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Societies 2014, 4(1), 45-67; doi:10.3390/soc4010045

Neighborhood Danger, Parental Monitoring, Harsh Parenting, and Child Aggression in Nine Countries

Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
Department of Psychology, Second University of Naples, 81100 Caserta, Italy
Department of Psychology, University West, 46186 Trollhättan, Sweden
Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
Consultorio Psicológico Popular, Universidad de San Buenaventura, Carrera 56C No. 51-90, Medellín, Colombia
Department of Education Sciences, Foro Italico University of Rome, 00135 Rome, Italy
Department of Psychology, Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City 1108, Philippines
Queen Rania Faculty for Childhood, The Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115, Jordan
Department of Social and Devlopmental Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
Child and Family Research Program in Developmental Neuroscience, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Department of Educational Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong
Department of Psychology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina, Colombia, SC 29208, USA
Department of Education Psychology, Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2013 / Revised: 17 December 2013 / Accepted: 10 January 2014 / Published: 22 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenting, Aggressive Behavior in Children, and Our Violent World)
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Exposure to neighborhood danger during childhood has negative effects that permeate multiple dimensions of childhood. The current study examined whether mothers’, fathers’, and children’s perceptions of neighborhood danger are related to child aggression, whether parental monitoring moderates this relation, and whether harsh parenting mediates this relation. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 1293 children (age M = 10.68, SD = 0.66; 51% girls) and their mothers (n = 1282) and fathers (n = 1075) in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Perceptions of greater neighborhood danger were associated with more child aggression in all nine countries according to mothers’ and fathers’ reports and in five of the nine countries according to children’s reports. Parental monitoring did not moderate the relation between perception of neighborhood danger and child aggression. The mediating role of harsh parenting was inconsistent across countries and reporters. Implications for further research are discussed, and include examination of more specific aspects of parental monitoring as well as more objective measures of neighborhood danger.
Keywords: child aggression; community violence; harsh parenting; parental monitoring; neighborhood danger child aggression; community violence; harsh parenting; parental monitoring; neighborhood danger

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Skinner, A.T.; Bacchini, D.; Lansford, J.E.; Godwin, J.W.; Sorbring, E.; Tapanya, S.; Tirado, L.M.U.; Zelli, A.; Alampay, L.P.; Al-Hassan, S.M.; Bombi, A.S.; Bornstein, M.H.; Chang, L.; Deater-Deckard, K.; Giunta, L.D.; Dodge, K.A.; Malone, P.S.; Miranda, M.C.; Oburu, P.; Pastorelli, C. Neighborhood Danger, Parental Monitoring, Harsh Parenting, and Child Aggression in Nine Countries. Societies 2014, 4, 45-67.

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