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J. Pers. Med., Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2013), Pages 263-325

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Rapid Collection of Biospecimens by Automated Identification of Patients Eligible for Pharmacoepigenetic Studies
J. Pers. Med. 2013, 3(4), 263-274; doi:10.3390/jpm3040263
Received: 30 May 2013 / Revised: 4 September 2013 / Accepted: 10 September 2013 / Published: 26 September 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epigenetics plays an important role in regulating gene expression, and can be modified by environmental factors and physiological conditions. Studying epigenetics is a promising approach to potentially improving the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of human diseases, and to providing personalized medical care. [...] Read more.
Epigenetics plays an important role in regulating gene expression, and can be modified by environmental factors and physiological conditions. Studying epigenetics is a promising approach to potentially improving the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of human diseases, and to providing personalized medical care. However, the role of epigenetics in the development of diseases is not clear because epigenetic markers may be both mediators and outcomes of human diseases. It is particularly complicated to study pharmacoepigenetics, as medication use may modify the epigenetic profile. To address the challenges facing pharmacoepigenetic research of human diseases, we developed a novel design to rapidly identify, contact, and recruit participants and collect specimens for longitudinal studies of pharmacoepigenetics. Using data in real-time from electronic medical record systems, we can identify patients recently start on new medications and who also have a blood test. Prior to disposal of the leftover blood by the clinical laboratory, we are able to contact and recruit these patients, enabling us to use both their leftover baseline blood sample as well as leftover specimens at future tests. With treatment-naïve and follow-up specimens, this system is able to study both epigenetic markers associated with disease without treatment effect as well as treatment-related epigenetic changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper 2013)
Open AccessArticle Attitudes towards Social Networking and Sharing Behaviors among Consumers of Direct-to-Consumer Personal Genomics
J. Pers. Med. 2013, 3(4), 275-287; doi:10.3390/jpm3040275
Received: 17 July 2013 / Revised: 26 August 2013 / Accepted: 22 September 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (399 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Little is known about how consumers of direct-to-consumer personal genetic services share personal genetic risk information. In an age of ubiquitous online networking and rapid development of social networking tools, understanding how consumers share personal genetic risk assessments is critical in the [...] Read more.
Little is known about how consumers of direct-to-consumer personal genetic services share personal genetic risk information. In an age of ubiquitous online networking and rapid development of social networking tools, understanding how consumers share personal genetic risk assessments is critical in the development of appropriate and effective policies. This exploratory study investigates how consumers share personal genetic information and attitudes towards social networking behaviors. Methods: Adult participants aged 23 to 72 years old who purchased direct-to-consumer genetic testing from a personal genomics company were administered a web-based survey regarding their sharing activities and social networking behaviors related to their personal genetic test results. Results: 80 participants completed the survey; of those, 45% shared results on Facebook and 50.9% reported meeting or reconnecting with more than 10 other individuals through the sharing of their personal genetic information. For help interpreting test results, 70.4% turned to Internet websites and online sources, compared to 22.7% who consulted their healthcare providers. Amongst participants, 51.8% reported that they believe the privacy of their personal genetic information would be breached in the future. Conclusion: Consumers actively utilize online social networking tools to help them share and interpret their personal genetic information. These findings suggest a need for careful consideration of policy recommendations in light of the current ambiguity of regulation and oversight of consumer initiated sharing activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper 2013)

Review

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Open AccessReview Understanding the Economic Value of Molecular Diagnostic Tests: Case Studies and Lessons Learned
J. Pers. Med. 2013, 3(4), 288-305; doi:10.3390/jpm3040288
Received: 8 October 2013 / Revised: 18 October 2013 / Accepted: 18 October 2013 / Published: 25 October 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (388 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ten years after completion of the Human Genome Project, progress towards making “personalized medicine” a reality has been slower than expected. The reason is twofold. Firstly, the science is more difficult than expected. Secondly, limited progress has been made in aligning economic [...] Read more.
Ten years after completion of the Human Genome Project, progress towards making “personalized medicine” a reality has been slower than expected. The reason is twofold. Firstly, the science is more difficult than expected. Secondly, limited progress has been made in aligning economic incentives to invest in diagnostics. This paper develops nine case studies of “success” where diagnostic tests are bringing personalized medicine into clinical practice with health and economic impact for patients, healthcare systems, and manufacturers. We focus on the availability of evidence for clinical utility, which is important not only for clinicians but also for payers and budget holders. We find that demonstrating diagnostic clinical utility and the development of economic evidence is currently feasible (i) through drug-diagnostic co-development, and (ii) when the research is sponsored by payers and public bodies. It is less clear whether the diagnostic industry can routinely undertake the work necessary to provide evidence as to the clinical utility and economic value of its products. It would be good public policy to increase the economic incentives to produce evidence of clinical utility: otherwise, opportunities to generate value from personalized medicine—in terms of both cost savings and health gains—may be lost. Full article

Other

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Open AccessOpinion The Need for Clinical Decision Support Integrated with the Electronic Health Record for the Clinical Application of Whole Genome Sequencing Information
J. Pers. Med. 2013, 3(4), 306-325; doi:10.3390/jpm3040306
Received: 21 October 2013 / Revised: 23 November 2013 / Accepted: 12 December 2013 / Published: 18 December 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is rapidly approaching widespread clinical application. Technology advancements over the past decade, since the first human genome was decoded, have made it feasible to use WGS for clinical care. Future advancements will likely drive down the price to [...] Read more.
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is rapidly approaching widespread clinical application. Technology advancements over the past decade, since the first human genome was decoded, have made it feasible to use WGS for clinical care. Future advancements will likely drive down the price to the point wherein WGS is routinely available for care. However, were this to happen today, most of the genetic information available to guide clinical care would go unused due to the complexity of genetics, limited physician proficiency in genetics, and lack of genetics professionals in the clinical workforce. Furthermore, these limitations are unlikely to change in the future. As such, the use of clinical decision support (CDS) to guide genome-guided clinical decision-making is imperative. In this manuscript, we describe the barriers to widespread clinical application of WGS information, describe how CDS can be an important tool for overcoming these barriers, and provide clinical examples of how genome-enabled CDS can be used in the clinical setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper 2013)
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