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Symmetry 2017, 9(4), 50; doi:10.3390/sym9040050

Enhanced Joint and Separable Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Images with High Payload

School of Electrical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610, Korea
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Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 March 2017 / Published: 28 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Secure Cyber World)
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Abstract

Recently, much attention has been paid to reversible data hiding (RDH) in encrypted images, since it preserves the data that the original image can be perfectly recovered after data extraction while protecting the confidentiality of image content. In this paper, we propose joint and separable RDH techniques using an improved embedding pattern and a new measurement function in encrypted images with a high payload. The first problem in recent joint data hiding is that the encrypted image is divided into blocks, and the spatial correlation in the block cannot fully reflect the smoothness of a natural image. The second problem is that half embedding is used to embed data and the prediction error is exploited to calculate the smoothness, which also fails to give good performance. To solve these problems, we divide the encrypted image into four sets, instead of blocks; the actual value of pixels is considered, rather than an estimated value, and the absolute difference between neighboring pixels is used in preference to prediction error to calculate the smoothness. Therefore, it is possible to use spatial correlation of the natural image perfectly. The experimental results show that the proposed joint and separable methods offer better performance over other works. View Full-Text
Keywords: data hiding; reversible data hiding; encryption; embedding pattern; bit error rate; PSNR data hiding; reversible data hiding; encryption; embedding pattern; bit error rate; PSNR
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Khanam, F.-T.-Z.; Kim, S. Enhanced Joint and Separable Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Images with High Payload. Symmetry 2017, 9, 50.

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