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Symmetry, Volume 9, Issue 9 (September 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) We discuss groups formed by spatial point symmetry operations in combination with time [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Toward Bulk Synchronous Parallel-Based Machine Learning Techniques for Anomaly Detection in High-Speed Big Data Networks
Symmetry 2017, 9(9), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9090197
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
Anomaly detection systems, also known as intrusion detection systems (IDSs), continuously monitor network traffic aiming to identify malicious actions. Extensive research has been conducted to build efficient IDSs emphasizing two essential characteristics. The first is concerned with finding optimal feature selection, while another
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Anomaly detection systems, also known as intrusion detection systems (IDSs), continuously monitor network traffic aiming to identify malicious actions. Extensive research has been conducted to build efficient IDSs emphasizing two essential characteristics. The first is concerned with finding optimal feature selection, while another deals with employing robust classification schemes. However, the advent of big data concepts in anomaly detection domain and the appearance of sophisticated network attacks in the modern era require some fundamental methodological revisions to develop IDSs. Therefore, we first identify two more significant characteristics in addition to the ones mentioned above. These refer to the need for employing specialized big data processing frameworks and utilizing appropriate datasets for validating system’s performance, which is largely overlooked in existing studies. Afterwards, we set out to develop an anomaly detection system that comprehensively follows these four identified characteristics, i.e., the proposed system (i) performs feature ranking and selection using information gain and automated branch-and-bound algorithms respectively; (ii) employs logistic regression and extreme gradient boosting techniques for classification; (iii) introduces bulk synchronous parallel processing to cater computational requirements of high-speed big data networks; and; (iv) uses the Infromation Security Centre of Excellence, of the University of Brunswick real-time contemporary dataset for performance evaluation. We present experimental results that verify the efficacy of the proposed system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Approaches and Advances in Big Data)
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Open AccessReview Chiral Analysis of Pesticides and Drugs of Environmental Concern: Biodegradation and Enantiomeric Fraction
Symmetry 2017, 9(9), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9090196
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 9 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
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Abstract
The importance of stereochemistry for medicinal chemistry and pharmacology is well recognized and the dissimilar behavior of enantiomers is fully documented. Regarding the environment, the significance is equivalent since enantiomers of chiral organic pollutants can also differ in biodegradation processes and fate, as
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The importance of stereochemistry for medicinal chemistry and pharmacology is well recognized and the dissimilar behavior of enantiomers is fully documented. Regarding the environment, the significance is equivalent since enantiomers of chiral organic pollutants can also differ in biodegradation processes and fate, as well as in ecotoxicity. This review comprises designed biodegradation studies of several chiral drugs and pesticides followed by enantioselective analytical methodologies to accurately measure the enantiomeric fraction (EF). The enantioselective monitoring of microcosms and laboratory-scale experiments with different environmental matrices is herein reported. Thus, this review focuses on the importance of evaluating the EF variation during biodegradation studies of chiral pharmaceuticals, drugs of abuse, and agrochemicals and has implications for the understanding of the environmental fate of chiral pollutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chiral Separations)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Solvable Three-Dimensional Product-Type System of Difference Equations with Multipliers
Symmetry 2017, 9(9), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9090195
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
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Abstract
The solvability of the following three-dimensional product-type system of difference equations xn+1=αynazn1b,yn+1=βzncxn1d,zn
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The solvability of the following three-dimensional product-type system of difference equations x n + 1 = α y n a z n 1 b , y n + 1 = β z n c x n 1 d , z n + 1 = γ x n f y n 1 g , n N 0 , where a , b , c , d , f , g Z , α , β , γ C \ { 0 } and x i , y i , z i C \ { 0 } , i { 0 , 1 } , is shown. This is the first three-dimensional system of the type with multipliers for which formulas are presented for their solutions in closed form in all the cases. Full article
Open AccessArticle Planning of Knotting Based on Manipulation Skills with Consideration of Robot Mechanism/Motion and Its Realization by a Robot Hand System
Symmetry 2017, 9(9), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9090194
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
This paper demonstrates the relationship between the production process of a knot and manipulation skills. First, we define the description (rope intersections, grasp type and fixation positions) of a knot. Second, we clarify the characteristics of the manipulation skills from the viewpoint of
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This paper demonstrates the relationship between the production process of a knot and manipulation skills. First, we define the description (rope intersections, grasp type and fixation positions) of a knot. Second, we clarify the characteristics of the manipulation skills from the viewpoint of the knot description. Next, in order to obtain the production process of the knot, we propose an analysis method based on the structure of the knot and the characteristics of the manipulation skills. Using the proposed analysis method, we analyzed eight kinds of knots, formed with a single rope, two ropes or a single rope and an object. Finally, in order to validate the production process obtained by the proposed analysis method, we show experimental results of an overhand knot and a half hitch produced by using a robot hand system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Knot Theory and Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle M2M Security Technology of CPS Based on Blockchains
Symmetry 2017, 9(9), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9090193
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 10 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
As the core of intelligent manufacturing, cyber-physical systems (CPS) have serious security issues, especially for the communication security of their terminal machine-to-machine (M2M) communications. In this paper, blockchain technology is introduced to address such a security problem of communications between different types of
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As the core of intelligent manufacturing, cyber-physical systems (CPS) have serious security issues, especially for the communication security of their terminal machine-to-machine (M2M) communications. In this paper, blockchain technology is introduced to address such a security problem of communications between different types of machines in the CPS. According to the principles of blockchain technology, we designed a blockchain for secure M2M communications. As a communication system, M2M consists of public network areas, device areas, and private areas, and we designed a sophisticated blockchain structure between the public area and private area. For validating our design, we took cotton spinning production as a case study to demonstrate our solution to M2M communication problems under the CPS framework. We have demonstrated that the blockchain technology can effectively solve the safety of expansion of machines in the production process and the communication data between the machines cannot be tampered with. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Robust Method for Finding the Automated Best Matched Genes Based on Grouping Similar Fragments of Large-Scale References for Genome Assembly
Symmetry 2017, 9(9), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9090192
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract
Big data research on genomic sequence analysis has accelerated considerably with the development of next-generation sequencing. Currently, research on genomic sequencing has been conducted using various methods, ranging from the assembly of reads consisting of fragments to the annotation of genetic information using
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Big data research on genomic sequence analysis has accelerated considerably with the development of next-generation sequencing. Currently, research on genomic sequencing has been conducted using various methods, ranging from the assembly of reads consisting of fragments to the annotation of genetic information using a database that contains known genome information. According to the development, most tools to analyze the new organelles’ genetic information requires different input formats such as FASTA, GeneBank (GB) and tab separated files. The various data formats should be modified to satisfy the requirements of the gene annotation system after genome assembly. In addition, the currently available tools for the analysis of organelles are usually developed only for specific organisms, thus the need for gene prediction tools, which are useful for any organism, has been increased. The proposed method—termed the genome_search_plotter—is designed for the easy analysis of genome information from the related references without any file format modification. Anyone who is interested in intracellular organelles such as the nucleus, chloroplast, and mitochondria can analyze the genetic information using the assembled contig of an unknown genome and a reference model without any modification of the data from the assembled contig. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Approaches and Advances in Big Data)
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Open AccessArticle Forecasting Model Based on Neutrosophic Logical Relationship and Jaccard Similarity
Symmetry 2017, 9(9), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9090191
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
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Abstract
The daily fluctuation trends of a stock market are illustrated by three statuses: up, equal, and down. These can be represented by a neutrosophic set which consists of three functions—truth-membership, indeterminacy-membership, and falsity-membership. In this paper, we propose a novel forecasting model based
[...] Read more.
The daily fluctuation trends of a stock market are illustrated by three statuses: up, equal, and down. These can be represented by a neutrosophic set which consists of three functions—truth-membership, indeterminacy-membership, and falsity-membership. In this paper, we propose a novel forecasting model based on neutrosophic set theory and the fuzzy logical relationships between the status of historical and current values. Firstly, the original time series of the stock market is converted to a fluctuation time series by comparing each piece of data with that of the previous day. The fluctuation time series is then fuzzified into a fuzzy-fluctuation time series in terms of the pre-defined up, equal, and down intervals. Next, the fuzzy logical relationships can be expressed by two neutrosophic sets according to the probabilities of different statuses for each current value and a certain range of corresponding histories. Finally, based on the neutrosophic logical relationships and the status of history, a Jaccard similarity measure is employed to find the most proper logical rule to forecast its future. The authentic Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index (TAIEX) time series datasets are used as an example to illustrate the forecasting procedure and performance comparisons. The experimental results show that the proposed method can successfully forecast the stock market and other similar kinds of time series. We also apply the proposed method to forecast the Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index (SHSECI) to verify its effectiveness and universality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrosophic Theories Applied in Engineering)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Chiral Stationary Phases for Liquid Chromatography Based on Chitin- and Chitosan-Derived Marine Polysaccharides
Symmetry 2017, 9(9), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9090190
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
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Abstract
The development of chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for liquid chromatography (LC) revolutionized the enantioseparation and, nowadays, different types of CSPs are commercially available. Polysaccharide-based CSPs are one of the most versatile and widely used for both analytical and preparative applications and they are
[...] Read more.
The development of chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for liquid chromatography (LC) revolutionized the enantioseparation and, nowadays, different types of CSPs are commercially available. Polysaccharide-based CSPs are one of the most versatile and widely used for both analytical and preparative applications and they are able to resolve several classes of racemates. Phenylcarbamates of amylose and cellulose derivatives are the most successful; however, polysaccharide-based CSPs comprising marine-derived polysaccharides are also described revealing high chiral recognition abilities and wider range of mobile phases. A literature survey covering the report on chitin and chitosan based CSPs is presented. The chemical structure of the chiral selectors, their development and applications in chiral LC are emphasized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chiral Separations)
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Open AccessArticle A Study on Interaction of Gaze Pointer-Based User Interface in Mobile Virtual Reality Environment
Symmetry 2017, 9(9), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9090189
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8628 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This research proposes a gaze pointer-based user interface to provide user-oriented interaction suitable for the virtual reality environment on mobile platforms. For this purpose, a mobile platform-based three-dimensional interactive content is produced to test whether the proposed gaze pointer-based interface increases user satisfaction
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This research proposes a gaze pointer-based user interface to provide user-oriented interaction suitable for the virtual reality environment on mobile platforms. For this purpose, a mobile platform-based three-dimensional interactive content is produced to test whether the proposed gaze pointer-based interface increases user satisfaction through the interactions in a virtual reality environment based on mobile platforms. The gaze pointer-based interface—the most common input method for mobile virtual reality content—is designed by considering four types: the visual field range, the feedback system, multi-dimensional information transfer, and background colors. The performance of the proposed gaze pointer-based interface is analyzed by conducting experiments on whether or not it offers motives for user interest, effects of enhanced immersion, provision of new experience, and convenience in operating content. In addition, it is verified whether any negative psychological factors, such as VR sickness, fatigue, difficulty of control, and discomfort in using contents are caused. Finally, through the survey experiment, this study confirmed that it is possible to design different ideal gaze pointer-based interface in mobile VR environment according to presence and convenience. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle On the Form and Growth of Complex Crystals: The Case of Tsai-Type Clusters
Symmetry 2017, 9(9), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9090188
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
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Abstract
Where are the atoms in complex crystals such as quasicrystals or periodic crystals with one hundred or more atoms per unit cell? How did they get there? The first of these questions has been gradually answered for many materials over the quarter-century since
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Where are the atoms in complex crystals such as quasicrystals or periodic crystals with one hundred or more atoms per unit cell? How did they get there? The first of these questions has been gradually answered for many materials over the quarter-century since quasicrystals were discovered; in this paper we address the second. We briefly review a history of proposed models for describing atomic positions in crystal structures. We then present a revised description and possible growth model for one particular system of alloys, those containing Tsai-type clusters, that includes an important class of quasicrystals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyhedral Structures) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Spatio-Temporal Symmetry—Point Groups with Time Translations
Symmetry 2017, 9(9), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9090187
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (321 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Spatial symmetries occur in combination with temporal symmetries in a wide range of physical systems in nature, including time-periodic quantum systems typically described by the Floquet formalism. In this context, groups formed by three-dimensional point group symmetry operations in combination with time translation
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Spatial symmetries occur in combination with temporal symmetries in a wide range of physical systems in nature, including time-periodic quantum systems typically described by the Floquet formalism. In this context, groups formed by three-dimensional point group symmetry operations in combination with time translation operations are discussed in this work. The derivation of these ’spatio-temporal’ groups from conventional point groups and their irreducible representations is outlined, followed by a complete listing. The groups are presented in a template similar to space group operations, and are visualized using a modified version of conventional stereographic projections. Simple examples of physical processes that simultaneously exhibit symmetry in space and time are identified and used to illustrate the application of spatio-temporal groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry and Symmetry Breaking in Quantum Mechanics)
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Open AccessArticle An Internet of Things Approach for Extracting Featured Data Using AIS Database: An Application Based on the Viewpoint of Connected Ships
Symmetry 2017, 9(9), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9090186
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Automatic Identification System (AIS), as a major data source of navigational data, is widely used in the application of connected ships for the purpose of implementing maritime situation awareness and evaluating maritime transportation. Efficiently extracting featured data from AIS database is always a
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Automatic Identification System (AIS), as a major data source of navigational data, is widely used in the application of connected ships for the purpose of implementing maritime situation awareness and evaluating maritime transportation. Efficiently extracting featured data from AIS database is always a challenge and time-consuming work for maritime administrators and researchers. In this paper, a novel approach was proposed to extract massive featured data from the AIS database. An Evidential Reasoning rule based methodology was proposed to simulate the procedure of extracting routes from AIS database artificially. First, the frequency distributions of ship dynamic attributes, such as the mean and variance of Speed over Ground, Course over Ground, are obtained, respectively, according to the verified AIS data samples. Subsequently, the correlations between the attributes and belief degrees of the categories are established based on likelihood modeling. In this case, the attributes were characterized into several pieces of evidence, and the evidence can be combined with the Evidential Reasoning rule. In addition, the weight coefficients were trained in a nonlinear optimization model to extract the AIS data more accurately. A real life case study was conducted at an intersection waterway, Yangtze River, Wuhan, China. The results show that the proposed methodology is able to extract data very precisely. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Internet of Things)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle An Efficient Image Segmentation Algorithm Using Neutrosophic Graph Cut
Symmetry 2017, 9(9), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9090185
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 3 September 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
Segmentation is considered as an important step in image processing and computer vision applications, which divides an input image into various non-overlapping homogenous regions and helps to interpret the image more conveniently. This paper presents an efficient image segmentation algorithm using neutrosophic graph
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Segmentation is considered as an important step in image processing and computer vision applications, which divides an input image into various non-overlapping homogenous regions and helps to interpret the image more conveniently. This paper presents an efficient image segmentation algorithm using neutrosophic graph cut (NGC). An image is presented in neutrosophic set, and an indeterminacy filter is constructed using the indeterminacy value of the input image, which is defined by combining the spatial information and intensity information. The indeterminacy filter reduces the indeterminacy of the spatial and intensity information. A graph is defined on the image and the weight for each pixel is represented using the value after indeterminacy filtering. The segmentation results are obtained using a maximum-flow algorithm on the graph. Numerous experiments have been taken to test its performance, and it is compared with a neutrosophic similarity clustering (NSC) segmentation algorithm and a graph-cut-based algorithm. The results indicate that the proposed NGC approach obtains better performances, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrosophic Theories Applied in Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle An Efficient and Energy-Aware Cloud Consolidation Algorithm for Multimedia Big Data Applications
Symmetry 2017, 9(9), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9090184
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2395 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is well known that cloud computing has many potential advantages over traditional distributed systems. Many enterprises can build their own private cloud with open source infrastructure as a service (IaaS) frameworks. Since enterprise applications and data are migrating to private cloud, the
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It is well known that cloud computing has many potential advantages over traditional distributed systems. Many enterprises can build their own private cloud with open source infrastructure as a service (IaaS) frameworks. Since enterprise applications and data are migrating to private cloud, the performance of cloud computing environments is of utmost importance for both cloud providers and users. To improve the performance, previous studies on cloud consolidation have been focused on live migration of virtual machines based on resource utilization. However, the approaches are not suitable for multimedia big data applications. In this paper, we reveal the performance bottleneck of multimedia big data applications in cloud computing environments and propose a cloud consolidation algorithm that considers application types. We show that our consolidation algorithm outperforms previous approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Approaches and Advances in Big Data)
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Open AccessArticle Community Detection Based on Differential Evolution Using Social Spider Optimization
Symmetry 2017, 9(9), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9090183
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
Community detection (CD) has become an important research direction for data mining in complex networks. Evolutionary algorithm-based (EA-based) approaches, among many other existing community detection methods, are widely used. However, EA-based approaches are prone to population degradation and local convergence. Developing more efficient
[...] Read more.
Community detection (CD) has become an important research direction for data mining in complex networks. Evolutionary algorithm-based (EA-based) approaches, among many other existing community detection methods, are widely used. However, EA-based approaches are prone to population degradation and local convergence. Developing more efficient evolutionary algorithms thus becomes necessary. In 2013, Cuevas et al. proposed a new differential evolution (DE) hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm based on the simulated cooperative behavior of spiders, known as social spider optimization (SSO). On the basis of improving the SSO algorithm, this paper proposes a community detection algorithm based on differential evolution using social spider optimization (DESSO/CD). In this algorithm, the CD detection process is done by simulating the spider cooperative operators, marriage, and operator selection. The similarity of nodes is defined as local fitness function; the community quality increment is used as a screening criterion for evolutionary operators. Populations are sorted according to their contribution and diversity, making evolution even more different. In the entire process, a random cloud crossover model strategy is used to maintain population diversity. Each generation of the mating radius of the SSO algorithm will be adjusted appropriately according to the iterative times and fitness values. This strategy not only ensures the search space of operators, but also reduces the blindness of exploration. On the other hand, the multi-level, multi-granularity strategy of DESSO/CD can be used to further compensate for resolution limitations and extreme degradation defects based on modular optimization methods. The experimental results demonstrate that the DESSO/CD method could detect the community structure with higher partition accuracy and lower computational cost when compared with existing methods. Since the application of the SSO algorithm in CD research is just beginning, the study is competitive and promising. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Technology and Its Applications)
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