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Diagnostics, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Prospective Comparison of F-18 Choline PET/CT Scan Versus Axial MRI for Detecting Bone Metastasis in Biochemically Relapsed Prostate Cancer Patients
Diagnostics 2017, 7(4), 56; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7040056
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 14 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
We compared fluor-18 choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and axial skeleton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prospectively obtained for the detection of bone metastases in non-castrated patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer following primary treatment. PET/CT was performed 45 min post-injection of 3–4
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We compared fluor-18 choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and axial skeleton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prospectively obtained for the detection of bone metastases in non-castrated patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer following primary treatment. PET/CT was performed 45 min post-injection of 3–4 MBq/kg F-18 methyl choline. MRI included T1- and fluid sensitive T2-weighted images of the spine and pelvis. Readers were initially blinded from other results and all scans underwent independent double reading. The best valuable comparator (BVC) defined the metastatic status. On the basis of the BVC, 15 out of 64 patients presented with 24 bone metastases. On a patient level, the sensitivity and specificity of MRI and PET were not significantly different. On a lesion level, the sensitivity of MRI was significantly better compared to PET, and the specificity did not differ significantly. In conclusion, axial MRI is an interesting screening tool for the detection of bone metastases because of its low probability of false negative results. However, F-18 choline PET is a valuable addition as it can overrule false positive MRI results and detect non-axial metastases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Bone Metastases in Oncology)
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Open AccessArticle A Score-Based Approach to 18F-FDG PET Images as a Tool to Describe Metabolic Predictors of Myocardial Doxorubicin Susceptibility
Diagnostics 2017, 7(4), 57; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7040057
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 26 October 2017
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Abstract
Purpose: To verify the capability of 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) to identify patients at higher risk of developing doxorubicin (DXR)-induced cardiotoxicity, using a score-based image approach. Methods: 36 patients underwent FDG-PET/CT. These patients had shown full remission after DXR-based chemotherapy
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Purpose: To verify the capability of 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) to identify patients at higher risk of developing doxorubicin (DXR)-induced cardiotoxicity, using a score-based image approach. Methods: 36 patients underwent FDG-PET/CT. These patients had shown full remission after DXR-based chemotherapy for Hodgkin’s disease (DXR dose: 40–50 mg/m2 per cycle), and were retrospectively enrolled. Inclusion criteria implied the presence of both pre- and post-chemotherapy clinical evaluation encompassing electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography. Myocardial metabolism at pre-therapy PET was evaluated according to both standardized uptake value (SUV)- and score-based approaches. The capability of the score-based image assessment to predict the occurrence of cardiac toxicity with respect to SUV measurement was then evaluated. Results: In contrast to the SUV-based approach, the five-point scale method does not linearly stratify the risk of the subsequent development of cardiotoxicity. However, converting the five-points scale to a dichotomic evaluation (low vs. high myocardial metabolism), FDG-PET/CT showed high diagnostic accuracy in the prediction of cardiac toxicity (specificity = 100% and sensitivity = 83.3%). In patients showing high myocardial uptake at baseline, in which the score-based method is not able to definitively exclude the occurrence of cardiac toxicity, myocardial SUV mean quantification is able to further stratify the risk between low and intermediate risk classes. Conclusions: the score-based approach to FDG-PET/CT images is a feasible method for predicting DXR-induced cardiotoxicity. This method might improve the inter-reader and inter-scanner variability, thus allowing the evaluation of FDG-PET/CT images in a multicentral setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Imaging)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Single Domain Antibodies as New Biomarker Detectors
Diagnostics 2017, 7(4), 52; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7040052
Received: 23 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
Biomarkers are defined as indicators of biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers have been widely used for early detection, prediction of response after treatment, and for monitoring the progression of diseases. Antibodies represent promising tools for recognition
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Biomarkers are defined as indicators of biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers have been widely used for early detection, prediction of response after treatment, and for monitoring the progression of diseases. Antibodies represent promising tools for recognition of biomarkers, and are widely deployed as analytical tools in clinical settings. For immunodiagnostics, antibodies are now exploited as binders for antigens of interest across a range of platforms. More recently, the discovery of antibody surface display and combinatorial chemistry techniques has allowed the exploration of new binders from a range of animals, for instance variable domains of new antigen receptors (VNAR) from shark and variable heavy chain domains (VHH) or nanobodies from camelids. These single domain antibodies (sdAbs) have some advantages over conventional murine immunoglobulin owing to the lack of a light chain, making them the smallest natural biomarker binders thus far identified. In this review, we will discuss several biomarkers used as a means to validate diseases progress. The potential functionality of modern singe domain antigen binders derived from phylogenetically early animals as new biomarker detectors for current diagnostic and research platforms development will be described. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Biomarkers in Medicine)
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Other

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Open AccessConcept Paper Implementing a Multidisciplinary Tumor Board in the Community Practice Setting
Diagnostics 2017, 7(4), 55; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7040055
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
Multidisciplinary tumor boards are an opportunity for radiologists to demonstrate value to referring clinicians, the hospital, and patients. Multidisciplinary tumor boards are commonly utilized in academic institutions, but may not be readily available in community practice. We discuss strategies academic radiologists may employ
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Multidisciplinary tumor boards are an opportunity for radiologists to demonstrate value to referring clinicians, the hospital, and patients. Multidisciplinary tumor boards are commonly utilized in academic institutions, but may not be readily available in community practice. We discuss strategies academic radiologists may employ to assist in the implementation of a multidisciplinary tumor board in the community practice setting. Summary: Strategies to assist in the implementation of a multidisciplinary tumor board in the community practice setting are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Imaging)
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