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Insects, Volume 8, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Resistance Management for Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in Florida
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayma, is one of the most important pests in citrus production. The objective of this study was to evaluate D. citri resistance management with three insecticide rotations and compare them with no rotation and an untreated check.
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The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayma, is one of the most important pests in citrus production. The objective of this study was to evaluate D. citri resistance management with three insecticide rotations and compare them with no rotation and an untreated check. The different insecticides (modes of action) tested were: dimethoate, imidacloprid, diflubenzuron, abamectin 3% + thiamethoxam 13.9%, and fenpropathrin. Eggs, nymph, and adult psyllids were counted weekly. Five insecticide applications were made in 2016. Insecticide susceptibility was determined by direct comparison with a laboratory susceptible population and field populations before and after all treatments were applied. Rankings of eggs, nymphs, and adults counted in treated plots were significantly lower than in the untreated control plots after each application. Initially, the resistance ratio (RR50) for each rotation model, as compared with laboratory susceptible strain and the field population before application, was less than 5.76 and 4.31, respectively. However, after five applications with dimethoate, the RR50 using the laboratory and pre-treatment field populations was 42.34 and 34.74, respectively. Our results indicate that effectively rotating modes of action can delay and/or prevent development of insecticide resistance in populations of D. citri. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Getting More Power from Your Flowers: Multi-Functional Flower Strips Enhance Pollinators and Pest Control Agents in Apple Orchards
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control) on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that
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Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control) on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that targeted different subsets of beneficial arthropods (pollinators and natural enemies) and their ecosystem services in cider apple orchards. Treatments included mixes that specifically targeted: (1) pollinators (‘concealed-nectar plants’); (2) natural enemies (‘open-nectar plants’); or (3) both groups concurrently (i.e., ‘multi-functional’ mix). Flower strips were established in alleyways of four orchards and compared to control alleyways (no flowers). Pollinator (e.g., bees) and natural enemy (e.g., parasitoid wasps, predatory flies and beetles) visitation to flower strips, alongside measures of pest control (aphid colony densities, sentinel prey predation), and fruit production, were monitored in orchards over two consecutive growing seasons. Targeted flower strips attracted either pollinators or natural enemies, whereas mixed flower strips attracted both groups in similar abundance to targeted mixes. Natural enemy densities on apple trees were higher in plots containing open-nectar plants compared to other treatments, but effects were stronger for non-aphidophagous taxa. Predation of sentinel prey was enhanced in all flowering plots compared to controls but pest aphid densities and fruit yield were unaffected by flower strips. We conclude that ‘multi-functional’ flower strips that contain flowering plant species with opposing floral traits can provide nectar and pollen for both pollinators and natural enemies, but further work is required to understand their potential for improving pest control services and yield in cider apple orchards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Freeze-Drying and Oven-Drying Post Blanching on the Nutrient Composition of the Edible Insect Ruspolia differens
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 10 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
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Abstract
The longhorn grasshopper, Ruspolia differens (Serville), plays an important role as a food source across Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is consumed as a delicacy in both rural and urban areas. The effect of two drying methods (freeze-drying and oven-drying), employed after blanching, on
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The longhorn grasshopper, Ruspolia differens (Serville), plays an important role as a food source across Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is consumed as a delicacy in both rural and urban areas. The effect of two drying methods (freeze-drying and oven-drying), employed after blanching, on the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of the two most common morphs was determined. Ruspolia differens grasshoppers were harvested in Uganda and Kenya from wild swarms during the rainy periods of November–December 2016. Based on cuticular coloration, we identified three morphs, green, brown and purple, which occurred at a ratio of 65:33:2, respectively. Results indicated that these insects have a high lipid content of 36%, as well as significant protein levels ranging between 33% and 46% dry matter. Oleic acid (44%) and palmitic acid (28%) were the two most abundant fatty acids; while the presence of arachidonic acid (0.6%) and docosahexaenoic acid (0.21%) suggests that Ruspolia differens is also a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The observed amino acid profile showed similar trends in all morphs, and all essential amino acids were present. Calcium (896–1035 mg/100 g), potassium (779–816 mg/100 g) and phosphorus (652–685 mg/100 g) were quite high among the minerals. The presence of the trace elements iron (217–220 mg/100 g), zinc (14.2–14.6 mg/100 g), manganese (7.4–8.3 mg/100 g) and copper (1.66 mg/100 g) suggests that inclusion of these grasshoppers in human diets may aid in combatting micronutrient deficiencies. Oven-drying Ruspolia differens delivered the same nutritional quality as freeze-drying. Hence, both drying approaches can be adequately used to formulate insect-based food products without noticeable nutritional changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Edible Insects—Future Prospects for Food and Feed Security)
Open AccessCommunication Effects of Wildflower Strips and an Adjacent Forest on Aphids and Their Natural Enemies in a Pea Field
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 2 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract
Landscape diversification is a key element for the development of sustainable agriculture. This study explores whether the implementation of habitats for pest natural enemies enhances conservation biological control in an adjacent field. In the present study conducted in Gembloux (Belgium) in 2016, the
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Landscape diversification is a key element for the development of sustainable agriculture. This study explores whether the implementation of habitats for pest natural enemies enhances conservation biological control in an adjacent field. In the present study conducted in Gembloux (Belgium) in 2016, the effect of two different habitats (wildflower strips and a forest) and aphid abundance on the density of aphid natural enemies, mummified aphids and parasitism on pea plants was assessed through visual observations. The effect of the habitats on aphids was also evaluated. The habitats but not aphid density significantly affected hoverfly larvae, which were more abundant adjacent to wildflower strips than to the forest. The contrary was observed for ladybeetle adults, which were positively related with aphids but not affected by the adjacent habitats. The abundance of mummies and the parasitism rate were significantly affected by both the habitats and aphid density. They were both significantly enhanced adjacent to wildflower strips compared to the forest, but the total parasitism rate was low (<1%), questioning whether parasitoids could significantly control aphids on the pea crop. As for the aphids, their abundance was not significantly affected by the adjacent habitats. These results are discussed with respect to the potential of these habitats to provide overwintering sites and food resources for natural enemies, and thereby enhance conservation biological control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Habitat Management in Agroecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle Lipase Activity in the Larval Midgut of Rhynchophorus palmarum: Biochemical Characterization and the Effects of Reducing Agents
Received: 18 June 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract
Lipases have key roles in insect lipid acquisition, storage, and mobilization and are also fundamental to many physiological processes in insects. Lipids are an important component of insect diets, where they are hydrolyzed in the midgut lumen, absorbed, and used for the synthesis
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Lipases have key roles in insect lipid acquisition, storage, and mobilization and are also fundamental to many physiological processes in insects. Lipids are an important component of insect diets, where they are hydrolyzed in the midgut lumen, absorbed, and used for the synthesis of complex lipids. The South American palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum is one of the most important pests on commercial palm plantations. However, there are few studies about lipid digestion for this insect. In this work, we have described the biochemical characterization of the lipase activity in the posterior midgut of the R. palmarum palm weevil. Lipase activity was highest between the temperatures of 37 °C and 45 °C and at pH 6.5. Lipase activity was also sensitive to variations in salt and calcium concentrations. Lipases have been described structurally as enzymes with the Ser-His-Asp Catalytic Triad, containing an active serine. The serine protease inhibitor PMSF (phenylmethane sulfonyl fluoride) inhibited the lipases from R. palmarum, demonstrating the importance of a serine residue for this activity. The ability of the lipases to hydrolyze p-Nitrophenyl esters with different chain lengths has revealed the activities of a broad range of substrates. The lipase activities of R. palmarum increased in the presence of reduced glutathione (GSH) and dithiothreitol (DTT), while in the presence of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), activities were drastically reduced. To our knowledge, this study has provided the first information about lipase activity in the R. palmarum palm weevil. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Elimination of Coptotermes lacteus (Froggatt) (Blattodea: Rhinotemitidae) Colonies Using Bistrifluron Bait Applied through In-Ground Bait Stations Surrounding Mounds
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
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Abstract
The efficacy of bistrifluron termite bait was evaluated using in-ground bait stations placed around Coptotermes lacteus mounds in south-eastern Australia during late summer and autumn (late February to late May 2012). Four in-ground bait stations containing timber billets were placed around each of
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The efficacy of bistrifluron termite bait was evaluated using in-ground bait stations placed around Coptotermes lacteus mounds in south-eastern Australia during late summer and autumn (late February to late May 2012). Four in-ground bait stations containing timber billets were placed around each of twenty mounds. Once sufficient numbers of in-ground stations were infested by termites, mounds were assigned to one of four groups (one, two, three or four 120 g bait canisters or 120 to 480 g bait in total per mound) and bait canisters installed. One mound, nominally assigned treatment with two canisters ultimately had no termite interception in any of the four in-ground stations and not treated. Eighteen of the remaining 19 colonies were eliminated by 12 weeks after bait placement, irrespective of bait quantity removed (range 43 to 480 g). Measures of colony decline—mound repair capability and internal core temperature—did not accurately reflect the colony decline, as untreated colonies showed a similar pattern of decline in both repair capability and internal mound core temperature. However, during the ensuing spring–summer period, capacity to repair the mound was restored in untreated colonies and the internal core temperature profile was similar to the previous spring–summer period which indicated that these untreated colonies remained healthy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Pest Management)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Geometric Analysis of the Regulation of Inorganic Nutrient Intake by the Subterranean Termite Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 2 September 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
Most studies on termite food selection have focused on a single nutrient per choice, however, termites, like all animals, must balance multiple nutrients in their diet. While most studies that use multi-nutrient approaches focus on macromolecules, the ability to balance the intake of
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Most studies on termite food selection have focused on a single nutrient per choice, however, termites, like all animals, must balance multiple nutrients in their diet. While most studies that use multi-nutrient approaches focus on macromolecules, the ability to balance the intake of inorganic nutrients is also vital to organisms. In this study, we used the geometric framework to test the effects of multiple inorganic nutrients on termite feeding. We presented the subsets of Reticulitermes flavipes colonies with food enriched with varying in levels of KCl, MgSO4, and FePO4. Each trial varied two of the three nutrients while the third nutrient was kept constant. The amount of food consumed was measured over two weeks. The termites’ feeding patterns during the study suggested that they fed until they reached a limit for MgSO4. This result suggests that the termites were using the rule of compromise such that the termites would over consume KCl or FePO4 in order to avoid overeating MgSO4. Thus, the termite colonies are able to regulate the intake of inorganic nutrients, and by doing so, adjust their intake from multiple resources in order to maintain an intake target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Pest Management)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Comparative Programs for Arthropod, Disease and Weed Management in New York Organic Apples
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
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Abstract
Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From
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Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From 2014 to 2016, we tested different arthropod, disease and weed management programs in an advanced tall spindle high-density production system that included disease-resistant cultivars and rootstocks, in an organic research planting of apples in Geneva, New York. Arthropod and disease management regimens were characterized as Advanced Organic, Minimal Organic, or Untreated Control. Results varied by year and variety, but, in general, the Advanced program was more effective than the Minimal program in preventing damage from internal-feeding Lepidoptera, plum curculio, and obliquebanded leafroller, and less effective than the Minimal program against damage by foliar insects. Both organic programs provided comparable control of sooty blotch, cedar apple rust, and fire blight, with some variability across cultivars and years. The advanced selection CC1009 and Modi seemed to possess complete resistance to cedar apple rust, while Pristine had partial resistance. For weed control, bark chip mulch, organic soap sprays, and limonene sprays tended to be most effective, while mechanical tillage and flame weeding had lower success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication The Spread of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Coexistence with Helicoverpa zea in Southeastern Brazil
Received: 17 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
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Abstract
Helicoverpa armigera, one of the world’s most destructive crop pests, was first documented in Brazil in 2013. Within a few months, this polyphagous insect had spread over the Northeast and Central-West of Brazil, causing great agricultural losses. With several reports of populations
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Helicoverpa armigera, one of the world’s most destructive crop pests, was first documented in Brazil in 2013. Within a few months, this polyphagous insect had spread over the Northeast and Central-West of Brazil, causing great agricultural losses. With several reports of populations resistant to pesticides and Bt crops around the world, there is great concern about the spread of this pest in Brazil. There is confusion about the actual distribution of this species due to the high morphological similarity with the native corn earworm Helicoverpa zea, which may also coexist with H. armigera in the field. Our aims here were (i) to confirm its presence in the State of Minas Gerais, one of the most important agricultural regions in the country; and (ii) to assess the co-occurrence of this pest with the congeneric corn earworm H. zea. Using molecular screening, we confirmed the presence of H. armigera in Bt-crops of soybean and cotton, and non-Bt-crops of soybean, cotton and maize. Mixed infestations of H. armigera with H. zea were found in non-Bt maize (Viçosa, Southeastern Minas Gerais). These results highlight the need for adequate control strategies for H. armigera in Brazil, to deal with its polyphagous feeding habits, high dispersal capacity and possible risks of hybridization with congeneric species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Monitoring and Trapping in Agricultural Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperShort Note Comparison of Efficiency of BG-Sentinel Traps Baited with Mice, Mouse-Litter, and CO2 Lures for Field Sampling of Male and Female Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
Determining the abundance and distribution of male mosquitoes in the wild and establishing species seasonality in candidate pilot sites is of particular interest with respect to the use of the sterile-male technique. With the knowledge that using mice as bait in BG-Sentinel traps
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Determining the abundance and distribution of male mosquitoes in the wild and establishing species seasonality in candidate pilot sites is of particular interest with respect to the use of the sterile-male technique. With the knowledge that using mice as bait in BG-Sentinel traps effectively enhances Aedes albopictus male and female trapping success, the present study was designed to determine whether attractants derived from mouse odour blend could be a viable substitute for live mice to lure Ae. albopictus mosquitoes into traps. The effects of baiting BG-Sentinel traps with mice, carbon dioxide (CO2), and attractants derived from litter mouse odours (mouse litter (ML)) and a mouse odour blend (MOB) on the efficiency of trapping Ae. albopictus males and females were tested using a Latin square design. The BG-Sentinel trap baited with CO2 + ML caught a significantly larger number of mosquitoes compared to traps baited with mice only. The BG-Sentinel traps containing only CO2 or CO2 + MOB, however, did not catch significantly more mosquitoes compared to the other traps. The proportions of males caught in the BG-Sentinel traps did not differ significantly between the respective attractants. The results from this study confirm that CO2 bait is efficient to provide a reliable estimation method for Ae. albopictus adult male abundance in the wild, and suggest that mouse litter baits in combination with CO2 could be used to enhance Aedes trapping success in BG-Sentinel traps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Pest Management)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Locomotion Inhibition of Cimex lectularius L. Following Topical, Sublethal Dose Application of the Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor Lufenuron
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
To date, few studies have evaluated chitin synthesis inhibitors against bed bugs, although they would provide an alternative mode of action to circumvent insecticide resistance. Acute and sublethal effects of lufenuron were evaluated against two strains of the common bed bug. Combined acute
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To date, few studies have evaluated chitin synthesis inhibitors against bed bugs, although they would provide an alternative mode of action to circumvent insecticide resistance. Acute and sublethal effects of lufenuron were evaluated against two strains of the common bed bug. Combined acute and sublethal effects were used to calculate effective doses. The dose that was effective against 50% of Harlan strain bed bugs was 0.0081% (w/v), and was much higher against Bradenton strain bed bugs (1.11% w/v). Sublethal doses were chosen to determine the effect that leg abnormalities had on pulling force. Both Harlan and Bradenton strain bed bugs had significantly lower locomotion ability (p < 0.0001) following topical application of lufenuron. The observed sublethal effects that limit locomotion could prevent bed bugs from moving within a domicile and taking a blood meal, subsequently reducing a bed bug population over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle Insecticides for Suppression of Nylanderia fulva
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
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Abstract
Nylanderia fulva (Mayr) is an invasive ant that is a serious pest in the southern United States. Pest control operators and homeowners are challenged to manage pest populations below acceptable thresholds. Contact and bait insecticides are key components of an Integrated Pest Management
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Nylanderia fulva (Mayr) is an invasive ant that is a serious pest in the southern United States. Pest control operators and homeowners are challenged to manage pest populations below acceptable thresholds. Contact and bait insecticides are key components of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy, however, little is known about their efficacy. In repellency and efficacy bioassays, N. fulva were not completely repelled by any insecticide tested, although fewer ants crossed a surface treated with Temprid®. Few insecticides provided rapid control. Termidor® and Temprid® were the best performing with mean mortality of 100% in 13.4 and 19.0 days, respectively. In no-choice bait acceptance studies, it was shown that N. fulva generally had greater acceptance of carbohydrate-based ant baits (Advion®, InTiceTM (gel), and InTiceTM (granular)). However, mortality was low for the InTiceTM baits in a 7-day bioassay. Maxforce® Ant Killer Bait Gel and Advance® 375A in the spring and Maxforce® Complete in the summer and fall required the fewest days to reach 100% mortality. Bait active ingredients that resulted in the highest mortality were hydramethylnon and fipronil. These data on the efficacy of commercially available contact and bait insecticides provide valuable information to manage this invasive pest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Pest Management)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Efficacy of Chlorantraniliprole in Controlling Structural Infestations of the Eastern Subterranean Termite in the USA
Received: 17 July 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
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Abstract
Subterranean termites are the most economically important structural pests in the USA, and the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Dictyoptera: Rhinotermitidae) is the most widely distributed species. Soil treatment with a liquid termiticide is a widely used method for controlling subterranean termites
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Subterranean termites are the most economically important structural pests in the USA, and the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Dictyoptera: Rhinotermitidae) is the most widely distributed species. Soil treatment with a liquid termiticide is a widely used method for controlling subterranean termites in structures. We assessed the efficacy of a nonrepellent termiticide, Altriset® (active ingredient: chlorantraniliprole), in controlling structural infestations of R. flavipes in Texas, North Carolina, and Ohio and determined the post-treatment fate of termite colonies in and around the structures. In all three states, microsatellite markers indicated that only one R. flavipes colony was infesting each structure. A single chlorantraniliprole treatment provided effective structural protection as there was no further evidence of termite activity in and on the majority of structures from approximately 1 month to 2 years post-treatment when the study concluded. Additionally, the treatment appeared to either severely reduce the infesting colony’s footprint at monitors in the landscape or eliminate colony members from these monitors. A supplemental spot-treatment was conducted at one house each in Texas and North Carolina at 5 and 6 months post-treatment, respectively; no termites were observed thereafter in these structures and associated landscaping. The number of colonies found exclusively in the landscape (not attacking the structure) varied among the states, with the largest number of colonies in Texas (0–4) and North Carolina (0–5) as compared to 0–1 in Ohio, the most northern state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Pest Management)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Genitalic Differentiations in Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Gueneé) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Associated with Solanaceae Crops in Ecuador
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
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Abstract
Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) is an oligophagous species of plants in the Solanaceae family that has a broad geographical distribution in the tropical zones of South America. It is the most important insect pest of naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lamarck), a crop grown in
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Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) is an oligophagous species of plants in the Solanaceae family that has a broad geographical distribution in the tropical zones of South America. It is the most important insect pest of naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lamarck), a crop grown in threatened areas of the tropical old-growth forest in Ecuador. In this study, two host-specific populations of N. elegantalis were collected from infested fruit of naranjilla and tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cavanilles) in different locations. Sexually virgin adult insects (93 females and 103 males) were dissected to extract their genitalia to measure 12 morphological variables in females and six in males, resulting in six and four informative variables respectively. Using univariate and multivariate analysis of variance, it was found that the Solanaceous host was the main factor differentiating the area measurements of the seventh abdominal segment and ostium bursae in female genitalia, and cornuti length in male genitalia. Principal components generated with these measurements were employed in a logistic regression model for the classification of the Solanaceous host. Female genitalia of individuals from S. betaceum showed significantly larger ostium bursae relative to female genitalia from S. quitoense. For males, individuals collected from S. betaceum showed longer cornuti length than samples collected from S. quitoense. The results suggest genotypic differentiation according to the Solanaceous host or phenotypic plasticity in N. elegantalis. Further molecular and bio-geographical studies are needed to properly differentiate N. elegantalis populations that would help in the control of this pest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Pest Management)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Short-Range Responses of the Kissing Bug Triatoma rubida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to Carbon Dioxide, Moisture, and Artificial Light
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 29 August 2017
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Abstract
The hematophagous bug Triatoma rubida is a species of kissing bug that has been marked as a potential vector for the transmission of Chagas disease in the Southern United States and Northern Mexico. However, information on the distribution of T. rubida in these
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The hematophagous bug Triatoma rubida is a species of kissing bug that has been marked as a potential vector for the transmission of Chagas disease in the Southern United States and Northern Mexico. However, information on the distribution of T. rubida in these areas is limited. Vector monitoring is crucial to assess disease risk, so effective trapping systems are required. Kissing bugs utilize extrinsic cues to guide host-seeking, aggregation, and dispersal behaviors. These cues have been recognized as high-value targets for exploitation by trapping systems. A modern video-tracking system was used with a four-port olfactometer system to quantitatively assess the behavioral response of T. rubida to cues of known significance. Also, response of T. rubida adults to seven wavelengths of light-emitting diodes (LED) in paired-choice pitfall was evaluated. Behavioral data gathered from these experiments indicate that T. rubida nymphs orient preferentially to airstreams at either 1600 or 3200 ppm carbon dioxide and prefer relative humidity levels of about 30%, while adults are most attracted to 470 nm light. These data may serve to help design an effective trapping system for T. rubida monitoring. Investigations described here also demonstrate the experimental power of combining an olfactometer with a video-tracking system for studying insect behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Pest Management)
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