Next Article in Journal
Single Domain Antibody Fragments as Drug Surrogates Targeting Protein–Protein Interactions inside Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Ricin and Ricin-Containing Immunotoxins: Insights into Intracellular Transport and Mechanism of action in Vitro
Previous Article in Special Issue
Antibody Drug Conjugates as Cancer Therapeutics
Antibodies 2013, 2(2), 270-305; doi:10.3390/antib2020270

Antibody-Directed Phototherapy (ADP)

1,3, 1, 1,2, 3 and 1,2,*
1 Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London, SW7 2AZ, UK 2 PhotoBiotics Ltd, Montague House, Chancery Lane, Thrapston, Northamptonshire, NN14 4LN, UK 3 National Medical Laser Centre, Charles Bell House, 67-73 Riding House Street, London, W1W 7EJ, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 February 2013 / Revised: 3 April 2013 / Accepted: 4 April 2013 / Published: 25 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibody-Drug Conjugates)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2166 KB, 16 May 2013; original version 25 April 2013]   |   Browse Figures


Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically-approved but rather under-exploited treatment modality for cancer and pre-cancerous superficial lesions. It utilises a cold laser or LED to activate a photochemical reaction between a light activated drug (photosensitiser-drug) and oxygen to generate cytotoxic oxygen species. These free radical species damage cellular components leading to cell death. Despite its benefits, the complexity, limited potency and side effects of PDT have led to poor general usage. However, the research area is very active with an increasing understanding of PDT-related cell biology, photophysics and significant progress in molecular targeting of disease. Monoclonal antibody therapy is maturing and the next wave of antibody therapies includes antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), which promise to be more potent and curable. These developments could lift antibody-directed phototherapy (ADP) to success. ADP promises to increase specificity and potency and improve drug pharmacokinetics, thus delivering better PDT drugs whilst retaining its other benefits. Whole antibody conjugates with first generation ADP-drugs displayed problems with aggregation, poor pharmacokinetics and loss of immuno-reactivity. However, these early ADP-drugs still showed improved selectivity and potency. Improved PS-drug chemistry and a variety of conjugation strategies have led to improved ADP-drugs with retained antibody and PS-drug function. More recently, recombinant antibody fragments have been used to deliver ADP-drugs with superior drug loading, more favourable pharmacokinetics, enhanced potency and target cell selectivity. These improvements offer a promise of better quality PDT drugs.
Keywords: photodynamic; therapy; antibody targeted; photosensitiser-drug; phototherapy photodynamic; therapy; antibody targeted; photosensitiser-drug; phototherapy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Pye, H.; Stamati, I.; Yahioglu, G.; Butt, M.A.; Deonarain, M. Antibody-Directed Phototherapy (ADP). Antibodies 2013, 2, 270-305.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics


[Return to top]
Antibodies EISSN 2073-4468 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert