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Sports, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Sports Nutrition Knowledge, Perceptions, Resources, and Advice Given by Certified CrossFit Trainers
Sports 2017, 5(2), 21; doi:10.3390/sports5020021
Received: 1 January 2017 / Revised: 22 March 2017 / Accepted: 22 March 2017 / Published: 24 March 2017
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Abstract
Background: CrossFit is a large, growing force in the fitness community. Currently, Level 1 and 2 CrossFit certification classes do not include nutrition education. The purpose of this study was to identify sports nutrition knowledge, perceptions, resources, and advice given by Certified CrossFit
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Background: CrossFit is a large, growing force in the fitness community. Currently, Level 1 and 2 CrossFit certification classes do not include nutrition education. The purpose of this study was to identify sports nutrition knowledge, perceptions, resources, and advice given by Certified CrossFit Trainers. Methods: An online questionnaire that measured these four constructs was placed on a private Facebook community, open only to certified CrossFit trainers, for 10 days. Results: Complete surveys were obtained from 289 CrossFit trainers. The mean Sport Nutrition Knowledge (SNK) score was 11.1 ± 2.1, equivalent to 65.3% ± 12.4% correct. The trainers perceived nutrition to be extremely important to athletic performance (9.4 ± 0.9 on a 10 point scale). Overall, the trainers graded their SNK higher than that of their CrossFit peers. The internet and CrossFit peers were the most frequently reported sources for nutrition information; Registered Dietitians were the least reported source. The Paleo and Zone diets were the most common dietary regimens recommended by CrossFit trainers. Results indicated a positive correlation between a CrossFit trainer’s self-reported hours of nutrition education and their SNK score (r = 0.17; p < 0.01). Conclusion: Nutrition education modules for Level 1 and 2 CrossFit trainers, developed with input from Board Certified Specialists in Sports Dietetics, are recommended. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Self-Concept in Adolescents—Relationship between Sport Participation, Motor Performance and Personality Traits
Sports 2017, 5(2), 22; doi:10.3390/sports5020022
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 1 April 2017 / Published: 4 April 2017
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Abstract
The relationship between sport participation, personality development, self-concept and self-esteem has been discussed repeatedly. In this research, a standardized written survey together with tests on motor performance were carried out with 1399 students (707 male; 692 female) in school years 7 (12.9 ±
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The relationship between sport participation, personality development, self-concept and self-esteem has been discussed repeatedly. In this research, a standardized written survey together with tests on motor performance were carried out with 1399 students (707 male; 692 female) in school years 7 (12.9 ± 0.6 years) and 10 (15.8 ± 0.6 years) to measure the extent of a relationship between physical self-concept (self-developed short scale) and sporting activity, measured motor performance (German motor performance test DMT (Deutscher Motorik-Test) 6–18) and report mark in physical education. Relationships were also analyzed between physical self-concept and general personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experiences, compatibility, and conscientiousness, measured with NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI)). The assessment of own physical attractiveness and own athleticism differs by sex (F(1, 962) = 35.21; p < 0.001), whereby girls assess themselves more critically. Weak significant relationships are displayed between motor performance and the assessment of own physical attractiveness (r(395) = 0.31; p < 0.01). Motor performance is given a higher predictive value with regard to a subject’s own self-concept, (physical attractiveness β = 0.37; t(249) = 5.24; p < 0.001; athleticism β = 0.40; t(248) = 6.81; p < 0.001) than the mark achieved in physical education (physical attractiveness β = −0.01; n.s.; athleticism β = −0.30; t(248) = 5.10; p < 0.001). Relationships were found overall between personality traits and physical self-concept. The influence of the ‘neuroticism’ trait is particularly strong (physical attractiveness β = −0.44; t(947) = −13.58; p < 0.001; athleticism β = −0.27; t(948) = −7.84; p < 0.001). The more pronounced this trait, the lower the assessment of own physical attractiveness and own athleticism. Full article
Open AccessArticle Lack of Reality: Positive Self-Perceptions of Health in the Presence of Disease
Sports 2017, 5(2), 23; doi:10.3390/sports5020023
Received: 16 November 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 1 April 2017 / Published: 6 April 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine if adults in Central Queensland have accurate self-perceptions of health. Data were collected as part of the 2010 Central Queensland Social Survey (N = 1289). Overweight/obesity is considered a health disorder and was determined using
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The aim of this study was to determine if adults in Central Queensland have accurate self-perceptions of health. Data were collected as part of the 2010 Central Queensland Social Survey (N = 1289). Overweight/obesity is considered a health disorder and was determined using body mass index. Disease states were determined by asking respondents if they have: heart disease, high/low blood pressure, high cholesterol, high triglycerides, thyroid disorder, diabetes, and osteopenia/osteoporosis. Self-perceptions of health were assessed by asking, “Would you say that in general your health is” poor, fair, good, very good, excellent, don’t know, and no response. An accurate health perception occurred if: (1) A respondent with a disease/health disorder reported that their health was poor/fair or (2) A respondent without a disease/health disorder reported that their health was good/very good/excellent. The proportions of people with an accurate health perception by disease/health disorder were compared using a χ2 test. A proportion ratio (PR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for each disease/health disorder. A logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between each disease/health disorder and health perception using gender, age, education, physical activity level, and smoking status as covariates. More than 50% of residents with each disease/health disorder reported their health to be good/very good/excellent. Residents with each disease/health disorder were less likely to have an accurate health perception than those without the corresponding disease/health disorder prior to (p < 0.001) and following adjustment of the covariates (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that overweight/obesity and prevalence of disease are not being recognized as unhealthy, which contradicts established definitions of health. Full article
Open AccessArticle Metabolic Power of Female Footballers in Various Small-Sided Games with Different Pitch Surfaces and Sizes
Sports 2017, 5(2), 24; doi:10.3390/sports5020024
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 17 April 2017
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Abstract
Small-sided-games (SSGs) seem to be a useful tool for replicating most types of scenarios found in sport competitions, but it is not that clear in female soccer. Game surface and pitch size seem to affect the intensity of SSGs, but no one has
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Small-sided-games (SSGs) seem to be a useful tool for replicating most types of scenarios found in sport competitions, but it is not that clear in female soccer. Game surface and pitch size seem to affect the intensity of SSGs, but no one has yet analysed the influence of these two variables together. The objective of this research was to analyse the metabolic power demands of various SSGs on possession play without goal-keepers, played on three different surfaces. Sixteen sub-elite female players performed three different four-a-side games (400 m2, 600 m2, and 800 m2) on three different surfaces (ground [GR]; natural grass [NG]; and artificial turf [AT]), recording a total of 96 events. Metabolic variables were recorded through a global positioning system (GPS). The GR condition obtained the lowest outputs for all variables in all of the SSGs. Furthermore, NG resulted in higher outcomes than AT for Average Metabolic Power (SSG 400 [+0.65; p = 0.019]; SSG 600 [+0.70; p = 0.04]); and equivalent distance (SSG 400 [+33.0; p = 0.02]; SSG 600 [+36.53; p = 0.04]). Moreover, SSG 400 obtained lower results than SSG 600 and SSG 800 for both AT and NG. In conclusion, playing on GR reduces the metabolic power of SSGs, While NG seems to be the most suitable surface for attaining highest metabolic responses for sub-elite female players. On the other hand, too big a pitch size may not increase the metabolic demands of the game. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance in Soccer)
Open AccessArticle Effect of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract on Repeated Cycling Time Trial Performance
Sports 2017, 5(2), 25; doi:10.3390/sports5020025
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 9 May 2017
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Abstract
New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract increased 16.1 km cycling time trial performance. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of NZBC extract on 2 × 4 km time trial performance. Ten male cyclists (age: 30 ± 12 years, body
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New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract increased 16.1 km cycling time trial performance. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of NZBC extract on 2 × 4 km time trial performance. Ten male cyclists (age: 30 ± 12 years, body mass: 74 ± 9 kg, height: 179 ± 7 cm, body fat: 11 ± 3%, (V̇) ̇O2max: 55 ± 7 mL•kg−1•min−1, mean ± SD) volunteered. Participants were familiarized with the time trials. Participants consumed capsulated NZBC extract (300 mg∙day−1 CurraNZ™; containing 105 mg anthocyanin) or placebo for seven days (double blind, randomised, cross-over design, wash-out at least seven days) before 2 × 4 km time trials (10 min active self-paced recovery between trials) (SRM ergometer, SRM International, Germany). Heart rate was recorded and blood lactate sampled immediately after each trial and 8 min into recovery between the trials. Times over comparable one km distances in each 4 km time trial were similar. No effect was observed for the time to complete the first (placebo: 380 ± 28 s, NZBC: 377 ± 27 s) and second 4 km of cycling (placebo: 391 ± 32 s, NZBC: 387 ± 30 s), within both groups the second 4 km times slower by 11 ± 8 s and 11 ± 9 s for placebo and NZBC, respectively. However, the total time of the two 4 km cycling trials was 0.82% faster with NZBC extract (placebo: 771 ± 60 s, NZBC 764 ± 56 s, p = 0.034) with seven participants having faster total times. There was no effect of NZBC on heart rate and lactate values at identical time points. New Zealand blackcurrant extract seems to be beneficial in repeated short-distance cycling time trials for overall performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Injuries in Collegiate Women’s Volleyball: A Four-Year Retrospective Analysis
Sports 2017, 5(2), 26; doi:10.3390/sports5020026
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract
A four-year retrospective analysis of injury data was conducted on a collegiate (NCAA Division I) women’s volleyball team. Twenty athletes (Year 1: age = 19.4 ± 0.9 y, height = 175.2 ± 5.1 cm, body mass = 70.5 ± 10.2 kg; Year 2:
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A four-year retrospective analysis of injury data was conducted on a collegiate (NCAA Division I) women’s volleyball team. Twenty athletes (Year 1: age = 19.4 ± 0.9 y, height = 175.2 ± 5.1 cm, body mass = 70.5 ± 10.2 kg; Year 2: age = 20.1 ± 1.0 y, height = 175.7 ± 4.7 cm, body mass = 69.5 ± 10.1 kg; Year 3: age = 20.1 ± 1.4 y, height = 173.8 ± 6.3 cm, body mass = 69.9 ± 10.8 kg; Year 4: age = 19.5 ± 1.4 y, height = 174.4 ± 8.6 cm, body mass = 72.7 ± 10.8 kg) participated in this study, accounting for 1483 total training exposures. Injury was defined as any damage to a body part, incurred during volleyball or strength and conditioning-related activities, which interfered with training and/or competition. Injury rate was normalized to the number of athletes and exposure and expressed as injuries per 1000 exposures. A total of 133 injuries were recorded. The most common injury was to the knee (left = 7.5%, right = 12.0%). Injuries occurred most often in volleyball practice (75.2%), followed by competition (20.3%), and strength and conditioning-related activities (4.5%). Non-contact injuries (upper body = 26.3%, lower body = 53.4%) were more common than contact injuries (upper-body = 13.5%, lower-body = 6.8%). An examination of injury rates relative to the training year revealed patterns in injury occurrence. Specifically, spikes in injury rate were consistently observed during periods of increased training volume that were preceded by breaks in organized training, such as the early pre-season and off-season training periods. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Influence of Rest on Players’ Performance and Physiological Responses during Basketball Play
Sports 2017, 5(2), 27; doi:10.3390/sports5020027
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 25 April 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract
Pre-match warm-ups are standard in many sports but the focus has excluded the substitute players. The aim of this research was to investigate the result of inactivity on physiological and performance responses in substitute basketball players during competition. Two basketball players from the
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Pre-match warm-ups are standard in many sports but the focus has excluded the substitute players. The aim of this research was to investigate the result of inactivity on physiological and performance responses in substitute basketball players during competition. Two basketball players from the second tier of the State League of Queensland, Australia volunteered for this study and were assessed for performance (countermovement jump—CMJ) and physiological (core temperature via ingestible pill; skin temperature at the arm, chest, calf and thigh; heart rate—HR) responses prior to and following a 20-min warm-up, and during the first half of a competitive basketball match (2 × 20-min real time quarters). Warm up resulted in increases in CMJ (~7%), HR (~100 bpm) and core (~0.8 °C) and skin (~1.0 °C) temperatures. Following the warm up and during inactivity, substitute players exhibited a decrease in all responses including CMJ (~13%), HR (~100 bpm), and core (~0.5 °C) and skin (~2.0 °C) temperatures. Rest resulted in reductions in key performance and physiological responses during a competitive match that poses a risk for match strategies. Coaches should consider implementing a warm up to enhance core/skin temperature for substitute players immediately before they engage with competition to optimise player performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Acute Effects of Block Jumps in Female Volleyball Players: The Role of Performance Level
Sports 2017, 5(2), 30; doi:10.3390/sports5020030
Received: 8 December 2016 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 May 2017 / Published: 16 May 2017
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Abstract
Although the role of jumping ability in female volleyball players is well recognised, the effect of fatigue on this ability is not well known. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a series of block jumps (BJ) on
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Although the role of jumping ability in female volleyball players is well recognised, the effect of fatigue on this ability is not well known. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a series of block jumps (BJ) on jumping ability and whether it varies by performance level. Ten elite (EG) and 11 amateur (AG) female volleyball players performed a fatigue intervention consisting of 45 BJ, being tested for squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and BJ before and after the intervention. Elasticity index (EI): (100 × (CMJ − SJ)/SJ) and upper limbs coordination index (ULCI): (100 × (BJ − CMJ)/CMJ) were calculated. After the intervention, EG showed a decrease of 4.40% in BJ height (p = 0.04; ES = 0.40), whereas AG presented an increase of 1.27%, which was not significant (p = 0.57; ES = 0.07). However, EG and AG presented no significant differences in SJ (p = 0.965 and p = 0.655) and CMJ (p = 0.742 and p = 0.211) when comparing baseline with post-intervention. Although EI and ULCI showed no significant differences after intervention in any group (AG: p = 0.989 and p = 0.114; EG: p = 0.242 and p = 0.205, respectively), AG presented a medium effect size (ES = 0.50) in EI and a small one in ULCI (ES = 0.37), also EG showed a medium-large effect in ULCI (ES = 0.75). These findings suggest that EG performance in BJ tends to decrease at the end of a specific jump training practice. Therefore, coaches and fitness trainers working with elite volleyball players should focus on exercises to maintain jumping ability during a match. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Does Avalanche Shovel Shape Affect Excavation Time: A Pilot Study
Sports 2017, 5(2), 31; doi:10.3390/sports5020031
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
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Abstract
In Europe and North America, approximately 150 fatalities occur as a result of avalanches every year. However, it is unclear whether certain shovel shapes are more effective than others in snow removal during avalanche victim recovery. The objective was to determine the performance
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In Europe and North America, approximately 150 fatalities occur as a result of avalanches every year. However, it is unclear whether certain shovel shapes are more effective than others in snow removal during avalanche victim recovery. The objective was to determine the performance parameters with a developed standardized test using different shovel shapes and to determine sex-specific differences. Hence, several parameters were determined for clearing the snow from a snow filled box (15 men, 14 women). A flat (F) and a deep (D) shovel blade with the shaft connected straight (S) or in clearing mode (C) were used for the investigation of the shovel shapes FS, DC and the subsequent use of DC&DS. Mean snow mass shifted per unit time increased significantly from 1.50 kg/s with FS to 1.71 kg/s (14%) with DS and further to 1.79 kg/s (4%) with DC&DS for all participants. Snow mass shifted per unit time was 44% higher (p < 0.05) for men than for women. In excavation operations, the sex-specific physical performance should be taken into account. The results were limited to barely binding snow, because only with this snow did the tests show a high reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Sport Performance)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Effects of 12 Weeks of Tai Chi Chuan Training on Balance and Functional Fitness in Older Japanese Adults
Sports 2017, 5(2), 32; doi:10.3390/sports5020032
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Tai Chi Chuan on static and dynamic balance, and functional fitness in older adults. Forty-nine volunteers were divided into an exercise group (EX: 9 men and 16 women, average age 72 ±
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Tai Chi Chuan on static and dynamic balance, and functional fitness in older adults. Forty-nine volunteers were divided into an exercise group (EX: 9 men and 16 women, average age 72 ± 5 years) and control group (13 men and 11 women, average age 73 ± 6 years). The EX participated in a 12-week supervised exercise program (60 min/day, 2 days/week) that consisted of 10-min warm-up and stretching, 40-min Tai Chi Chuan exercise (long-form Yang style with 108 movements), and 10-min cool-down/relaxation exercises. The control group was asked to not change their physical activity habits. Static (sway velocity standing on firm or foam surfaces with eyes open or closed) and dynamic balance (limits of stability (LOS)), as well as functional fitness measures of body mass; upper- and lower-body strength; and flexibility, mobility, and aerobic fitness were taken before and after the intervention. After the 12-week Tai Chi Chuan exercise program, there were no improvements in any functional fitness or balance variable although components of LOS tended to increase (13.1%, p = 0.052). These results indicate that 12 weeks of Tai Chi Chuan exercise has no significant effect on balance and functional fitness parameters in older Japanese adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Movement and Training)
Open AccessArticle Relationships between Bat Swing Speed and Muscle Thickness and Asymmetry in Collegiate Baseball Players
Sports 2017, 5(2), 33; doi:10.3390/sports5020033
Received: 27 January 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between bat swing speed (BSS), muscle thickness, and muscle thickness asymmetry in collegiate baseball players. Twenty-four collegiate baseball players participated in this study. Maximum BSS in hitting a teed ball was measured
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between bat swing speed (BSS), muscle thickness, and muscle thickness asymmetry in collegiate baseball players. Twenty-four collegiate baseball players participated in this study. Maximum BSS in hitting a teed ball was measured using a motion capture system. The muscle thicknesses of the trunk (upper abdominal rectus, central abdominal rectus, lower abdominal rectus, abdominal wall, and multifidus lumborum), upper limb, and lower limb were measured using a B-mode ultrasonography. Lateral asymmetry between each pair of muscles was determined as the ratio of the thickness of the dominant side to that of the non-dominant side. Statistically significant positive correlations were observed between BSS and muscle thicknesses of the abdominal wall and multifidus lumborum on the dominant side (r = 0.426 and 0.431, respectively; p < 0.05), whereas only trends against this significance were observed between BSS and muscle thicknesses on the non-dominant side. No statistical correlations were found between BSS and the lateral asymmetry of any muscles. These findings indicate the importance of the trunk muscles for bat swing, and the lack of association between BSS and lateral asymmetry of muscle size. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Motor Sequence Learning in Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis
Sports 2017, 5(2), 34; doi:10.3390/sports5020034
Received: 10 March 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
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Abstract
This study tends to assess implicit and explicit types of motor learning in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and normal peers by means of a serial reaction time. Sample size was 15 for each group and Samples included 30 patients with MS and
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This study tends to assess implicit and explicit types of motor learning in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and normal peers by means of a serial reaction time. Sample size was 15 for each group and Samples included 30 patients with MS and 30 normal peers and were assigned to implicit and explicit learning groups. A repeated measures ANOVA was used for measuring reaction time and response error, and a paired samples t-test was used to compare regular and irregular sequence data in each group. Comparison of these two types of learning in speed (response time) and accuracy (number of errors) showed the number of errors (P = 0.012) and response time (P = 0.012) in the implicit motor learning group of MS patients and the number of errors (P = 0.096) and response time (P = 0.954) in the explicit motor learning group of MS patients. Moreover, comparison showed the number of errors (P = 0.008) and response time (P = 0.05) in the implicit group of normal peers and the number of errors (P = 0.011) and response time (P = 0.442) in the explicit group of normal peers. The results showed that explaining and describing the task is less effective at training the motor sequence of MS patients and that these patients benefit more from implicit learning. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Muscular Power during a Lifting Task Increases after Three Months of Resistance Training in Overweight and Obese Individuals
Sports 2017, 5(2), 35; doi:10.3390/sports5020035
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 20 May 2017 / Accepted: 25 May 2017 / Published: 8 June 2017
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Abstract
Background: This study evaluates the effect on power produced during a modified lifting task in the overweight and obese after three months of either resistance or aerobic training. Methods: Seventeen male subjects divided randomly into two groups performed deadlift and deadlift high pull,
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Background: This study evaluates the effect on power produced during a modified lifting task in the overweight and obese after three months of either resistance or aerobic training. Methods: Seventeen male subjects divided randomly into two groups performed deadlift and deadlift high pull, both with increasing weights up to maximal power, prior to and after the training programs (three sessions per week). Results: Their mean power increased significantly during the deadlift at 20 kg (14.3%, p = 0.026), 30 kg (17.7%, p = 0.008), 40 kg (16.5%, p = 0.011), 50 kg (14.5%, p = 0.020), and 60 kg (14.3%, p = 0.021) and during the deadlift high pull at 30 kg (9.9%, p = 0.037), 40 kg (10.1%, p = 0.035), and 50 kg (8.2%, p = 0.044) after the resistance training. However, the group that participated in the aerobic training failed to show any significant changes in power performance during either the deadlift or deadlift high pull. Conclusion: Three months of resistance training enhances power outputs during a lifting task with weights from 30 to 50 kg (~40%–60% of 1-repetition maximum) in the overweight and obese. Because this test was sensitive in revealing pre-post training changes in lifting performance, it should be implemented in the functional diagnostics for overweight and obese individuals and also complement existing testing methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ingestion of an Amino Acid Electrolyte Beverage during Resistance Exercise Does Not Impact Fluid Shifts into Muscle or Performance
Sports 2017, 5(2), 36; doi:10.3390/sports5020036
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 10 June 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of ingesting an amino acid-electrolyte (AAE) beverage during upper body resistance exercise on transient muscle hypertrophy, exercise performance, markers of muscle damage, and recovery. Participants (n = 15) performed three sets of
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of ingesting an amino acid-electrolyte (AAE) beverage during upper body resistance exercise on transient muscle hypertrophy, exercise performance, markers of muscle damage, and recovery. Participants (n = 15) performed three sets of six repetitions—bench press, lat pull down, incline press, and seated row—followed by three sets of eight repetitions at 75% of the estimated 1 repetition maximum—triceps kickback, hammer curl, triceps push down, and preacher curl—with 90 s of rest between sets. The final set of the push down/preacher curl was performed to failure. Prior to and immediately post-exercise, as well as 24, 48, and 72 h post exercise, cross-sectional muscle thickness was measured. Blood samples were collected prior to exercise, as well as 24, 48, and 72 h post-exercise for serum creatine kinase (CK) analysis. No treatment effect was found for muscle cross-sectional area, repetitions to failure, or serum CK. A main effect (p < 0.001) was observed in the change in serum CK levels in the days following the resistance exercise session. The findings of this study suggest that the acute ingestion of a AAE beverage does not alter acute muscle thickness, performance, perceived soreness and weakness, or markers of muscle damage. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Functional Movement Screening and Paddle-Sport Performance
Sports 2017, 5(2), 37; doi:10.3390/sports5020037
Received: 5 May 2017 / Revised: 25 May 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of the study reported here was to determine the relationship between an endurance paddle-sport athlete’s total functional movement screening (FMS) score and individual race performance. Fifty elite level endurance canoeists and kayakers completed the seven-stage FMS protocol prior to the 2016
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The purpose of the study reported here was to determine the relationship between an endurance paddle-sport athlete’s total functional movement screening (FMS) score and individual race performance. Fifty elite level endurance canoeists and kayakers completed the seven-stage FMS protocol prior to the 2016 United States Canoe and Kayak Association National Championship race. Time taken to finish the race was then associated to overall FMS score and respective sub-scores. Total FMS score and various sub-scores were significantly related to race performance. Female and male athletes differed in which sub-scores were shown to be significantly correlated to finishing time. Outcomes from this study indicate that limitations in functional movement are related to endurance paddle-sport race performance. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle What is Trained Develops! Theoretical Perspective on Skill Learning
Sports 2017, 5(2), 38; doi:10.3390/sports5020038
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
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Abstract
Knowledge about developmental theories is important for experts or specialists working with children following normal development and children who have various kinds of dysfunction, in order to better understand what happens with processes associated with motor behavior. In this article, we have explored
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Knowledge about developmental theories is important for experts or specialists working with children following normal development and children who have various kinds of dysfunction, in order to better understand what happens with processes associated with motor behavior. In this article, we have explored how theories of development and learning can be used to understand processes associated with motor behavior. A probabilistic perspective emphasizes that the changes taking place in the development is a result of interaction: structural changes in the nervous system leading to changes in function and behavior and opposite, functional changes resulting in changes in structure. This bidirectional interaction between biological and experiential aspects is a continuous process which cannot be reduced to either organism or environment. Dynamical systems theory (DST) emphasizes that it is the interaction between the person, the environment, and the task that changes how our movements are, also in terms of how we develop and learn new movements. The interplay between these factors will, over time, lead to changes in motor development. The importance of experience is central to Edelman's theory of neuronal group selection (NGST). Activation of the nervous system increases the connections between certain areas of the brain, and the selection processes in the brain are a result of enhancement of neural connections involved in a "successful" motion. The central nervous system adapts its structure and function in response to internal and external influences, and hence neural plasticity is a prerequisite for learning and development. We argue that Edelman´s approach supports the theory of specificity of learning. From the perspectives of probabilistic epigenesis, DST, and NGST, we can see that being physically active and having the opportunity to get different movement experiences are of great significance for promoting motor development and learning. A variation of purposeful or rewarding physical activity in a variety of contexts will provide individual opportunities for changes of behavior in terms of both quantitative and qualitative changes in motor development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prevalence of Injuries during Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Training
Sports 2017, 5(2), 39; doi:10.3390/sports5020039
Received: 17 April 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
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Abstract
Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a martial art that focuses on groundwork, joint locks, and chokeholds. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of injuries sustained during BJJ training. A 27-question research survey was e-mailed to 166 BJJ gyms in the
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Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a martial art that focuses on groundwork, joint locks, and chokeholds. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of injuries sustained during BJJ training. A 27-question research survey was e-mailed to 166 BJJ gyms in the United States. Demographic information, belt level, weight class, training hours, competition experience, and injury prevalence data were collected. The majority of respondents were Caucasian (n = 96) males (n = 121) with an average age of 30.3 years. Overall, the most common injury locations were to the hand and fingers (n = 70), foot and toes (n = 52), and arm and elbow (n = 51). The most common medically diagnosed conditions were skin infections (n = 38), injuries to the knee (n =26), and foot and toes (n = 19). The most common non-medically diagnosed injuries occurred to the hand and fingers (n = 56), arm and elbow (n = 40), and foot and toes (n = 33). In general, athletes were more likely to sustain distal rather than proximal injuries. Athletes reported more frequent medically diagnosed injuries to the lower extremity and more frequent self-diagnosed injuries to the upper extremity. Upper extremity injuries appear to be more frequent but less severe than lower extremity injuries with the opposite being true for lower extremity injuries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Active Recovery between Interval Bouts Reduces Blood Lactate While Improving Subsequent Exercise Performance in Trained Men
Sports 2017, 5(2), 40; doi:10.3390/sports5020040
Received: 12 March 2017 / Revised: 21 May 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
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Abstract
This study aimed to examine the blood lactate and blood pH kinetics during high-intensity interval training. Seventeen well-trained athletes exercised on two different occasions. Exercises consisted of three 30 s bouts at a constant intensity (90% of peak power) with 4 min recovery
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This study aimed to examine the blood lactate and blood pH kinetics during high-intensity interval training. Seventeen well-trained athletes exercised on two different occasions. Exercises consisted of three 30 s bouts at a constant intensity (90% of peak power) with 4 min recovery between bouts followed by a Wingate test (WT). The recoveries were either active recovery (at 60% of the lactate threshold intensity) or passive recovery (resting at sitting position). During the exercise, blood samples were taken to determine blood gasses, blood lactate, and blood pH, and peak and average power were calculated for the WT. When performing the active recovery trials, blood pH was significantly higher (p < 0.01) and blood lactate was significantly lower (p < 0.01) compared with the passive recovery trials. WT performance was significantly higher in the active recovery trials: peak power was 671 ± 88 and 715 ± 108 watts, and average power was 510 ± 70 and 548 ± 73 watts (passive and active respectively; p < 0.01). However, no statistically significant correlations were found between the increased pH and the increased performance in the active recovery trials. These results suggest that active recovery performed during high-intensity interval exercise favors the performance in a following WT. Moreover, the blood pH variations associated with active recovery did not explain the enhanced performance. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Link between Motor Competence and Health Related Fitness in Children and Adolescents
Sports 2017, 5(2), 41; doi:10.3390/sports5020041
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
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Abstract
This study examined motor competence (MC) behavior in 6- to 14-year-old children, and investigated the differences in health-related fitness (HRF) between high and low MC groups, according to sex and age. A sample of 564 children (288 males) participated in this study, divided
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This study examined motor competence (MC) behavior in 6- to 14-year-old children, and investigated the differences in health-related fitness (HRF) between high and low MC groups, according to sex and age. A sample of 564 children (288 males) participated in this study, divided into three age groups (6–8 years; 9–11 years; 12–14 years). Total MC and its three components (stability, locomotor, and manipulative) were assessed with a quantitative instrument. HRF was evaluated using a maximal multistage 20-m shuttle-run test and the handgrip test. Participants were divided into tertiles according to their MC level and high and low MC groups were analyzed. Overall, MC increased across age groups for both sexes, but boys presented better results than girls. The high MC group outperformed their low MC peers in all HRF variables, independent of their age group. Although cardiovascular fitness increased with age for both the high and low MC groups, the differences between these groups were greater in older children compared to younger children, within the study age range. The findings suggest that MC interventions should be considered as an important strategy to enhance HRF, and girls at a young age should be a priority target. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Role of Eccentric Strength in 180° Turns in Female Soccer Players
Sports 2017, 5(2), 42; doi:10.3390/sports5020042
Received: 19 May 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
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Abstract
Previous studies have reported an association between eccentric strength (ECC-STR) and change of direction (COD) ability. Little is known about how ECC-STR facilitates COD maneuvers. The aim of this study was to examine the role of ECC-STR during a 180° COD task in
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Previous studies have reported an association between eccentric strength (ECC-STR) and change of direction (COD) ability. Little is known about how ECC-STR facilitates COD maneuvers. The aim of this study was to examine the role of ECC-STR during a 180° COD task in 18 female soccer players. Each player performed six trials of a 180° COD task whereby three-dimensional motion data from 10 Qualisys Pro-Reflex infrared cameras (240 Hz) and ground reaction forces (GRFs) from two AMTI force platforms (1200 Hz) were collected. Relative eccentric knee extensor (ECC-EXT) and flexor (ECC-FLEX) peak torque was collected from both limbs at 60°·s−1 using a Kin Com isokinetic dynamometer. Large correlations were revealed between COD performance (time to complete 5 m approach, 180° turn, 5 m return) and ECC-EXT (R = −0.674) and ECC-FLEX (R = −0.603). Moderate to large correlations were observed between approach velocity (AV) and COD performance (R = −0.484) and ECC-EXT (R = 0.724). Stronger participants (n = 9) recorded significantly (p < 0.05) faster AV (4.01 ± 0.18 vs. 3.74 ± 0.24 m·s−1, d = 1.27) and a greater reduction in velocity (−1.55 ± 0.17 vs. −1.37 ± 0.21 m·s−1, d = −0.94) during penultimate contact than weaker (n = 9) subjects. Greater ECC-STR is associated with faster COD performance in female soccer players, as stronger players are better able to decelerate during penultimate contact from faster approach velocities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Strength on Performance in Athletic Tasks)
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Open AccessArticle The Relationship between Fundamental Motor Skill Proficiency and Participation in Organized Sports and Active Recreation in Middle Childhood
Sports 2017, 5(2), 43; doi:10.3390/sports5020043
Received: 31 December 2016 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 18 June 2017
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Abstract
Motor skill proficiency in middle childhood is associated with higher physical activity levels at that age and is predictive of adolescent physical activity levels. Much of the previous research in this area has used accelerometry in determining these relationships, and as a result,
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Motor skill proficiency in middle childhood is associated with higher physical activity levels at that age and is predictive of adolescent physical activity levels. Much of the previous research in this area has used accelerometry in determining these relationships, and as a result, little is known about what physical activities the children are engaging in. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine rates of participation in physical activities, the relationships between motor proficiency and how often children participate, and if there were gender-based differences in participation, motor skills, or the relationship between these variables. Participants were 400 boys and girls (Mean age = 9 years 6 months) in grade 4. Motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) and physical activity participation was measured using the Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). Descriptive statistics, chi-squared analyses, and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used to examine activity patterns and whether these patterns differed by gender. Correlation coefficients were used to estimate the relationships between fundamental motor skill proficiency and participation. The boys and girls participated in many of the same activities, but girls were more likely to participate in most of the informal physical activities. More boys than girls participated in team sports, boys participated more frequently in team sports, and the boys’ object control and locomotor skill proficiency were significantly associated with participation in team sports. There were some significant associations between motor skills and participation in specific activities; however it is not clear if participation is developing skillfulness or those who are more skilled are engaging and persisting with particular activities. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Teaching Games of Understanding as a Coaching Instruction had on Adjust, Cover and Heart Rate among Malaysian and Indian Junior Hockey Players
Sports 2017, 5(2), 44; doi:10.3390/sports5020044
Received: 25 January 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
The field hockey coaching process across both Malaysia and India favours a traditional, coach-centred approach of mastering technical skills in terms of game play parameters, fitness, intensity, and load training, whereas a tactical- and player-centred pedagogical approach still takes a backseat. On the
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The field hockey coaching process across both Malaysia and India favours a traditional, coach-centred approach of mastering technical skills in terms of game play parameters, fitness, intensity, and load training, whereas a tactical- and player-centred pedagogical approach still takes a backseat. On the other hand, the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) model offers tactical-cognitive instruction and is gaining international recognition for its ability to produce intelligent players via a problem-solving approach in game play. Therefore, the purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to investigate the effect of TGfU compared to skill mastery instruction, termed as Skill Drill Technical (SDT), among Malaysian and Indian elite junior hockey players in term of the game play attributes of adjust and cover in 5 vs. 5 small-sided game play and game play intensity via heart rate (HR) at different points of game play. A total of n = 60 players with an average age of 15 ± 1.03 was selected via simple random sampling from both countries involved in this study and assigned equally to groups, with 15 per group for TGfU and for SDT across Malaysia and India. Gathered data were analysed using the ANOVA and ANCOVA techniques. Findings indicated that there were no significant differences for adjust in 5 vs. 5 game play between TGfU and SDT across Malaysia and India after the intervention. For cover, there was significant improvement for Malaysian players using the TGfU model compared to SDT. In contrast, there was no significant difference between these two models among the Indian players after the intervention. There was significant difference between these two models in terms of warm-up HR across the two countries, and HR was higher via TGfU. For HR immediately after the 5 vs. 5 game play intervention and HR after three minutes’ recovery, Indian players with TGfU recorded a higher and significant difference compared to SDT. However, findings indicated no significant difference between these two instruction types among Malaysians, although TGfU proved to have higher HR intensity. Therefore, these findings reiterated that TGfU is a useful approach for game play to enhance intensity and cardiac output. In conclusion, for TGfU to be more relevant to the coaching environment, future research should link game play and physiological parameters. TGfU should able to overcome the barriers of tradition and cultural background that may hinder its momentum. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Energy Expenditure, Availability, and Dietary Intake Assessment in Competitive Female Dragon Boat Athletes
Sports 2017, 5(2), 45; doi:10.3390/sports5020045
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
Dragon boat racing requires high physical activity levels during competition and training. The female athletic triad refers to a number of negative health consequences (e.g., amenorrhoea, low bone mineral density, and low energy availability) that may result from high physical activity in female
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Dragon boat racing requires high physical activity levels during competition and training. The female athletic triad refers to a number of negative health consequences (e.g., amenorrhoea, low bone mineral density, and low energy availability) that may result from high physical activity in female athletes in parallel with inadequate dietary intake. This study aimed to estimate energy expenditure and dietary adequacy in female competitive dragon boat athletes. Following ethical approval, energy expenditure was assessed by use of SensewearTM armbands (which measure movement as well as galvanic heat loss) on nine dragon boat athletes preparing for the Southeast Asian Games 2013. The mean estimated energy expenditure for the athletes was 2226 ± 711 kJ/day. Mean total energy, recorded using three-day food diaries (6715 ± 2518 kJ/day) and energy availability (99 ± 56 kJ/kg/day), were low. Estimated micronutrient intake (calcium 699.3 ± 328.7 mg/day and iron 10.6 ± 4.7 mg/day) did not meet recommended daily allowances of 800 mg/day and 19 mg/day, respectively. The low intake of energy, calcium, and iron noted within this study could have negative effects on performance and short- and long-term health in female dragon boat athletes. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Nutrition and Supplementation in Soccer
Sports 2017, 5(2), 28; doi:10.3390/sports5020028
Received: 31 December 2016 / Revised: 25 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
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Abstract
Contemporary elite soccer features increased physical demands during match-play, as well as a larger number of matches per season. Now more than ever, aspects related to performance optimization are highly regarded by both players and soccer coaches. Here, nutrition takes a special role
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Contemporary elite soccer features increased physical demands during match-play, as well as a larger number of matches per season. Now more than ever, aspects related to performance optimization are highly regarded by both players and soccer coaches. Here, nutrition takes a special role as most elite teams try to provide an adequate diet to guarantee maximum performance while ensuring a faster recovery from matches and training exertions. It is currently known that manipulation and periodization of macronutrients, as well as sound hydration practices, have the potential to interfere with training adaptation and recovery. A careful monitoring of micronutrient status is also relevant to prevent undue fatigue and immune impairment secondary to a deficiency status. Furthermore, the sensible use of evidence-based dietary supplements may also play a role in soccer performance optimization. In this sense, several nutritional recommendations have been issued. This detailed and comprehensive review addresses the most relevant and up-to-date nutritional recommendations for elite soccer players, covering from macro and micronutrients to hydration and selected supplements in different contexts (daily requirements, pre, peri and post training/match and competition). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance in Soccer)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview Exercise, Osteoporosis, and Bone Geometry
Sports 2017, 5(2), 29; doi:10.3390/sports5020029
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
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Abstract
Exercise is commonly recommended in the prevention and management of osteoporosis. The most common method to monitor bone mass and its response to interventions is bone densitometry. While closely associated with risk of fracture, densitometry-derived areal bone mineral density (aBMD) does not provide
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Exercise is commonly recommended in the prevention and management of osteoporosis. The most common method to monitor bone mass and its response to interventions is bone densitometry. While closely associated with risk of fracture, densitometry-derived areal bone mineral density (aBMD) does not provide a reliable indication of bone geometry or morphological adaptation to stimuli. In fact, the effects of exercise interventions on aBMD are frequently modest, and may not fully represent the benefit of exercise to bone. Animal models suggest that mechanical loading indeed influences bone geometry and thus strength. Such an effect in humans has the potential to reduce osteoporotic fracture. The aim of the current narrative review is to provide an overview of what is known about the effects of exercise on bone geometry, with a focus on relevance to osteoporosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Chronic Disease)

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