Next Article in Journal
Spatial and Seasonal Surface Water Quality Assessment in a Tropical Urban Catchment: Burío River, Costa Rica
Next Article in Special Issue
Legionella Survey in the Plumbing System of a Sparse Academic Campus: A Case Study at the University of Perugia
Previous Article in Journal
Optimized Subsurface Irrigation System (OPSIS): Beyond Traditional Subsurface Irrigation
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Parametric Flood Control Method for Dams with Gate-Controlled Spillways
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2017, 9(8), 600; doi:10.3390/w9080600

How Efficient Are Semi-Natural Ponds in Assimilating Wastewater Effluents? Application to Fuente de Piedra Ramsar, Mediterranean Salt Lake (South of Spain)

1
Departamento de Ecología y Geología, Campus de Teatinos, Universidad de Málaga, s/n, 29071 Málaga, Spain
2
Departamento de Microbiología, Campus de Teatinos, Universidad de Málaga, s/n, 29071 Málaga, Spain
3
Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación del Territorio, Reserva Natural Laguna Fuente de Piedra, 29520 Fuente de Piedra, Spain
4
Departamento de Biología Animal, Biología Vegetal y Ecología y Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Ciencias de la Tierra, Campus de Las Lagunillas, Universidad de Jaén, s/n, 23071 Jaén, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 12 August 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1045 KB, uploaded 14 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

This work concerns the case study of a Mediterranean Ramsar salt lake (Fuente de Piedra, southern Spain) that receives the treated wastewater of the local village treatment plant. The wastewater goes through a system of canals, water dams, and three semi-natural ponds that were built in 2005. This work aims to investigate the capacity of the system to assimilate the impact of wastewater effluents on Lake Fuente de Piedra. For this, four points were sampled on 27–29 April 2016, at the inlet and the outlet points of the first and the third semi-natural ponds, with three replicates each. Temperature, pH, and conductivity at the inlet were 19.62 °C, 7.99, and 3262.67 μS/cm, respectively, and increased through the pond system by 7.59%, 8.04%, and 37.34%, respectively. Phytoplankton concentration indicators decreased from the inlet point to the outlet point (chlorophyll a from >500 to <20mg/L), as did the biovolume (from >5 × 1010 to 4.3 × 109 μm3/mL). Zooplankton biovolume, in contrast, increased three orders of magnitude from the inlet (3.5 × 107 μm3/mL) to the outlet point (1.6 × 109 μm3/mL). Heterotrophic bacteria (1.29 × 105 cfu/mL) and faecal enterococci (1033 ± 351 cfu/100 mL) were high at the inlet point, but decreased at the outlet point by almost three orders of magnitude. Total phosphorous and total nitrogen decreased 40.3% and 23.1% through the pond system. The results showed an improvement in water quality in its passage through the built system. Additionally, as permanent wetlands with acceptable water quality, the water system attracts wild fauna during the dry summer, leading to the conclusion that these semi-natural or artificial wetlands should be extrapolated to other aquatic ecosystems (Mediterranean wetlands) that receive contributions of residual waters. Better functioning of the treatment plant is desirable to improve the conservation of the Ramsar and adjacent wetlands systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: wastewater effluent; semi-natural ponds; phytoplankton; zooplankton; faecal bacteria; Ramsar wastewater effluent; semi-natural ponds; phytoplankton; zooplankton; faecal bacteria; Ramsar
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

de-los-Ríos-Mérida, J.; Reul, A.; Muñoz, M.; Arijo, S.; Tapia-Paniagua, S.; Rendón-Martos, M.; Guerrero, F. How Efficient Are Semi-Natural Ponds in Assimilating Wastewater Effluents? Application to Fuente de Piedra Ramsar, Mediterranean Salt Lake (South of Spain). Water 2017, 9, 600.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top