp wetland, which provides the greatest ecological benefits. Adjustment services increased obviously, implying that the optimization scheme prioritizes ecological benefits rather than supply and production services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Estimation of Suspended Sediment Loads Using Copula Functions
Water 2017, 9(8), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080628
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 2 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Suspended sediment load (SSL) observations are usually less frequent than precipitation and river discharge measurements; therefore a reliable procedure is needed for the estimation of SSL. One year of precipitation, SSL, and discharge measurements at 20-min intervals were performed
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Suspended sediment load (SSL) observations are usually less frequent than precipitation and river discharge measurements; therefore a reliable procedure is needed for the estimation of SSL. One year of precipitation, SSL, and discharge measurements at 20-min intervals were performed at the Kuzlovec torrent in Slovenia. The Frank copula was selected to construct an event-based model using the following variables: precipitation sum (P), peak discharge (Q), and SSL. The idea was to estimate the SSL based on the measured P and Q. The proposed model was additionally tested using the daily data from the Gornja Radgona station on the Mura River, for which 29 years of data were available and where Khoudraji-Liebscher copulas were used. The estimated SSL values using the copula were compared with different regression models. The proposed copula model yielded meaningful SSL estimates. Some performance criteria and tests indicated that the copula model gives a better fit to the measured data than other tested methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Erosion by Water)
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Open AccessArticle Effectiveness of Runoff Control Legislation and Active, Beautiful, Clean (ABC) Waters Design Features in Singapore
Water 2017, 9(8), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080627
Received: 9 June 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Storm water management in Singapore has always been a challenge due to intense rainfall in a flat, low-lying and urbanised catchment. PUB’s (Singapore’s National Water Agency) recent runoff control regulation limits the runoff coefficient to 0.55 for developments larger than or equal to
[...] Read more.
Storm water management in Singapore has always been a challenge due to intense rainfall in a flat, low-lying and urbanised catchment. PUB’s (Singapore’s National Water Agency) recent runoff control regulation limits the runoff coefficient to 0.55 for developments larger than or equal to 0.2 ha. The use of Active, Beautiful, Clean (ABC) Waters design features are encouraged to attain peak runoff reduction. Hence the paper focuses on (i) determining the actual hydrological response regime of Singapore using the relationship between runoff coefficient (C), land use and slope; and (ii) investigating the effectiveness of ABC Waters design features in delaying and reducing peak runoff using a modelling approach. Based on a Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) model and using elevation, land use and soil data as inputs, the peak C-values were obtained for 50 m × 50 m grid cells. The results show that for the same land use, the one with steeper slope resulted in a higher runoff coefficient. Simulations were carried out in two study areas, Green Walk District and Tengah Subcatchment, where ABC Waters design features (such as porous pavements, green roofs, rain gardens) and detention tanks were incorporated to reduce C-values. Results showed that peak C-values can be reduced to less than 0.55 after increasing the green areas and constructing detention facilities. Reduction in peak discharge (22% to 63%) and a delay in peak discharge by up to 30 min were also observed. Hence, it is recommended to consider the relationship between slope and land use while determining runoff coefficients; and to incorporate ABC Waters design features in urban design to reduce the peak flow and runoff coefficient (C). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sponge Cities: Emerging Approaches, Challenges and Opportunities)
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Open AccessArticle Forecasting of Industrial Water Demand Using Case-Based Reasoning—A Case Study in Zhangye City, China
Water 2017, 9(8), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080626
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Forecasting the industrial water demand accurately is crucial for sustainable water resource management. This study investigates industrial water demand forecasting by case-based reasoning (CBR) in an arid area, with a case study of Zhangye, China. We constructed a case base with 420 original
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Forecasting the industrial water demand accurately is crucial for sustainable water resource management. This study investigates industrial water demand forecasting by case-based reasoning (CBR) in an arid area, with a case study of Zhangye, China. We constructed a case base with 420 original cases of 28 cities in China, extracted six attributes of the industrial water demand, and employed a back propagation neural network (BPN) to weight each attribute, as well as the grey incidence analysis (GIA) to calculate the similarities between target case and original cases. The forecasting values were calculated by weighted similarities. The results show that the industrial water demand of Zhangye in 2030, which is the t arget case, will reach 11.9 million tons. There are 10 original cases which have relatively high similarities to the target case. Furthermore, the case of Yinchuan, 2010, has the largest similarity, followed by Yinchuan, 2009, and Urumqi, 2009. We also made a comparison experiment in which case-based reasoning is more accurate than the grey forecast model and BPN in water demand forecasting. It is expected that the results of this study will provide references to water resources management and planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Approximate Explicit Solution to the Green-Ampt Infiltration Model for Estimating Wetting Front Depth
Water 2017, 9(8), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080609
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Obtaining reliable information on the wetting front depth of soil is beneficial to the understanding of one-dimensional (1D) vertical infiltration under border irrigation. This paper presents an approximate explicit solution to the Green-Ampt (GA) infiltration model for estimating the wetting front depth. Moreover,
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Obtaining reliable information on the wetting front depth of soil is beneficial to the understanding of one-dimensional (1D) vertical infiltration under border irrigation. This paper presents an approximate explicit solution to the Green-Ampt (GA) infiltration model for estimating the wetting front depth. Moreover, the model proposed in this study, the GA model, the Ali model, and the Stone model were validated and evaluated using laboratory experimental data and HYDRUS-1D simulation. Statistical comparisons (root mean square error-RMSE, mean absolute percent relative error-MAPRE, and percent bias-PB) of the estimated data with the measured and simulated data were conducted. The models were ranked on the basis of their overall performance index (OPI). The results demonstrated that all four models can be used to estimate the wetting front depth of 1D vertical infiltration for a wide range of soil textures; the proposed model provided the most accurate result. According to comparisons of the estimated values with the measured and simulated values, the maximum RMSE, MAPRE, and PB were 1.74 cm, 6.92%, and −6.74%, respectively, for the proposed model. On the basis of the OPI, the optimal model was the proposed model, followed by the Ali, GA, and Stone models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hydrogeochemistry of Shallow Groundwater in a Karst Aquifer System of Bijie City, Guizhou Province
Water 2017, 9(8), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080625
Received: 29 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2332 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the major chemical compositions of 159 shallow groundwater samples incorporated saturation index (SI) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were employed to evaluate the mainly geochemical processes that control the hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in a typical karst area, Bijie city,
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In this study, the major chemical compositions of 159 shallow groundwater samples incorporated saturation index (SI) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were employed to evaluate the mainly geochemical processes that control the hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in a typical karst area, Bijie city, Guizhou Province. The groundwater samples in this study area were dominated of HCO3-Ca, HCO3-Ca-Mg, and HCO3-SO4-Ca types. The PCA suggested that four principal components could explain 88.85% of the total variance of 10 parameters, indicating that the hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater was mainly controlled by the dissolution/precipitation of carbonates, gypsum, and halite minerals, cation exchange, and anthropogenic activities. To be specific, the enrichment of Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 and SO42− in groundwater were primarily affected by the dissolution of dolomite and gypsum minerals, and the role of calcite dissolution was relatively weaker because most groundwater samples were saturated with respect to calcite. Besides, cation exchange was another factor that may affect the concentration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in groundwater, and the concentration of SO42− can also be influenced by coal mining activity. In addition, the concentrations of Na+ and Cl in groundwater were likely influenced by the dissolution of halite, cation exchange, and human activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Diel and Seasonal Patterns in Continuously Monitored Water Quality at Fixed Sites in Two Adjacent Embayments of the Tidal Freshwater Potomac River
Water 2017, 9(8), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080624
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
Water quality patterns in two adjacent embayments of the tidal freshwater Potomac River were compared using continuously monitored data. The two embayments, the tidal Occoquan and Gunston Cove, are shallow embayments fed by tributaries which vary in their watershed attributes. The tidal Occoquan
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Water quality patterns in two adjacent embayments of the tidal freshwater Potomac River were compared using continuously monitored data. The two embayments, the tidal Occoquan and Gunston Cove, are shallow embayments fed by tributaries which vary in their watershed attributes. The tidal Occoquan has a larger watershed and a dam just upstream from the head of tide whereas Gunston Cove has a large wastewater treatment plant just upstream of the embayment. Water temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pH were collected at 15 min intervals at representative locations in the two embayments from April through November of 2012. Mean daily values of water quality variables exhibited similar seasonal patterns at both sites which were related to seasonal patterns of forcing functions such as temperature, light and freshwater inflows. Three two-week intervals were examined in great detail. During a mid-summer period of stable conditions and low flow, both embayments exhibited strong and consistent diel (light cycle-based) periodicity in temperature, DO, and pH. Specific conductance exhibited semi-diel (tidal cycle-based) periodicity. The two other two-week intervals were punctuated by substantial flow events which resulted in major changes in daily mean values and disruptions to the typical diel or semi-diel cycles. The large rainfall event related to Hurricane Sandy caused a major disruption in diel and semi-diel cycles. Some cycles were quickly re-established and others took a week or more. The two embayments exhibited similar behavior in most aspects. Site-specific factors such as differences in the frequency and magnitude of tributary flow pulses and the presence of treated sewage discharge at Gunston Cove helped explain some of the differences observed between the two embayments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lakes)
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Open AccessArticle Estimation of Water Demand in Water Distribution Systems Using Particle Swarm Optimization
Water 2017, 9(8), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080593
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
Demand estimation in a water distribution network provides crucial data for monitoring and controlling systems. Because of budgetary and physical constraints, there is a need to estimate water demand from a limited number of sensor measurements. The demand estimation problem is underdetermined because
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Demand estimation in a water distribution network provides crucial data for monitoring and controlling systems. Because of budgetary and physical constraints, there is a need to estimate water demand from a limited number of sensor measurements. The demand estimation problem is underdetermined because of the limited sensor data and the implicit relationships between nodal demands and pressure heads. A simulation optimization technique using the water distribution network hydraulic model and an evolutionary algorithm is a potential solution to the demand estimation problem. This paper presents a detailed process simulation model for water demand estimation using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Nodal water demands and pipe flows are estimated when the number of estimated parameters is more than the number of measured values. The water demand at each node is determined by using the PSO algorithm to identify a corresponding demand multiplier. The demand multipliers are encoded with varying step sizes and the optimization algorithm particles are also discretized in order to improve the computation time. The sensitivity of the estimated water demand to uncertainty in demand multiplier discrete values and uncertainty in measured parameters is investigated. The sensor placement locations are selected using an analysis of the sensitivity of measured nodal heads and pipe flows to the change in the water demand. The results show that nodal demands and pipe flows can be accurately determined from a limited number of sensors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simulation and Regulation of Market Operation in Hydro-Dominated Environment: The Yunnan Case
Water 2017, 9(8), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080623
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 20 August 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents an integrated method to obtain optimal market operation and regulation with the objective of reducing the market price and increasing the electricity consumption in hydro-dominated electricity markets, in which giant cascaded hydropower facilities along different rivers are main power suppliers.
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This paper presents an integrated method to obtain optimal market operation and regulation with the objective of reducing the market price and increasing the electricity consumption in hydro-dominated electricity markets, in which giant cascaded hydropower facilities along different rivers are main power suppliers. To this end, a comprehensive indicator composed of market prices and electricity consumption is proposed to evaluate the situation of hydro-dominated market operation. Moreover, an iterative algorithm is proposed to investigate the strategic behaviors of power suppliers and to simulate the operation of the market. Furthermore, an integrated solution methodology based on a multi-core parallel tabu genetic algorithm (MPTGA) is proposed to provide the optimal assignment of bilateral contracts, considering the market simulation, in order to achieve the optimal market regulation. The results from the case study, with real data based on Yunnan’s electricity market, demonstrate that the proposed indicator and method are effective and efficient to simulate and regulate the market operation, and the effects of MPTGA are discussed last. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Relating Water Use to Tree Vitality of Populus euphratica Oliv. in the Lower Tarim River, NW China
Water 2017, 9(8), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080622
Received: 4 June 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
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Abstract
This study aimed to compare the hydraulic characteristics of different vitalities of Populus euphratica to reveal the differences in their water use strategies and water consumption to provide useful data to scale water use of riparian poplar forests in the lower reaches of
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This study aimed to compare the hydraulic characteristics of different vitalities of Populus euphratica to reveal the differences in their water use strategies and water consumption to provide useful data to scale water use of riparian poplar forests in the lower reaches of the Tarim River, Northwestern China. Our results showed that the sapwood area of P. euphratica could be estimated based on its correlation with tree biometric parameters. The sapwood area of vital poplars tended to be larger than the senesced poplar despite both having the same diameter at breast height. This indicates that poplar vitality should be taken into account when estimating its sapwood area. Therefore, we established two different sapwood area estimation models for vital and senesced poplar (sapwood area = 1.452 × DBH1.553, R2 = 0.891; sapwood area = 0.915 × DBH1.618, R2 = 0.718; DBH: diameter at breast height). The sap flow process of vital and senesced poplar had certain differences and similarities; the average diurnal sap flow velocity and water consumption of vital poplar were 15.85 cm/h and 45.95 L, respectively; for the senesced poplar, it was 9.64 cm/h and 18.17 L, respectively, which were smaller than that of vital poplars. The influence of environmental factors on the sap flow velocity of two different P. euphratica was similar; the sap flow of both vital and senesced poplar had positive correlation with air temperature (R2 = 0.800 and 0.851), solar radiation (R2 = 0.732 and 0.778), vapor pressure deficit (R2 = 0.508 and 0.643) and groundwater depth (R2 = 0.301 and 0.171), while negative correlation with air humidity (R2 = −0.313 and −0.478). Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle River Water Quality: Who Cares, How Much and Why?
Water 2017, 9(8), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080621
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An important motivation for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive is the creation of non-market environmental benefits, such as improved ecological quality, or greater opportunities for open-access river recreation via microbial pollution remediation. Pollution sources impacting on ecological or recreational water quality
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An important motivation for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive is the creation of non-market environmental benefits, such as improved ecological quality, or greater opportunities for open-access river recreation via microbial pollution remediation. Pollution sources impacting on ecological or recreational water quality may be uncorrelated, but non-market benefits arising from riverine improvements are typically conflated within benefit valuation studies. Using stated preference choice experiments embedded within a survey that also collected respondents’ socio-economic characteristics, we aimed to disaggregate these sources of value for different river users, thereby allowing decision makers to understand the consequences of adopting alternative investment strategies. Our results suggested that anglers derived greater value from improvements to the ecological quality of river water, in contrast to swimmers and rowers, for whom greater value is gained from improvements to recreational quality. More generally, we found three distinct groups of respondents: a majority preferring ecological over recreational improvements, a substantial minority holding opposing preference orderings, and a yet smaller proportion expressing relatively low values for either form of river quality enhancement. As such, this research demonstrates that the non-market benefits that may accrue from different types of water quality improvements are nuanced in terms of their potential beneficiaries and, by inference, their overall value and policy implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Policy)
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Cropland Balance Policy on Ecosystem Service of Water Purification—A Case Study of Wuhan, China
Water 2017, 9(8), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080620
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3174 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Urbanization has been responsible for the loss of cropland worldwide, especially in China. Since this trend is expected to continue in the near future, China has implemented the strictest cropland protection policies in the world, to guarantee its national food security. However, the
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Urbanization has been responsible for the loss of cropland worldwide, especially in China. Since this trend is expected to continue in the near future, China has implemented the strictest cropland protection policies in the world, to guarantee its national food security. However, the negative impact of cropland protection policies on ecosystem services has always been ignored. In this paper, we used LANDSCAPE (Land System Cellular Automata model for Potential Effects) model to assess the ecological lands loss under different scenarios in Wuhan, China during S2010–2020. Our scenarios differ in whether or not the cropland protection policy is imposed. Then, the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) model was used to calculate the amount of nutrient export under two different scenarios and to analyze the mechanism of impact of Cropland Balance Policy on water purification. Results show that the scenarios with strict cropland protection (CP) will lead to more losses of ecological lands compared with scenarios without cropland protection (NCP). Besides, the nitrogen export in the CP scenario is average 8.6% higher than the NCP scenario, which indicates that the Cropland Balance Policy has a negative impact on water purification. The nitrogen export is transported mainly by subsurface, which is 1.73 times higher than the surface averaged over the two scenarios. Accordingly, this study proposed that reasonable land use planning, and lowering the nutrient delivery ratio would be more beneficial to the ecosystem service of water purification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Measuring Recovery to Build up Metrics of Flood Resilience Based on Pollutant Discharge Data: A Case Study in East China
Water 2017, 9(8), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080619
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Building “disaster-resilient” rather than “disaster-resistant” cities/communities requires the development of response capabilities to natural disasters and subsequent recovery. This study devises a new method to measure resilience via recovery capability to validate indicators from social, economic, infrastructural, and environmental domains. The pollutant discharge
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Building “disaster-resilient” rather than “disaster-resistant” cities/communities requires the development of response capabilities to natural disasters and subsequent recovery. This study devises a new method to measure resilience via recovery capability to validate indicators from social, economic, infrastructural, and environmental domains. The pollutant discharge data (waste-water and waste-gas discharge/emission data) of local power plants, sewage treatment plants and main factories were used to monitor recovery process of both people’s living and local industrial production as the waste water/gas is released irregularly during the short disaster-hit period. A time series analysis of such data was employed to detect the disturbance on these infrastructures from disasters and to assess community recovery capability. A recent record-breaking flash flood in Changzhou, a city in eastern-central China, was selected as a case study. We used ordinal logistic regression to identify leading proxies of flood resilience. A combination of six variables related to socioeconomic factors, infrastructure development and the environment, stood out and explained 61.4% of the variance in measured recovery capability. These findings substantiate the possibility of using recovery measurement based on pollutant discharge to validate resilience metrics, and contribute more solid evidences for policy-makers and urban planners to make corresponding measures for resilience enhancement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Defining Runoff Indices and Analyzing Their Relationships with Associated Precipitation and Temperature Indices for Upper River Basins in the Northwest Arid Region of China
Water 2017, 9(8), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080618
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7345 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The northwest arid region (NAR) of China, located in a cold region, has been experiencing extreme weather and runoff events for years. Summer (from June to August) is the main season for forming runoff in this region. Summer runoff is contributed by glacial
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The northwest arid region (NAR) of China, located in a cold region, has been experiencing extreme weather and runoff events for years. Summer (from June to August) is the main season for forming runoff in this region. Summer runoff is contributed by glacial runoff in addition to precipitation in glacierized basins. The upper basins of Hei River, Shule River, Kaidu River, and Manas River with different glacier coverage and available daily average discharge data were selected in this study. Two runoff indices—maximum discharge difference (MDD) and accumulated direct discharge (ADD)—were defined and calculated for each runoff event in the time series of daily average discharge during 1961–2007. To provide scientific knowledge for managing water resources and preventing disasters, the relationships between summer runoff indices and their associated precipitation and temperature variables were obtained by linear regression analysis. Results suggest that the regulation of glacier on runoff is more significant with the increase of glacier coverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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Open AccessArticle Different Irrigation Water Requirements of Seed Corn and Field Corn in the Heihe River Basin
Water 2017, 9(8), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080606
Received: 24 June 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
The Heihe River is the second largest river in arid areas of China, and the irrigation water of oasis agriculture in its middle reaches accounts for almost 80% of the water resources in the whole watershed. Corn is the most important crop in
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The Heihe River is the second largest river in arid areas of China, and the irrigation water of oasis agriculture in its middle reaches accounts for almost 80% of the water resources in the whole watershed. Corn is the most important crop in the middle reaches of the Heihe River, and its water consumption is about 50% of the total agriculture water consumption of the middle reaches. Therefore, in order to effectively use the water resources in the watershed, it is crucial to improve the efficiency of corn irrigation. In this paper, using the Ganzhou District in the middle reaches of the Heihe River as the study region, we carried out a field survey to obtain characteristics of seed and field corn. Based on our results, we conducted parameter calibration using the CROPWAT model and calculated the irrigation water requirements (IWR) of these two corn types. The irrigation water requirements of seed and field corn in the growing seasons were 470.1 and 488.5 mm, respectively. However, we observed big differences in the water consumption sequences of these two corn types. Prior to mid-July, evapotranspiration and IWR of seed corn were 14.3% and 20.1% higher, respectively, than those of field corn. In September, IWR of the two corn types started to decrease, with a value of 82.3 mm for seed corn, which was 32.1% lower than the IWR of field corn (108.7 mm) during the same period. However, there were no significant differences in the irrigation time and single irrigation amount for seed and field corn in the study area. Since corn is widely cultivated in the Zhangye Region, there is a considerable water-saving potential in agriculture if the irrigation water consumption can be adjusted according to the IWR of the two corn types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management within Inland River Watershed)
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