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Water 2017, 9(8), 597; doi:10.3390/w9080597

Mitigation Options for Future Water Scarcity: A Case Study in Santa Cruz Island (Galapagos Archipelago)

1
Department of Environmental Engineering and Water Technology, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, P.O. Box 3015, 2601 DA Delft, The Netherlands
2
Centre for Water Systems, School of Engineering, University of West London, London W5 5RF, UK
3
College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF, UK
4
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5048, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 2 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 12 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Cycle Modelling and Management)
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Abstract

Santa Cruz Island (Galápagos Archipelago), like many other tourist islands, is currently experiencing an exponential increase in tourism and local population growth, jeopardizing current and future water supply. An accurate assessment of the future water supply/demand balance is crucial to capital investment for water infrastructure. This paper aims to present five intervention strategies, which are suggested to solve the future water crisis. The strategies combined include environmentally sustainable options such as rainwater harvesting, greywater recycling and water demand management, as well as desalination. These strategies were evaluated under four population growth scenarios (very fast, fast, moderate and slow growths) by using several Key Performance Indicators (KPI’s) including water demand, leakage levels, total costs, energy consumption, rainwater delivered and greywater recycled. Moreover, it also aims to develop a methodology for similar islands, using the WaterMet2 modelling approach, a tool for integrated of sustainable-based performance of urban water systems. The results obtained show that by 2044 only a small portion of the future water demand can be covered assuming business as usual. Therefore, desalination seems to be the most viable option in order to mitigate the lack of water at the end of the planning period considering the growth trends. However, strategies comprising more environmentally friendly alternatives may be sufficient, but only under slow population growth scenarios. View Full-Text
Keywords: intervention strategy; key performance indicators; water demand prediction; water scarcity; WaterMet2 intervention strategy; key performance indicators; water demand prediction; water scarcity; WaterMet2
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Reyes, M.F.; Trifunović, N.; Sharma, S.; Behzadian, K.; Kapelan, Z.; Kennedy, M.D. Mitigation Options for Future Water Scarcity: A Case Study in Santa Cruz Island (Galapagos Archipelago). Water 2017, 9, 597.

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