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Insects, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2012), Pages 900-1298

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Spread of a Gammabaculovirus within Larval Populations of Its Natural Balsam Fir Sawfly (Neodiprion abietis) Host Following Its Aerial Application
Insects 2012, 3(4), 912-929; doi:10.3390/insects3040912
Received: 9 August 2012 / Revised: 4 September 2012 / Accepted: 17 September 2012 / Published: 28 September 2012
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Abstract
Field trials and assessments of the balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis) nucleopolyhedrovirus (NeabNPV: Baculoviridae, Gammabaculovirus) against its natural host were conducted in July and August 2002 near Corner Brook, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, in naturally regenerated, precommercially thinned [...] Read more.
Field trials and assessments of the balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis) nucleopolyhedrovirus (NeabNPV: Baculoviridae, Gammabaculovirus) against its natural host were conducted in July and August 2002 near Corner Brook, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, in naturally regenerated, precommercially thinned stands dominated by balsam fir (Abies balsamea). Two experimental blocks, each with its own untreated control, were established. The purpose of the Island Pond block was to examine the spread of NeabNPV from a 313-ha aerial treatment block out into adjacent populations of balsam fir sawflies. The purpose of the Old Man’s Pond block (2,093 ha) was to determine whether NeabNPV could disperse into populations of balsam fir sawflies within a 200-m zone between spray swaths. NeabNPV was applied to treatment blocks by a Cessna 188B AgTruck aircraft equipped with MicronAir AU4000 rotary atomizers at an application rate equivalent to 1 × 109 NeabNPV occlusion bodies/ha in 2.5 L of 20% aqueous molasses. At Island Pond, NeabNPV infection increased with time following the spray, especially for individuals close to the treatment block, and infection rate decreased to a measured distance of 400 m from the treatment block. At Old Man’s Pond, NeabNPV infection rose higher (80% vs. 15%) and sawfly densities declined more (84% vs. 60%) in the area between spray swaths than in the control block. Full article
Open AccessArticle Transmission of a Gammabaculovirus within Cohorts of Balsam Fir Sawfly (Neodiprion abietis) Larvae
Insects 2012, 3(4), 989-1000; doi:10.3390/insects3040989
Received: 17 September 2012 / Revised: 27 September 2012 / Accepted: 1 October 2012 / Published: 19 October 2012
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Abstract
Nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPV: Gammabaculovirus: Baculoviridae) of diprionid sawflies (Diprionidae: Hymenoptera) are highly host specific and only infect the midgut epithelium. While still alive, infected sawfly larvae excrete NPV-laden diarrhea that contaminates food sources. The diarrhea can then be consumed by conspecific larvae, [...] Read more.
Nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPV: Gammabaculovirus: Baculoviridae) of diprionid sawflies (Diprionidae: Hymenoptera) are highly host specific and only infect the midgut epithelium. While still alive, infected sawfly larvae excrete NPV-laden diarrhea that contaminates food sources. The diarrhea can then be consumed by conspecific larvae, resulting in rapid horizontal transmission of the virus. To better understand the efficacy of Gammabaculovirus-based biological control products, the horizontal spread of such a virus (NeabNPV) within cohorts of balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis) larvae was studied by introducing NeabNPV-treated larvae into single-cohort groups at densities similar to those observed during the increasing (field study) and peak (laboratory study) phases of an outbreak. In field studies (~200 N. abietis larvae/m2 of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) foliage), NeabNPV-induced mortality increased positively in a density-dependent manner, from 23% (in control groups) to 51% with the addition of one first-instar NeabNPV-treated larva, to 84% with 10 first–instar-treated larvae. Mortality was 60% and 63% when one or 10 NeabNPV-treated third-instar larva(e), respectively, were introduced into groups. Slightly higher levels of NeabNPV-induced mortality occurring when NeabNPV-treated larvae were introduced into first- rather than third-instar cohorts suggests that early instars are more susceptible to the virus. In the laboratory (~1330 N. abietis larvae/ m2 of foliage), NeabNPV-caused mortality increased from 20% in control groups to over 80% with the introduction of one, five or 10 NeabNPV-treated larvae into treatment groups of first-instar larvae. Full article
Open AccessArticle Seasonal Flight, Optimal Timing and Efficacy of Selected Insecticides for Cabbage Maggot (Delia radicum L., Diptera: Anthomyiidae) Control
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1001-1027; doi:10.3390/insects3041001
Received: 17 July 2012 / Revised: 26 September 2012 / Accepted: 15 October 2012 / Published: 22 October 2012
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Abstract
In order to describe seasonal flight activity of the cabbage maggot Delia radicum (L.) adults in relation to Julian days (JD), degree-day accumulations (DDA) and precipitation, flight dynamics were followed weekly with the use of yellow sticky traps (YST). Climatic data were [...] Read more.
In order to describe seasonal flight activity of the cabbage maggot Delia radicum (L.) adults in relation to Julian days (JD), degree-day accumulations (DDA) and precipitation, flight dynamics were followed weekly with the use of yellow sticky traps (YST). Climatic data were collected and DDA were calculated using the lower developmental threshold of 4.3 °C. The efficacy of four insecticides applied either as standard foliar treatment or through dipping the seedlings before transplanting was determined. Seasonal flight activity during the cultivation season of a mid-early variety of white cabbage was correlated with DDA and JD and was characterized by having two peaks. The first peak occurred between 119 ± 7.5 JD and 125.5 ± 8 JD when DDA was 471.35 ± 74.97 °C. The second occurred between 172.8 ± 6.1 JD and 179.3 ± 6.7 JD when DDA was 1,217.28 ± 96.12 °C. The DDA, cumulative capture of flies and JD are suitable for predicting the timing of insecticide application. Spraying with insecticides should be applied when the cumulative capture of flies reaches 100 flies/YST and when DDA reaches 400 °C. If only one parameter reaches the threshold, additional visual surveys should be employed to establish the level of infestation. Insecticides were able to ensure only partial control. In the future, alternative control tactics which employ seed treatments and nonpesticide measures should be investigated in Croatia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)
Open AccessArticle Dynamic Characterization of Cercal Mechanosensory Hairs of Crickets
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1028-1038; doi:10.3390/insects3041028
Received: 26 September 2012 / Revised: 15 October 2012 / Accepted: 16 October 2012 / Published: 22 October 2012
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Abstract
Previous dynamic characterizations of the cercal mechanosensory hairs of crickets have generally been limited to the first resonant frequency and associated deflection shape. A more complete description of the mechanical dynamics of these structures could be obtained by an experimental modal analysis. [...] Read more.
Previous dynamic characterizations of the cercal mechanosensory hairs of crickets have generally been limited to the first resonant frequency and associated deflection shape. A more complete description of the mechanical dynamics of these structures could be obtained by an experimental modal analysis. This paper describes a method by which a full experimental modal analysis, giving natural frequency, mode shape, and modal damping ratio, of these sense organs can be performed. Results of this analysis, employing an unmeasured moving-air excitation and non-contact vibration measurement with an output-only identification method are presented. Two distinct types of behaviour were observed, one of which was a good match for the behaviour expected based on the literature, and one of which was quite different. These two behaviours had distinct patterns of modal parameters. The method described in this paper has been shown to be able to estimate the modal parameters, including natural frequency, modal damping ratio, and normalized mode shape, for the first mode of cercal mechanosensory hairs of crickets. The method could practically be extended to higher modes and a wide variety of other sound and vibration sense organs with the selection of appropriate excitation and specimen supports. Full article
Open AccessArticle Nuclear Immunolocalization of Hexamerins in the Fat Body of Metamorphosing Honey Bees
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1039-1055; doi:10.3390/insects3041039
Received: 4 July 2012 / Revised: 9 October 2012 / Accepted: 15 October 2012 / Published: 22 October 2012
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Abstract
Hexamerins are storage proteins with primordial functions in insect metamorphosis. They are actively secreted by the larval fat body and stored in the hemolymph. During metamorphosis, they return to the fat body to be processed. For decades, these proteins were thought to [...] Read more.
Hexamerins are storage proteins with primordial functions in insect metamorphosis. They are actively secreted by the larval fat body and stored in the hemolymph. During metamorphosis, they return to the fat body to be processed. For decades, these proteins were thought to exclusively function as an amino acid source for tissue reconstruction during the non-feeding pupal and pharate adult stages and, in some species, for egg production. Recently, new findings have linked the hexamerins to caste polyphenism and gonad development in social insects. To explore the roles of hexamerins during the honey bee metamorphosis, we used specific antibodies in expression analysis by western blot, in situ immunolocalization by confocal laser-scanning microscopy and in vivo injections to lower their endogenous levels. Our expression analysis highlighted the changing expression patterns in the fat body and hemolymph during development, which is consistent with the temporal dynamics of hexamerin secretion, storage and depletion. Confocal microscopy showed hexamerin expression in the cytoplasm of both types of fat body cells, trophocytes and oenocytes. Notably, hexamerin foci were also found in the nuclei of these cells, thus confirming our western blot analysis of fat body nuclear-enriched fractions. We also observed that the decrease in soluble hexamerins in antibody-treated pharate adults led to a precocious adult ecdysis, perhaps in response to the lack (or decrease) in hexamerin-derived amino acids. Taken together, these findings indicate that hexamerins have other functions in addition to their well-established role as amino acid sources for development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee)
Open AccessArticle Insulin Modifies Honeybee Worker Behavior
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1084-1092; doi:10.3390/insects3041084
Received: 29 August 2012 / Revised: 13 September 2012 / Accepted: 11 October 2012 / Published: 24 October 2012
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Abstract
The insulin signaling pathway has been hypothesized to play a key role in regulation of worker social insect behavior. We tested whether insulin treatment has direct effects on worker honeybee behavior in two contexts, sucrose response thresholds in winter bees and the [...] Read more.
The insulin signaling pathway has been hypothesized to play a key role in regulation of worker social insect behavior. We tested whether insulin treatment has direct effects on worker honeybee behavior in two contexts, sucrose response thresholds in winter bees and the progression to foraging by summer nurse bees. Treatment of winter worker bees with bovine insulin, used as a proxy for honeybee insulin, increased the bees’ sucrose response threshold. Treatment of summer nurse bees with bovine insulin significantly decreased the age at which foraging was initiated. This work provides further insight into the role of endocrine controls in behavior of in honeybees and insects in general. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee)
Open AccessArticle cDNA Cloning and Expression Analysis of Pattern Recognition Proteins from the Chinese Oak Silkmoth, Antheraea pernyi
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1093-1104; doi:10.3390/insects3041093
Received: 9 April 2012 / Revised: 12 October 2012 / Accepted: 15 October 2012 / Published: 24 October 2012
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Abstract
Pattern recognition receptors play an important role in insect immune defense. We cloned the β-1,3-glucan recognition protein, lectin-5 and C-type lectin 1 genes of Antheraea pernyi and examined the expression profiles of immune-stimulated pupae. After infection with Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli [...] Read more.
Pattern recognition receptors play an important role in insect immune defense. We cloned the β-1,3-glucan recognition protein, lectin-5 and C-type lectin 1 genes of Antheraea pernyi and examined the expression profiles of immune-stimulated pupae. After infection with Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Antheraea pernyi nuclear polyhedrosis virus (ApNPV) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, the pupae showed different gene expression levels in the different tissues examined (midgut, fatbody, epidermis, testis, and hemocytes). ApβGRP and Aplectin-5 was induced by all the microorganisms, and mainly in epidermis and hemocytes, but not in testis; Aplectin-5 was also expressed in fatbody. Ap C-type lectin 1 was, on the contrary, highly expressed in testis and also in fatbody, but not in hemocytes. Unlike ApβGRP and Aplectin-5, Ap C-type lectin 1 was not induced by Gram-positive bacteria. The results suggest that the cloned lectins may have different functions in different tissues of A. pernyi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Immunity)
Open AccessArticle Individual Variability of Nosema ceranae Infections in Apis mellifera Colonies
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1143-1155; doi:10.3390/insects3041143
Received: 18 September 2012 / Revised: 15 October 2012 / Accepted: 25 October 2012 / Published: 1 November 2012
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Abstract
Since 2006, beekeepers have reported increased losses of Apis mellifera colonies, and one factor that has been potentially implicated in these losses is the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Since N. ceranae is a fairly recently discovered parasite, there is little knowledge of [...] Read more.
Since 2006, beekeepers have reported increased losses of Apis mellifera colonies, and one factor that has been potentially implicated in these losses is the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Since N. ceranae is a fairly recently discovered parasite, there is little knowledge of the variation in infection levels among individual workers within a colony. In this study we examined the levels of infection in individual bees from five colonies over three seasons using both spore counting and quantitative real-time PCR. The results show considerable intra-colony variation in infection intensity among individual workers with a higher percentage of low-level infections detected by PCR than by spore counting. Colonies generally had the highest percentage of infected bees in early summer (June) and the lowest levels in the fall (September). Nosema apis was detected in only 16/705 bees (2.3%) and always as a low-level co-infection with N. ceranae. The results also indicate that intra-colony variation in infection levels could influence the accuracy of Nosema diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee)
Open AccessArticle Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Busseola segeta Bowden (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae): A Case Study of Host Use Diversification in Guineo-Congolian Rainforest Relic Area, Kenya
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1156-1170; doi:10.3390/insects3041156
Received: 27 July 2012 / Revised: 22 August 2012 / Accepted: 30 August 2012 / Published: 6 November 2012
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Abstract
Habitat modification and fragmentation are considered as some of the factors that drive organism distribution and host use diversification. Indigenous African stem borer pests are thought to have diversified their host ranges to include maize [Zea mays L.] and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in response to their increased availability through extensive cultivation. However, management efforts have been geared towards reducing pest populations in the cultivated fields with few attempts to understand possible evolution of "new" pest species. Recovery and growing persistence of Busseola segeta Bowden on maize (Zea mays L.) in Kakamega called for studies on the role of wild host plants on the invasion of crops by wild borer species. A two-year survey was carried out in a small agricultural landscape along the edge of Kakamega forest (Kenya) to assess host range and population genetic structure of B. segeta. The larvae of B. segeta were found on nine different plant species with the majority occurring on maize and sorghum. Of forty cytochrome b haplotypes identified, twenty-three occurred in both wild and cultivated habitats. The moths appear to fly long distances across the habitats with genetic analyses revealing weak differentiation between hosts in different habitats (FST = 0.016; p = 0.015). However, there was strong evidence of variation in genetic composition between growing seasons in the wild habitat (FST = 0.060; p < 0.001) with emergence or disappearance of haplotypes between habitats. Busseola segeta is an example of a phytophagous insect that utilizes plants with a human induced distribution range, maize, but does not show evidence of host race formation or reduction of gene flow among populations using different hosts. However, B. segeta is capable of becoming an important pest in the area and the current low densities may be attributed to the general low infestation levels and presence of a wide range of alternative hosts in the area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)
Open AccessArticle Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1171-1189; doi:10.3390/insects3041171
Received: 13 August 2012 / Revised: 8 October 2012 / Accepted: 12 October 2012 / Published: 9 November 2012
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Abstract
The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest [...] Read more.
The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)
Open AccessArticle Myosin Gene Expression and Protein Abundance in Different Castes of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Coptotermes formosanus)
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1190-1199; doi:10.3390/insects3041190
Received: 13 September 2012 / Revised: 6 November 2012 / Accepted: 7 November 2012 / Published: 16 November 2012
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Abstract
The Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) is an important worldwide pest, each year causing millions of dollars in structural damage and control costs. Termite colonies are composed of several phenotypically distinct castes. Termites utilize these multiple castes to efficiently perform [...] Read more.
The Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) is an important worldwide pest, each year causing millions of dollars in structural damage and control costs. Termite colonies are composed of several phenotypically distinct castes. Termites utilize these multiple castes to efficiently perform unique roles within the colony. During the molting/caste differentiation process, multiple genes are believed to be involved in the massive reorganization of the body plan. The objective of this research was to analyze the muscle gene, myosin, to further understand the role it plays in C. formosanus development. We find that comparing worker vs. solider caste myosin gene expression is up-regulated in the soldier and a myosin antibody-reactive protein suggests changes in splicing. Comparison of body regions of mature soldier and worker castes indicates a greater level of myosin transcript in the heads. The differential expression of this important muscle-related gene is anticipated considering the large amount of body plan reorganization and muscle found in the soldier caste. These results have a direct impact on our understanding of the downstream genes in the caste differentiation process and may lead to new targets for termite control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers 2012)
Open AccessArticle Unconventional Cadherin Localization in Honey Bee Gonads Revealed Through Domain-Specific Apis mellifera E- and N-Cadherin Antibodies Indicates Alternative Functions
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1200-1219; doi:10.3390/insects3041200
Received: 13 August 2012 / Revised: 2 November 2012 / Accepted: 6 November 2012 / Published: 22 November 2012
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Abstract
As key factors in intercellular adhesion processes, cadherins play important roles in a plethora of developmental processes, including gametogenesis. In a previous study on cadherin localization in the gonads of honey bees, performed with heterologous pan-cadherin antibodies, we detected these proteins as [...] Read more.
As key factors in intercellular adhesion processes, cadherins play important roles in a plethora of developmental processes, including gametogenesis. In a previous study on cadherin localization in the gonads of honey bees, performed with heterologous pan-cadherin antibodies, we detected these proteins as (i) associated with cell membranes, (ii) as homogeneously distributed throughout the cytoplasm, and (iii) as nuclear foci in both somatic and germline cells, raising the possibility of alternative functions. To further investigate such unusual intracellular cadherin localization we produced specific antibodies against the N- and C-terminal domains of honey bee N- and E-cadherin. A 160 kDa protein was recognized by the E-cadherin antibodies as well as one of approximately 300 kDa from those raised against N-cadherin. In gonad preparations, both proteins were detected as dispersed throughout the cytoplasm and as nuclear foci in both germline and somatic cells of queen and worker ovarioles, as well as in the testioles of drones. This leads us to infer that cadherins may indeed be involved in certain signaling pathways and/or transcriptional regulation during gametogenesis. In late oogenesis stages, immunolabeling for both proteins was observed at the cell cortex, in conformity with a role in cell adhesion. In testioles, E-cadherin was seen in co-localization with fusomes, indicating a possible role in cyst organization. Taken together, the distribution of N- and E-cadherins in honey bee gonads is suggestive of alternative roles for cadherins in gametogenesis of both sexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee)
Open AccessArticle Variation in a Host–Parasitoid Interaction across Independent Populations
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1236-1256; doi:10.3390/insects3041236
Received: 13 September 2012 / Revised: 9 November 2012 / Accepted: 13 November 2012 / Published: 5 December 2012
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Abstract
Antagonistic relationships between parasitoids and their insect hosts involve multiple traits and are shaped by their ecological and evolutionary context. The parasitoid wasp Cotesia melitaearum and its host butterfly Melitaea cinxia occur in several locations around the Baltic sea, with differences in [...] Read more.
Antagonistic relationships between parasitoids and their insect hosts involve multiple traits and are shaped by their ecological and evolutionary context. The parasitoid wasp Cotesia melitaearum and its host butterfly Melitaea cinxia occur in several locations around the Baltic sea, with differences in landscape structure, population sizes and the histories of the populations. We compared the virulence of the parasitoid and the susceptibility of the host from five populations in a reciprocal transplant-style experiment using the progeny of five independent host and parasitoid individuals from each population. The host populations showed significant differences in the rate of encapsulation and parasitoid development rate. The parasitoid populations differed in brood size, development rate, pupal size and adult longevity. Some trait differences depended on specific host-parasitoid combinations, but neither species performed systematically better or worse in experiments involving local versus non-local populations of the other species. Furthermore, individuals from host populations with the most recent common ancestry did not perform alike, and there was no negative effect due to a history of inbreeding in the parasitoid. The complex pattern of variation in the traits related to the vulnerability of the host and the ability of the parasitoid to exploit the host may reflect multiple functions of the traits that would hinder simple local adaptation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Immunity)
Open AccessArticle Seasonal Abundance of Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1257-1270; doi:10.3390/insects3041257
Received: 15 August 2012 / Revised: 29 October 2012 / Accepted: 27 November 2012 / Published: 5 December 2012
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Abstract
Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006–2011) from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in “Desirable” variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, [...] Read more.
Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006–2011) from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in “Desirable” variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, once in the spring and again in the late summer. Yellow pecan and blackmargined aphids exceeded the recommended treatment thresholds one time and black pecan aphids exceeded the recommended treatment levels three times over the six seasons. Increases in aphidophagous insect abundance coincided with aphid outbreaks in five of the six seasons. Among aphidophagous insects Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum were frequently collected in both the tree canopy and at the ground level, whereas, Coccinella septempunctata, Hippodamia convergens were rarely found in the tree canopy and commonly found at the ground level. Green lacewing abundance was higher in the ground level than in the tree canopy. Brown lacewings were more abundant in the tree canopy than at the ground level. Dolichopodid and syrphid fly abundance, at the ground level increased during peak aphid abundance in the tree canopy. Application of an aqueous solution of fermenting molasses to the pecan foliage during an aphid outbreak significantly increased the abundance of ladybeetles and lacewings and significantly reduced the abundance of yellow pecan, blackmargined and black pecan aphids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Superparasitism in the Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Implications for Mass Rearing and Augmentative Release
Insects 2012, 3(4), 900-911; doi:10.3390/insects3040900
Received: 9 August 2012 / Revised: 7 September 2012 / Accepted: 12 September 2012 / Published: 25 September 2012
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Abstract
Superparasitism, a strategy in which a female lays eggs in/on a previously parasitized host, was attributed in the past to the inability of females to discriminate between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. However, superparasitism is now accepted as an adaptive strategy under specific [...] Read more.
Superparasitism, a strategy in which a female lays eggs in/on a previously parasitized host, was attributed in the past to the inability of females to discriminate between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. However, superparasitism is now accepted as an adaptive strategy under specific conditions. In fruit fly parasitoids, superparasitism has mainly been studied as concerns the new association between Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), wherein this phenomenon is a common occurrence in both mass rearing and field conditions. Studies of this species have shown that moderate levels of superparasitism result in a female-biased sex ratio and that both massreared and wild females superparasitize their hosts without detrimental effects on offspring demographic parameters, including longevity and fecundity. These studies suggest that superparasitism in this species is advantageous. In this paper, we review superparasitism in D. longicaudata, discuss these findings in the context of mass rearing and field releases and address the possible implications of superparasitism in programs employing augmentative releases of parasitoids for the control of fruit fly pests. Full article
Open AccessReview An Overview of the Components of AW-IPM Campaigns against the New World Screwworm
Insects 2012, 3(4), 930-955; doi:10.3390/insects3040930
Received: 2 August 2012 / Revised: 1 September 2012 / Accepted: 25 September 2012 / Published: 12 October 2012
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Abstract
The New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), is one of the most damaging parasites of livestock, causing millions of dollars in annual losses to producers. The fly is an obligate parasite of warm-blooded animals, including humans. After a successful 50-year eradication campaign, [...] Read more.
The New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), is one of the most damaging parasites of livestock, causing millions of dollars in annual losses to producers. The fly is an obligate parasite of warm-blooded animals, including humans. After a successful 50-year eradication campaign, C. hominivorax has been eradicated from the USA, Mexico and Central America by an area-wide integrated pest management approach. Recently, Caribbean and South American countries have expressed an interest in this approach. Aiming to support forthcoming projects in these countries, this review describes the main technical components of past and ongoing AW-IPM campaigns against C. hominivorax. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)
Open AccessReview Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.): Situation in Switzerland and Europe
Insects 2012, 3(4), 956-988; doi:10.3390/insects3040956
Received: 30 August 2012 / Revised: 28 September 2012 / Accepted: 8 October 2012 / Published: 16 October 2012
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Abstract
The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU). [...] Read more.
The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU). Consequently, new management techniques and tools are needed. With the increasing number of dwarf tree orchards covered against rain to avoid fruit splitting, crop netting has become a viable, cost-effective method of cherry fruit fly control. Recently, a biocontrol method using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been developed for organic agriculture. However, for most situations, there is still a lack of efficient and environmentally sound insecticides to control this pest. This review summarizes the literature from over one hundred years of research on R. cerasi with focus on the biology and history of cherry fruit fly control as well as on antagonists and potential biocontrol organisms. We will present the situation of cherry fruit fly regulation in different European countries, give recommendations for cherry fruit fly control, show gaps in knowledge and identify future research opportunities. Full article
Open AccessReview Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1056-1083; doi:10.3390/insects3041056
Received: 3 September 2012 / Revised: 4 October 2012 / Accepted: 10 October 2012 / Published: 22 October 2012
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Abstract
This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native [...] Read more.
This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni. Full article
Open AccessReview Application of Nuclear Techniques to Improve the Mass Production and Management of Fruit Fly Parasitoids
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1105-1125; doi:10.3390/insects3041105
Received: 7 August 2012 / Revised: 28 August 2012 / Accepted: 17 October 2012 / Published: 25 October 2012
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Abstract
The use of irradiated hosts in mass rearing tephritid parasitoids represents an important technical advance in fruit fly augmentative biological control. Irradiation assures that fly emergence is avoided in non-parasitized hosts, while at the same time it has no appreciable effect on [...] Read more.
The use of irradiated hosts in mass rearing tephritid parasitoids represents an important technical advance in fruit fly augmentative biological control. Irradiation assures that fly emergence is avoided in non-parasitized hosts, while at the same time it has no appreciable effect on parasitoid quality, i.e., fecundity, longevity and flight capability. Parasitoids of fruit fly eggs, larvae and pupae have all been shown to successfully develop in irradiated hosts, allowing a broad range of species to be shipped and released without post-rearing delays waiting for fly emergence and costly procedures to separate flies and wasps. This facilitates the early, more effective and less damaging shipment of natural enemies within hosts and across quarantined borders. In addition, the survival and dispersal of released parasitoids can be monitored by placing irradiated sentinel-hosts in the field. The optimal radiation dosages for host-sterility and parasitoid-fitness differ among species, and considerable progress has been made in integrating radiation into a variety of rearing procedures. Full article
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Open AccessReview Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1126-1142; doi:10.3390/insects3041126
Received: 9 September 2012 / Revised: 16 October 2012 / Accepted: 17 October 2012 / Published: 26 October 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (535 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and [...] Read more.
Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)
Open AccessReview Location of Host and Host Habitat by Fruit Fly Parasitoids
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1220-1235; doi:10.3390/insects3041220
Received: 12 September 2012 / Revised: 29 October 2012 / Accepted: 29 October 2012 / Published: 22 November 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (163 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Augmentative releases of parasitoids may be a useful tool for the area-wide management of tephritid pests. The latter are parasitized by many wasp species, though only a few of them are relevant for augmentative biocontrol purposes. To date, nearly all the actual [...] Read more.
Augmentative releases of parasitoids may be a useful tool for the area-wide management of tephritid pests. The latter are parasitized by many wasp species, though only a few of them are relevant for augmentative biocontrol purposes. To date, nearly all the actual or potential biocontrol agents for such programs are egg or larval Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Here, we review the literature published on their habitat and host location behavior, as well as the factors that modulate this behavior, which is assumed to be sequential; parasitoids forage first for the host habitat and then for the host itself. Parasitoids rely on chemical, visual, and mechanical stimuli, often strongly related to their ecology. Behavioral modulation factors include biotic and abiotic factors including learning, climatic conditions and physiological state of the insect. Finally, conclusions and perspectives for future research are briefly highlighted. A detailed knowledge of this behavior may be very useful for selecting the release sites for both inundative/augmentative releases of mass-reared parasitoids and inoculative releases for classical biocontrol. Full article
Open AccessReview General Stress Responses in the Honey Bee
Insects 2012, 3(4), 1271-1298; doi:10.3390/insects3041271
Received: 27 September 2012 / Revised: 9 November 2012 / Accepted: 20 November 2012 / Published: 11 December 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (807 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The biological concept of stress originated in mammals, where a “General Adaptation Syndrome” describes a set of common integrated physiological responses to diverse noxious agents. Physiological mechanisms of stress in mammals have been extensively investigated through diverse behavioral and physiological studies. One [...] Read more.
The biological concept of stress originated in mammals, where a “General Adaptation Syndrome” describes a set of common integrated physiological responses to diverse noxious agents. Physiological mechanisms of stress in mammals have been extensively investigated through diverse behavioral and physiological studies. One of the main elements of the stress response pathway is the endocrine hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which underlies the “fight-or-flight” response via a hormonal cascade of catecholamines and corticoid hormones. Physiological responses to stress have been studied more recently in insects: they involve biogenic amines (octopamine, dopamine), neuropeptides (allatostatin, corazonin) and metabolic hormones (adipokinetic hormone, diuretic hormone). Here, we review elements of the physiological stress response that are or may be specific to honey bees, given the economical and ecological impact of this species. This review proposes a hypothetical integrated honey bee stress pathway somewhat analogous to the mammalian HPA, involving the brain and, particularly, the neurohemal organ corpora cardiaca and peripheral targets, including energy storage organs (fat body and crop). We discuss how this system can organize rapid coordinated changes in metabolic activity and arousal, in response to adverse environmental stimuli. We highlight physiological elements of the general stress responses that are specific to honey bees, and the areas in which we lack information to stimulate more research into how this fascinating and vital insect responds to stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee)

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