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Symmetry 2013, 5(1), 1-46; doi:10.3390/sym5010001

Taylor–Socolar Hexagonal Tilings as Model Sets

Department of Mathematics Education, Kwandong University, Gangneung, Gyeonggi-do 210-701, Korea
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P4, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 August 2012 / Revised: 6 December 2012 / Accepted: 7 December 2012 / Published: 28 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyhedra)


The Taylor–Socolar tilings are regular hexagonal tilings of the plane but are distinguished in being comprised of hexagons of two colors in an aperiodic way. We place the Taylor–Socolar tilings into an algebraic setting, which allows one to see them directly as model sets and to understand the corresponding tiling hull along with its generic and singular parts. Although the tilings were originally obtained by matching rules and by substitution, our approach sets the tilings into the framework of a cut and project scheme and studies how the tilings relate to the corresponding internal space. The centers of the entire set of tiles of one tiling form a lattice Q in the plane. If XQ denotes the set of all Taylor–Socolar tilings with centers on Q, then XQ forms a natural hull under the standard local topology of hulls and is a dynamical system for the action of Q.The Q-adic completion Q of Q is a natural factor of XQ and the natural mapping XQQ is bijective except at a dense set of points of measure 0 in /Q. We show that XQ consists of three LI classes under translation. Two of these LI classes are very small, namely countable Q-orbits in XQ. The other is a minimal dynamical system, which maps surjectively to /Q and which is variously 2 : 1, 6 : 1, and 12 : 1 at the singular points. We further develop the formula of what determines the parity of the tiles of a tiling in terms of the coordinates of its tile centers. Finally we show that the hull of the parity tilings can be identified with the hull XQ; more precisely the two hulls are mutually locally derivable.
Keywords: monotile tiling; Taylor–Socolar tiling; model sets; pure point spectrum; parity tiling monotile tiling; Taylor–Socolar tiling; model sets; pure point spectrum; parity tiling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Lee, J.-Y.; Moody, R.V. Taylor–Socolar Hexagonal Tilings as Model Sets. Symmetry 2013, 5, 1-46.

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