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Lubricants, Volume 1, Issue 4 (December 2013), Pages 75-148

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Research

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Open AccessArticle On the Interactions of Additives in Metalworking Fluids with Metal Surfaces
Lubricants 2013, 1(4), 75-94; doi:10.3390/lubricants1040075
Received: 4 September 2013 / Revised: 27 September 2013 / Accepted: 8 October 2013 / Published: 15 November 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metalworking fluids (MWF) play a significant role in manufacturing processes, such as machining or forming. Consequently, a high number of MWF with varying chemical composition are commercially available. However, the working mechanisms of the MWF are still object of discussion in science [...] Read more.
Metalworking fluids (MWF) play a significant role in manufacturing processes, such as machining or forming. Consequently, a high number of MWF with varying chemical composition are commercially available. However, the working mechanisms of the MWF are still object of discussion in science and application. This paper addresses the possible interactions of additives with metal surfaces taking the characteristic conditions in machining and forming processes as well as the chemical properties of the surface and the additives into account. The new model for possible interaction of additives with the metal surface is considered and supported by experimental data. This new model does not imply reaction layers as tribological active layer anymore. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additives for Lubricants)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Experimental Investigations of Biological Lubrication at the Nanoscale: The Cases of Synovial Joints and the Oral Cavity
Lubricants 2013, 1(4), 102-131; doi:10.3390/lubricants1040102
Received: 27 September 2013 / Revised: 24 October 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 25 November 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Interactions between surfaces are ubiquitous phenomena in living organisms. Nature has developed sophisticated strategies for lubricating these systems, increasing their efficiency and life span. This includes the use of water-based lubricants, such as saliva and synovial fluid. These fluids overcome the limitations [...] Read more.
Interactions between surfaces are ubiquitous phenomena in living organisms. Nature has developed sophisticated strategies for lubricating these systems, increasing their efficiency and life span. This includes the use of water-based lubricants, such as saliva and synovial fluid. These fluids overcome the limitations of water as a lubricant by the presence of molecules such as proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides. Such molecules may alter surface interactions through different mechanisms. They can increase viscosity enabling fluid-film lubrication. Moreover, molecules adsorb on the surfaces providing mechanisms for boundary lubrication and preventing wear. The mentioned molecules have typical sizes in the nanometer range. Their interaction, as well as the interaction with the entrapping surfaces, takes place through forces in the range of nanonewtons. It is therefore not surprising that the investigation of these systems have been boosted by development of techniques such as scanning probe microscopies and the surface force apparatus which allow studying tribological processes at the nanoscale. Indeed, these approaches have generated an enormous amount of studies over the last years. The aim of this review is to perform a critical analysis of the current stage of this research, with a main focus on studies on synovial joints and the oral cavity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotribology and Atomic Mechanisms of Friction)
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Open AccessReview Phosphate Esters, Thiophosphate Esters and Metal Thiophosphates as Lubricant Additives
Lubricants 2013, 1(4), 132-148; doi:10.3390/lubricants1040132
Received: 19 November 2013 / Revised: 10 December 2013 / Accepted: 13 December 2013 / Published: 18 December 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (538 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phosphate esters, thiophosphate esters and metal thiophosphates have been used as lubricant additives for over 50 years. While their use has been extensive, a detailed knowledge of how they work has been a much more recent development. In this paper, the use [...] Read more.
Phosphate esters, thiophosphate esters and metal thiophosphates have been used as lubricant additives for over 50 years. While their use has been extensive, a detailed knowledge of how they work has been a much more recent development. In this paper, the use of phosphate esters and thiophosphate esters as anti-wear or extreme pressure additives is reviewed with an emphasis on their mechanism of action. The review includes the use of alkyl phosphates, triaryl phosphates and metal containing thiophosphate esters. The mechanisms of these materials interacting with a range of iron and steel based bearing material are examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additives for Lubricants)

Other

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Open AccessTechnical Note Nanomaterials in Lubricants: An Industrial Perspective on Current Research
Lubricants 2013, 1(4), 95-101; doi:10.3390/lubricants1040095
Received: 17 September 2013 / Revised: 28 October 2013 / Accepted: 14 November 2013 / Published: 20 November 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (706 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an overview on the use of various classes of nanomaterials in lubricant formulations. The following classes of nanomaterials are considered: fullerenes, nanodiamonds, ultradispersed boric acid and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Current advances in using nanomaterials in engine oils, industrial lubricants and [...] Read more.
This paper presents an overview on the use of various classes of nanomaterials in lubricant formulations. The following classes of nanomaterials are considered: fullerenes, nanodiamonds, ultradispersed boric acid and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Current advances in using nanomaterials in engine oils, industrial lubricants and greases are discussed. Results of numerous studies combined with formulation experience of the authors strongly suggest that nanomaterials do indeed have potential for enhancing certain lubricant properties, yet there is a long way to go before balanced formulations are developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additives for Lubricants)
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