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Galaxies 2014, 2(1), 22-61; doi:10.3390/galaxies2010022

Large Scale Cosmological Anomalies and Inhomogeneous Dark Energy

Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110, Greece
Received: 6 November 2013 / Revised: 24 December 2013 / Accepted: 25 December 2013 / Published: 17 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmology with Fluid Components)
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A wide range of large scale observations hint towards possible modifications on the standard cosmological model which is based on a homogeneous and isotropic universe with a small cosmological constant and matter. These observations, also known as “cosmic anomalies” include unexpected Cosmic Microwave Background perturbations on large angular scales, large dipolar peculiar velocity flows of galaxies (“bulk flows”), the measurement of inhomogenous values of the fine structure constant on cosmological scales (“alpha dipole”) and other effects. The presence of the observational anomalies could either be a large statistical fluctuation in the context of ΛCDM or it could indicate a non-trivial departure from the cosmological principle on Hubble scales. Such a departure is very much constrained by cosmological observations for matter. For dark energy however there are no significant observational constraints for Hubble scale inhomogeneities. In this brief review I discuss some of the theoretical models that can naturally lead to inhomogeneous dark energy, their observational constraints and their potential to explain the large scale cosmic anomalies.
Keywords: dark energy; cosmological principle; inhomogeneous anisotropic universe dark energy; cosmological principle; inhomogeneous anisotropic universe
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Perivolaropoulos, L. Large Scale Cosmological Anomalies and Inhomogeneous Dark Energy. Galaxies 2014, 2, 22-61.

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