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J. Pers. Med., Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2012), Pages 35-70

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Review

Open AccessReview Molecular Therapeutic Advances in Personalized Therapy of Melanoma and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
J. Pers. Med. 2012, 2(2), 35-49; doi:10.3390/jpm2020035
Received: 1 March 2012 / Revised: 25 March 2012 / Accepted: 3 April 2012 / Published: 10 April 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The incorporation of individualized molecular therapeutics into routine clinical practice for both non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and melanoma are amongst the most significant advances of the last decades in medical oncology. In NSCLC activating somatic mutations in exons encoding the tyrosine kinase
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The incorporation of individualized molecular therapeutics into routine clinical practice for both non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and melanoma are amongst the most significant advances of the last decades in medical oncology. In NSCLC activating somatic mutations in exons encoding the tyrosine kinase domain of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) gene have been found to be predictive of a response to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), erlotinib or gefitinib. More recently the EML4-ALK fusion gene which occurs in 3–5% of NSCLC has been found to predict sensitivity to crizotinib an inhibitor of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) receptor tyrosine kinase. Similarly in melanoma, 50% of cases have BRAF mutations in exon 15 mostly V600E and these cases are sensitive to the BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib or dabrafenib. In a Phase III study of advanced melanoma cases with this mutation vemurafenib improved survival from 64% to 84% at 6 months, when compared with dacarbazine. In both NSCLC and melanoma clinical benefit is not obtained in patients without these genomic changes, and moreover in the case of vemurafenib the therapy may theoretically induce proliferation of cases of melanoma without BRAF mutations. An emerging clinical challenge is that of acquired resistance after initial responses to targeted therapeutics. Resistance to the TKI’s in NSCLC is most frequently due to acquisition of secondary mutations within the tyrosine kinase of the EGFR or alternatively activation of alternative tyrosine kinases such as C-MET. Mechanisms of drug resistance in melanoma to vemurafenib do not involve mutations in BRAF itself but are associated with a variety of molecular changes including RAF1 or COT gene over expression, activating mutations in RAS or increased activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase PDGFRβ. Importantly these data support introducing re-biopsy of tumors at progression to continue to personalize the choice of therapy throughout the patient’s disease course. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Personalized Medicine)
Open AccessReview Infectious Disease Management through Point-of-Care Personalized Medicine Molecular Diagnostic Technologies
J. Pers. Med. 2012, 2(2), 50-70; doi:10.3390/jpm2020050
Received: 12 March 2012 / Revised: 13 April 2012 / Accepted: 28 April 2012 / Published: 2 May 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Infectious disease management essentially consists in identifying the microbial cause(s) of an infection, initiating if necessary antimicrobial therapy against microbes, and controlling host reactions to infection. In clinical microbiology, the turnaround time of the diagnostic cycle (>24 hours) often leads to unnecessary suffering
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Infectious disease management essentially consists in identifying the microbial cause(s) of an infection, initiating if necessary antimicrobial therapy against microbes, and controlling host reactions to infection. In clinical microbiology, the turnaround time of the diagnostic cycle (>24 hours) often leads to unnecessary suffering and deaths; approaches to relieve this burden include rapid diagnostic procedures and more efficient transmission or interpretation of molecular microbiology results. Although rapid nucleic acid-based diagnostic testing has demonstrated that it can impact on the transmission of hospital-acquired infections, we believe that such life-saving procedures should be performed closer to the patient, in dedicated 24/7 laboratories of healthcare institutions, or ideally at point of care. While personalized medicine generally aims at interrogating the genomic information of a patient, drug metabolism polymorphisms, for example, to guide drug choice and dosage, personalized medicine concepts are applicable in infectious diseases for the (rapid) identification of a disease-causing microbe and determination of its antimicrobial resistance profile, to guide an appropriate antimicrobial treatment for the proper management of the patient. The implementation of point-of-care testing for infectious diseases will require acceptance by medical authorities, new technological and communication platforms, as well as reimbursement practices such that time- and life-saving procedures become available to the largest number of patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Personalized Medicine)

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