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Metals, Volume 7, Issue 11 (November 2017)

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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Cold Rolling on the Hydrogen Susceptibility of 5083 Aluminum Alloy
Metals 2017, 7(11), 451; doi:10.3390/met7110451
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
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Abstract
This work focuses in investigating the effect of cold deformation on the cathodic hydrogen charging of 5083 aluminum alloy. The aluminium alloy was submitted to a cold rolling process, until the average thickness of the specimens was reduced by 7% and 15%, respectively.
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This work focuses in investigating the effect of cold deformation on the cathodic hydrogen charging of 5083 aluminum alloy. The aluminium alloy was submitted to a cold rolling process, until the average thickness of the specimens was reduced by 7% and 15%, respectively. A study of the structure, microhardness, and tensile properties of the hydrogen charged aluminium specimens, with and without cold rolling, indicated that the cold deformation process led to an increase of hydrogen susceptibility of this aluminum alloy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Control of Porosity and Spatter in Laser Welding of Thick AlMg5 Parts Using High-Speed Imaging and Optical Microscopy
Metals 2017, 7(11), 452; doi:10.3390/met7110452
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 26 October 2017
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Abstract
We report on a feedback mechanism for rapid identification of optimal laser parameters during welding of AlMg5 coupons using real-time monitoring by high-speed imaging. The purpose was to constrain the liquid movement in the groove in order to obtain pore-free welds in this
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We report on a feedback mechanism for rapid identification of optimal laser parameters during welding of AlMg5 coupons using real-time monitoring by high-speed imaging. The purpose was to constrain the liquid movement in the groove in order to obtain pore-free welds in this otherwise difficult-to-weld alloy. High-speed imaging of the welding process via an optical microscope allowed for recording at millimeter level, providing new information on liquid-metal dynamics during laser irradiation as well as plausible explanations for spatter occurrence and pores formation. The pore formation and especially the position of these pores had to be controlled in order to weld 3 mm thick samples. By tuning both laser power and pulse duration, pores were aligned on a single line, at the bottom of the weld. A laser pass of reduced power on that side was then sufficient for removing all pores and providing a suitable weld. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Welding)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Hybrid Actuator Driven Magnetically in the Bi-Cell PEM Fuel Cell Stack
Metals 2017, 7(11), 453; doi:10.3390/met7110453
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 26 October 2017
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Abstract
This study develops an air breathing pump driven by a piezoelectric actuator for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack. Permanent magnets are combined with a piezoelectric actuator to drive three air breathing pumps using magnetic force. This design enables the pump
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This study develops an air breathing pump driven by a piezoelectric actuator for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack. Permanent magnets are combined with a piezoelectric actuator to drive three air breathing pumps using magnetic force. This design enables the pump to provide a sufficient amount of air simultaneously to six cathode flow field plates in a stack of three “bi-cell PZTmag–PEMFCs”. When both the PZTmag and the PDMSmag had a magnet with a 6-mm diameter and 1-mm thickness, a maximum amplitude of 87 μm was generated at 0.03 W of power under operating conditions of 70 Hz and 40 V. In computational fluid dynamics (CFD), when the nozzle and the diffuser of an air breathing pump have an aspect ratio of 13.13, air flow distributes uniformly inside the pump, thus allowing for uniform transmission of oxygen to the membrane electrode assembly. This aspect ratio was applied to the bi-cell PZTmag–PEMFC stack and yielded a maximum net power flux of 0.1925 W·cm−2, 20% higher than that reported in a previous study (Ma, 2013), with 68% and 76% less volume and weight, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Materials and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Laser Pulse Effects on Plasma-Sprayed and Bulk Tungsten
Metals 2017, 7(11), 454; doi:10.3390/met7110454
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 26 October 2017
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Abstract
Tungsten (W) is considered a promising plasma-facing material for protecting the divertor of the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). The effects on W of transient thermal loads of high energy occurring in a tokamak under operative conditions have been simulated through a single
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Tungsten (W) is considered a promising plasma-facing material for protecting the divertor of the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). The effects on W of transient thermal loads of high energy occurring in a tokamak under operative conditions have been simulated through a single laser pulse delivered by an Nd:YAG laser. Bulk and plasma-sprayed (PS) samples have been submitted to tests and successively examined via SEM (scanning electron microscopy) observations. In both types of materials, the laser pulse induces similar effects: (i) a crater forms in the spot central area; (ii) all around the area, the ejection and the movement of molten metal give rise to a ridge; (iii) in a more external area, the surface shows plates with jagged boundaries and cracks induced by thermal stresses; (iv) the pores present in the original material become preferred ablation sites. However, the affected surface area in PS samples is larger and asymmetric if compared to that of bulk material. Such a difference has been explained by considering how microstructural characteristics influence heat propagation from the irradiated spot, and it was found that grain size and shape play a decisive role. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Predictions of the Occurrence of Necking in Deep Drawing Processes
Metals 2017, 7(11), 455; doi:10.3390/met7110455
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 22 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
In this work, three numerical necking criteria based on finite element (FE) simulations are proposed for the prediction of forming limit diagrams (FLDs) for sheet metals. An elastic–plastic constitutive model coupled with the Lemaitre continuum damage theory has been implemented into the ABAQUS/Explicit
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In this work, three numerical necking criteria based on finite element (FE) simulations are proposed for the prediction of forming limit diagrams (FLDs) for sheet metals. An elastic–plastic constitutive model coupled with the Lemaitre continuum damage theory has been implemented into the ABAQUS/Explicit software to simulate simple sheet stretching tests as well as Erichsen deep drawing tests with various sheet specimen geometries. Three numerical criteria have been investigated in order to establish an appropriate necking criterion for the prediction of formability limits. The first numerical criterion is based on the analysis of the thickness strain evolution in the central part of the specimens. The second numerical criterion is based on the analysis of the second time derivative of the thickness strain. As to the third numerical criterion, it relies on a damage threshold associated with the occurrence of necking. The FLDs thus predicted by numerical simulation of simple sheet stretching with various specimen geometries and Erichsen deep drawing tests are compared with the experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plastic Forming of Metals)
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Open AccessArticle CO2 Laser Cutting of Hot Stamping Boron Steel Sheets
Metals 2017, 7(11), 456; doi:10.3390/met7110456
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
This study investigates the quality of CO2 laser cutting of hot stamping boron steel sheets that are employed in the fabrication of automotive body-in-white. For this purpose, experimental laser cutting tests were conducted on 1.2 mm sheets at varying levels of laser
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This study investigates the quality of CO2 laser cutting of hot stamping boron steel sheets that are employed in the fabrication of automotive body-in-white. For this purpose, experimental laser cutting tests were conducted on 1.2 mm sheets at varying levels of laser power, cutting speed, and oxygen pressure. The resulting quality of cut edges was evaluated in terms of perpendicularity tolerance, surface irregularity, kerf width, heat affected zone, and dross extension. Experimental tests were based on a L9(34) orthogonal array design, with the effects of the process parameters on the quality responses being determined by means of a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA). Quadratic mathematical models were developed to determine the relationships between the cutting parameters and the quality responses. Finally, a routine based on an optimization criterion was employed to predict the optimal setting of cutting factors and its effect on the quality responses. A confirmation experiment was conducted to verify the appropriateness of the optimization routine. The results show that all of the examined process parameters have a key role in determining the cut quality of hot stamping boron steel sheets, with cutting speed and their interactions having the most influencing effects. Particularly, interactions can have an opposite behavior for different levels of the process parameters. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Study of the Influence of TiB Content and Temperature in the Properties of In Situ Titanium Matrix Composites
Metals 2017, 7(11), 457; doi:10.3390/met7110457
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
This work focuses on the study of the microstructure, hardening, and stiffening effect caused by the secondary phases formed in titanium matrices. These secondary phases originated from reactions between the matrix and boron particles added in the starting mixtures of the composites. Not
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This work focuses on the study of the microstructure, hardening, and stiffening effect caused by the secondary phases formed in titanium matrices. These secondary phases originated from reactions between the matrix and boron particles added in the starting mixtures of the composites. Not only was the composite composition studied as an influencing factor in the behaviour of the composites, but also different operational temperatures. Three volume percentages of boron content were tested (0.9 vol %, 2.5 vol %, and 5 vol % of amorphous boron). The manufacturing process used to produce the composites was inductive hot pressing, which operational temperatures were between 1000 and 1300 °C. Specimens showed optimal densification. Moreover, microstructural studies revealed the formation of TiB in various shapes and proportions. Mechanical testing confirmed that the secondary phases had a positive influence on properties of the composites. In general, adding boron particles increased the hardness and stiffness of the composites; however rising temperatures resulted in greater increases in stiffness than in hardness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Matrix Composites)
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Open AccessArticle A Mineralogical Assessment on Residues after Acidic Leaching of Bauxite Residue (Red Mud) for Titanium Recovery
Metals 2017, 7(11), 458; doi:10.3390/met7110458
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract
Due to its alkalinity, red mud produced by the Bayer process may affect both the environment and human health. For this reason, its further utilization instead of disposal is of great importance. Numerous methods have already been studied for hydrometallurgical treatment of red
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Due to its alkalinity, red mud produced by the Bayer process may affect both the environment and human health. For this reason, its further utilization instead of disposal is of great importance. Numerous methods have already been studied for hydrometallurgical treatment of red mud, especially for the recovery of various metallic components such as iron, aluminum, titanium or rare earth elements. This study focuses on the extraction of titanium from red mud and in particular the mineralogical changes, induced by leaching. Sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and their combination have been utilized as leaching agents with the same leaching parameters. It has been determined that sulfuric acid is the best candidate for the red mud treatment in terms of titanium leaching efficiency at the end of 2 h with a value of 67.3%. Moreover, samples from intermediate times of reaction revealed that leaching of Ti exhibit various reaction rates at different times of reaction depending on acid type. In order to explain differences, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and QEMSCAN techniques were utilized. Beside titanium oxide (TiO2) with available free surface area, a certain amount of the TiO2 was detected as entrapped in Fe dominating oxide. These associations between Ti and Fe phases were used to explain different leaching reaction rates and a reaction mechanism was proposed to open a process window. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrometallurgy)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Crystal Plasticity Modeling and Experimental Validation with an Orientation Distribution Function for Ti-7Al Alloy
Metals 2017, 7(11), 459; doi:10.3390/met7110459
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract
An orientation distribution function based model is used for micromechanical modeling of the titanium-aluminum alloys, Ti-0 wt % Al and Ti-7 wt % Al, which are in demand for many aerospace applications. This probability descriptor based modeling approach is different than crystal plasticity
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An orientation distribution function based model is used for micromechanical modeling of the titanium-aluminum alloys, Ti-0 wt % Al and Ti-7 wt % Al, which are in demand for many aerospace applications. This probability descriptor based modeling approach is different than crystal plasticity finite element techniques since it computes the averaged material properties using upper bound averaging. A rate-independent single-crystal plasticity model is implemented to compute the effect of macroscopic strain on the polycrystal. An optimization problem is defined for calibrating the basal, prismatic, pyramidal slip system and twin parameters using the available tension and compression experimental data. The crystal plasticity parameters of Ti-7 wt % Al are not studied extensively in literature, and therefore the optimization results for the crystal plasticity model realization produce unique data, which will be beneficial to future studies in the field. The sensitivities of the slip and twin parameters to the design objectives are also investigated to identify the most critical slip system parameters. Using the optimum design parameters, the microstructural textures, during the tension test, are predicted by the crystal plasticity finite element simulations, and compared to the available experimental texture and scanning electron microscope—digital image correlation data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructure based Modeling of Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Powder Metallurgy Processed Pure Magnesium Materials for Biomedical Applications
Metals 2017, 7(11), 461; doi:10.3390/met7110461
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
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Abstract
Magnesium with its mechanical properties and nontoxicity is predetermined as a material for biomedical applications; however, its high reactivity is a limiting factor for its usage. Powder metallurgy is one of the promising methods for the enhancement of material mechanical properties and, due
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Magnesium with its mechanical properties and nontoxicity is predetermined as a material for biomedical applications; however, its high reactivity is a limiting factor for its usage. Powder metallurgy is one of the promising methods for the enhancement of material mechanical properties and, due to the introduced plastic deformation, can also have a positive influence on corrosion resistance. Pure magnesium samples were prepared via powder metallurgy. Compacting pressures from 100 MPa to 500 MPa were used for samples’ preparation at room temperature and elevated temperatures. The microstructure of the obtained compacts was analyzed in terms of microscopy. The three-point bendisng test and microhardness testing were adopted to define the compacts’ mechanical properties, discussing the results with respect to fractographic analysis. Electrochemical corrosion properties analyzed with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy carried out in HBSS (Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution) and enriched HBSS were correlated with the metallographic analysis of the corrosion process. Cold compacted materials were very brittle with low strength (up to 50 MPa) and microhardness (up to 50 HV (load: 0.025 kg)) and degraded rapidly in both solutions. Hot pressed materials yielded much higher strength (up to 250 MPa) and microhardness (up to 65 HV (load: 0.025 kg)), and the electrochemical characteristics were significantly better when compared to the cold compacted samples. Temperatures of 300 °C and 400 °C and high compacting pressures from 300 MPa to 500 MPa had a positive influence on material bonding, mechanical and electrochemical properties. A compacting temperature of 500 °C had a detrimental effect on material compaction when using pressure above 200 MPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Metals)
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Open AccessArticle Prediction of the Geometrical Accuracy of the Machined Surface of the Tool Steel EN X30WCrV9-3 after Electrical Discharge Machining with CuZn37 Wire Electrode
Metals 2017, 7(11), 462; doi:10.3390/met7110462
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 28 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
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Abstract
The geometrical accuracy of the machined surface can generally be understood mainly as accuracy of shape, orientation, position and run-out. As a general rule; it is quantified by the corresponding deviations from the nominal area. The size of the geometric deviation from the
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The geometrical accuracy of the machined surface can generally be understood mainly as accuracy of shape, orientation, position and run-out. As a general rule; it is quantified by the corresponding deviations from the nominal area. The size of the geometric deviation from the nominal area may in practice affect the conventionally measured value of the dimension, even if the required dimensional tolerance is adhered to. Since electro–erosive machining technology belongs to very precise finishing technologies; even the small geometrical accuracy deviation has a negative impact on the resulting quality of machined surfaces. The aim of the experiments was to contribute to the knowledge database, which defines the influence of the process parameters at electrical discharge machining with the CuZn37 tool electrode on errors of geometrical accuracy of the machined surface. On the basis of the results of the experimental measurements, graphical dependencies were determined which predict geometrical accuracy of the machined surface in terms of the maximum deviation of flatness after electrical discharge machining of tool steel EN X30WCrV9-3 (W.-Nr. 1.2581) with CuZn37 wire electrode of 0.20 mm diameter to determine the appropriate combination of process parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Porosity, Heat Input and Post-Weld Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TIG Welded Joints of AA6082-T6
Metals 2017, 7(11), 463; doi:10.3390/met7110463
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
Various heat input conditions and post-weld heat treatments were adopted to investigate the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded joints of AA6082-T6 with porosity defects. The results show that the fracture location is uncertain when an as-welded joint
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Various heat input conditions and post-weld heat treatments were adopted to investigate the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded joints of AA6082-T6 with porosity defects. The results show that the fracture location is uncertain when an as-welded joint has porosities in the weld zone (WZ), and overaging in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) at the same time. When the fracture of the as-welded joint occurs in the HAZ, the total heat input has a linear relation with the tensile strength of the joint. An excess heat input induces the overgrowth of Mg2Si precipitates in HAZ and the coarsening of α-Al grains in WZ, resulting in a decrease in the microhardness of the corresponding areas. After artificial aging treatment, the tensile strength of the welded joint is increased by approximately 9–13% as compared to that of as-welded joint, and fracture also occurs in HAZ. In contrast, for solution treated and artificial aging treated joint, fracture occurs suddenly at the rising phase of the tensile curve due to porosity defects throughout the weld metal. Furthermore, the eutectic Si particles of WZ coarsen and spheroidize after solution treatment and artificial aging treatment, due to the diffusion of Si to the surface of the original Si phases when soaking at high temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heat Treatment of Aluminum Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of 7Mn Steel Manufactured by Different Rolling Processes
Metals 2017, 7(11), 464; doi:10.3390/met7110464
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
We investigated both the microstructures and tensile properties of 7Mn steel, which was either hot-rolled, warm-rolled or cold-rolled before intercritical annealing at 700 °C for 5 h. It can be concluded that the warm-rolled and annealed microstructures are a kind of mixture of
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We investigated both the microstructures and tensile properties of 7Mn steel, which was either hot-rolled, warm-rolled or cold-rolled before intercritical annealing at 700 °C for 5 h. It can be concluded that the warm-rolled and annealed microstructures are a kind of mixture of hot rolled and cold rolled ones. They are composed of ferrite and retained austenite, the latter having a wide size distribution and two types of morphologies: equiaxed and lamellar. These retained austenite grains are expected to transform to martensite in a more sustainable way—the warm-rolled and annealed steel exhibits the best combination of ultimate tensile strength and total elongation among the three studied steels and a shorter yield point elongation than the cold-rolled one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medium-Mn Steels, a Promising Type of the 3rd Generation Steels)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of the Composition of the Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution on the Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 and AZ61 Magnesium Alloys
Metals 2017, 7(11), 465; doi:10.3390/met7110465
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
The electrochemical corrosion characteristics of AZ31 and AZ61 magnesium alloys were analyzed in terms of potentiodynamic tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The influence of the solution composition and material surface finish was examined also through the analysis of corrosion products created on the
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The electrochemical corrosion characteristics of AZ31 and AZ61 magnesium alloys were analyzed in terms of potentiodynamic tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The influence of the solution composition and material surface finish was examined also through the analysis of corrosion products created on the samples’ surface after electrochemical measurements in terms of scanning electron microscopy using energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Obtained data revealed the differences in the response of the magnesium alloys to enriched Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution—HBSS+ (with Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions) and Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution—HBSS (without Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions). Both examined alloys exhibited better corrosion resistance from the thermodynamic and kinetic point of view in the enriched HBSS+. AZ61 magnesium alloy reached higher values of polarization resistance than AZ31 magnesium alloy in both the used corrosion solutions. Phosphate-based corrosion products were characteristic for the AZ31 and AZ61 alloys tested in the HBSS (without Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions). The combination of phosphate-based corrosion products and clusters of MgO and Mg(OH)2 was typical for the surface of samples tested in the enriched HBSS+ (with Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions). Pitting corrosion attack was observed only in the case of enriched HBSS+. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Metals)
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Open AccessArticle Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Austempered AISI 4140 Steel with Dissolved Hydrogen
Metals 2017, 7(11), 466; doi:10.3390/met7110466
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
The focus of this investigation was to examine the influence of dissolved hydrogen on the fatigue crack growth behavior of an austempered low-alloy AISI 4140 steel. The investigation also examined the influence of dissolved hydrogen on the fatigue threshold in this material. The
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The focus of this investigation was to examine the influence of dissolved hydrogen on the fatigue crack growth behavior of an austempered low-alloy AISI 4140 steel. The investigation also examined the influence of dissolved hydrogen on the fatigue threshold in this material. The material was tested in two conditions, as-received (cold rolled and annealed) and austempered (austenitized at 882 °C for 1 h and austempered at 332 °C for 1 h). The microstructure of the annealed specimens consisted of a mix of ferrite and fine pearlite; the microstructure of the austempered specimens was lower bainite. Tensile and Compact Tension specimens were prepared. To examine the influence of dissolved hydrogen, two subsets of the CT specimens were charged with hydrogen for three different time periods between 150 and 250 h. All of the CT samples were then subjected to fatigue crack growth tests in the threshold and linear regions at room temperature. The test results indicate that austempering resulted in significant improvement in the yield and tensile strength as well as the fracture toughness of the material. The test results also show that, in the absence of dissolved hydrogen, the crack growth rate in the threshold and linear regions was lower in austempered samples compared to the as-received (annealed) samples. The fatigue threshold was also slightly greater in the austempered samples. In presence of dissolved hydrogen, the crack growth rate was dependent upon the ∆K value. In the low ∆K region (<30 MPa√m), the presence of dissolved hydrogen caused the crack growth rate to be higher in the austempered samples as compared to annealed samples. Above this value, the crack growth rate was increasingly greater in the annealed specimens when compared to the austempered specimens in presence of dissolved hydrogen. It is concluded that austempering of 4140 steel appears to provide a processing route by which the strength, hardness, and fracture toughness of the material can be increased with little or no degradation in the ductility and fatigue crack growth behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmentally Assisted Cracking in Advanced High Strength Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation on Electric Current-Aided Laser Stake Welding of Aluminum Alloy T-Joints
Metals 2017, 7(11), 467; doi:10.3390/met7110467
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
In the present study, aluminum alloy T-joints were welded using the laser stake-welding process. In order to improve the welding quality of the T-joints, an external electric current was used to aid the laser stake-welding process. The effects of the process parameters on
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In the present study, aluminum alloy T-joints were welded using the laser stake-welding process. In order to improve the welding quality of the T-joints, an external electric current was used to aid the laser stake-welding process. The effects of the process parameters on the weld morphology, mechanical properties, and microstructure of the welded joints were analyzed and discussed in detail. The results indicate that the aided electric current should be no greater than a certain maximum value. Upon increasing the aided electric current, the weld width at the skin and stringer faying surface obviously increased, but there was an insignificant change in the penetration depth. Furthermore, the electric current and pressing force should be chosen to produce an expected weld width at the faying surface, whereas the laser power and welding speed should be primarily considered to obtain an optimal penetration depth. The tensile shear specimens failed across the faying surface or failed in the weld zone of the skin. The specimens that failed in the weld of the skin could resist a higher tensile shear load compared with specimens that failed across the faying surface. The microstructural observations and microhardness results demonstrated that the tensile shear load capacity of the aluminum alloy welded T-joint was mainly determined by the weld width at the faying surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Welding)
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Open AccessArticle On the Use of Maximum Force Criteria to Predict Localised Necking in Metal Sheets under Stretch-Bending
Metals 2017, 7(11), 469; doi:10.3390/met7110469
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
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Abstract
The maximum force criteria and their derivatives, the Swift and Hill criteria, have been extensively used in the past to study sheet formability. Many extensions or modifications of these criteria have been proposed to improve necking predictions under only stretching conditions. This work
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The maximum force criteria and their derivatives, the Swift and Hill criteria, have been extensively used in the past to study sheet formability. Many extensions or modifications of these criteria have been proposed to improve necking predictions under only stretching conditions. This work analyses the maximum force principle under stretch-bending conditions and develops two different approaches to predict necking. The first is a generalisation of classical maximum force criteria to stretch-bending processes. The second approach is an extension of a previous work of the authors based on critical distance concepts, suggesting that necking of the sheet is controlled by the damage of a critical material volume located at the inner side of the sheet. An analytical deformation model is proposed to characterise the stretch-bending process under plane-strain conditions. Different parameters are considered, such as the thickness reduction, the gradient of variables through the sheet thickness, the thickness stress and the anisotropy of the material. The proposed necking models have been successfully applied to predict the failure in different materials, such as steel, brass and aluminium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plastic Forming of Metals)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Grain Size on Grain Boundary Segregation Thermodynamics of Phosphorus in Interstitial-Free and 2.25Cr-1Mo Steels
Metals 2017, 7(11), 470; doi:10.3390/met7110470
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
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Abstract
Several grain sizes were obtained by heat treatment at different temperatures for interstitial-free (IF) and 2.25Cr-1Mo steels. Samples of the steels with different grain sizes were aged at 600 and 680 °C for IF steel and 520 and 560 °C for 2.25Cr-1Mo steel
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Several grain sizes were obtained by heat treatment at different temperatures for interstitial-free (IF) and 2.25Cr-1Mo steels. Samples of the steels with different grain sizes were aged at 600 and 680 °C for IF steel and 520 and 560 °C for 2.25Cr-1Mo steel for sufficient time to achieve their equilibrium grain boundary segregation. The grain boundary concentrations of phosphorus were examined using Auger electron spectroscopy. At the same aging temperature, the boundary segregation of phosphorus increased with increasing grain size. The effect of grain size on equilibrium grain boundary segregation thermodynamics was analyzed based on the information of both grain size and phosphorus boundary concentration. The segregation enthalpy increased with increasing grain size and simultaneously the segregation entropy became less negative. Moreover, the segregation entropy (∆S) and enthalpy (∆H) of phosphorus in both IF and 2.25Cr-1Mo steels exhibited a unified linear relationship, being expressed as ∆S = 0.85∆H − 38.06, although it segregated to different types of grain boundaries (ferrite grain boundaries in IF steel and prior austenite grain boundaries in 2.25Cr-1Mo steel). With the aid of the acquired thermodynamic parameters and grain boundary segregation theories, the equilibrium segregation concentrations at different aging temperatures were modeled under different grain sizes for both steels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Metallurgy of High Performance Steels)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Vibration Amplitude on Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Strength of Ultrasonic Spot Welded Cu/Al Joints
Metals 2017, 7(11), 471; doi:10.3390/met7110471
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 28 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
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Abstract
The effects of vibration amplitude on the interface reaction and mechanical strength of the Cu/Al joints were systematically investigated in ultrasonic spot welding (USW) experiments. The appropriate vibration amplitude (22.5 μm) was beneficial for obtaining a sound joint. The formation of the continuous
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The effects of vibration amplitude on the interface reaction and mechanical strength of the Cu/Al joints were systematically investigated in ultrasonic spot welding (USW) experiments. The appropriate vibration amplitude (22.5 μm) was beneficial for obtaining a sound joint. The formation of the continuous intermetallic compounds (IMC) layer accelerated with a higher vibration amplitude. The lap shear tensile strength of the Cu/Al joints decreased when the thickness of the intermetallic layer was greater than 1 μm at various amplitudes. With the increase in welding time, a crack occurred in the copper side owing to the occurrence of the eutectic reaction, α-A l + θ L , at the periphery of the nugget. The remarkable decline of ultrasonic power curves occurred at various amplitude levels upon the formation of a crack in the copper side. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Evolution of Ternary AuAgPd Nanoparticles by the Control of Temperature, Thickness, and Tri-Layer
Metals 2017, 7(11), 472; doi:10.3390/met7110472
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
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Abstract
Metallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs) possess great potential to enhance the optical, electronic, chemical, and magnetic properties for various applications by the control of morphology and elemental composition. This work presents the fabrication of ternary AuAgPd alloy nanostructures on sapphire (0001) via the solid-state
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Metallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs) possess great potential to enhance the optical, electronic, chemical, and magnetic properties for various applications by the control of morphology and elemental composition. This work presents the fabrication of ternary AuAgPd alloy nanostructures on sapphire (0001) via the solid-state dewetting of sputter-deposited tri-metallic layers. Based on the systematic control of temperature, thickness, and deposition order of tri-layers, the composite AuAgPd alloy nanoparticles (NPs) with various shape, size, and density are demonstrated. The metallic tri-layers exhibit various stages of dewetting based on the increasing growth temperatures between 400 and 900 °C at 15 nm tri-layer film thickness. Specifically, the nucleation of tiny voids and hillocks, void coalescence, the growth and isolated nanoparticle formation, and the shape transformation with Ag sublimation are observed. With the reduced film thickness (6 nm), tiny alloy NPs with improved structural uniformity and spatial arrangement are obtained due to enhanced dewetting. The growth trend of alloy NPs is drastically altered by changing the deposition order of metallic tri-layers. The overall evolution is governed by the surface diffusion and inter-mixing of metallic atoms, Rayleigh-like instability, surface and interface energy minimization, and equilibrium state of the system. The UV-VIS-NIR reflectance spectra reveal the formation of an absorption band and reflectance maxima at specific wavelengths based on the morphology and composition of AuAgPd alloy NPs. In addition, Raman spectra analysis shows the modulation of intensity and peak position of natural vibration modes of sapphire (0001). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Structure and Martensitic Transformation in Rapidly Solidified CoNiAlFe Alloy
Metals 2017, 7(11), 473; doi:10.3390/met7110473
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
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Abstract
Housler based magnetic controlled shape memory alloys are characterized by a large magnetic field induced strain. The strain was dependent on the twin martensite structure rearrangement, and the rapid solidification technology had a significant influence on the microstructure, physical, and chemical properties of
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Housler based magnetic controlled shape memory alloys are characterized by a large magnetic field induced strain. The strain was dependent on the twin martensite structure rearrangement, and the rapid solidification technology had a significant influence on the microstructure, physical, and chemical properties of the alloy. Thus, the structure and the martensitic transformation changes of Co33Ni31Al27Fe9 during the rapidly solidified process were studied. The microstructure of Co33Ni31Al27Fe9 with furnace cooled and rapid solidification (RS) constitutes a dual-phase structure, β phase and γ phase in a low cooling rate and martensite and γ phase in a high cooling rate. The γ phase at the grain boundaries reduced and became more fragile by raising the RC value. The one-step austenite-martensite phase transformation occurred during the process of heating and cooling. The phase transition temperature presents an increasing trend by rising the cooling rate, even to over the room temperature. Moreover, the martensite structure in Co33Ni31Al27Fe9 constitutes a typical L10-type twinning structure. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Three-Dimensional Lattice Boltzmann Modeling of Dendritic Solidification under Forced and Natural Convection
Metals 2017, 7(11), 474; doi:10.3390/met7110474
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 29 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
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Abstract
A three-dimensional (3D) lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is developed to simulate the dendritic growth during solidification of Al-Cu alloys under forced and natural convection. The LB method is used to solve for solute diffusion and fluid flow. It is assumed that the dendritic
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A three-dimensional (3D) lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is developed to simulate the dendritic growth during solidification of Al-Cu alloys under forced and natural convection. The LB method is used to solve for solute diffusion and fluid flow. It is assumed that the dendritic growth is driven by the difference between the local actual and local equilibrium composition of the liquid in the interface. A cellular automaton (CA) scheme is adopted to capture new interface cells. The LB models for solute transport and fluid flow are first validated against two benchmark problems. The dendrite growth model is also validated with available analytical solutions. The evolution of a 3D dendrite affected by melt convection is investigated. Also, density inversion caused by solute concentration gradient is studied. It is shown that convection can change the kinetics of growth by affecting the solute distribution around the dendrite. In addition, the growth features of two-dimensional (2D) and 3D dendrites are briefly compared. The results show that decreasing undercooling and increasing solute concentration decelerates the growth in all branches of the dendrite. While increasing fluid velocity does not significantly influence upstream and transverse arms, it decreases the growth rate in the downstream direction considerably. The size ratio of the upstream arm to the downstream arm rises by increasing inlet velocity and solute content, and decreasing undercooling. Similarly, in the case of natural convection, redistribution of solute due to buoyancy-induced flow suppresses the growth of the upward arm and accelerates the growth of the downward arm. Considering the advantages offered by the LB method, the present model can be used as a new tool for simulating 3D dendritic solidification under convection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Thermally-Induced Crack Evaluation in H13 Tool Steel
Metals 2017, 7(11), 475; doi:10.3390/met7110475
Received: 24 September 2017 / Revised: 21 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
This study reported the effect of thermal wear on cylindrical tool steel (AISI H13) under aluminum die-casting conditions. The AISIH13 steels were immersed in the molten aluminum alloy at 700 °C before water-quenching at room temperature. The process involved an alternating heating and
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This study reported the effect of thermal wear on cylindrical tool steel (AISI H13) under aluminum die-casting conditions. The AISIH13 steels were immersed in the molten aluminum alloy at 700 °C before water-quenching at room temperature. The process involved an alternating heating and cooling of each sample for a period of 24 s. The design of the immersion test apparatus stylistically simulated aluminum alloy dies casting conditions. The testing phase was performed at 1850, 3000, and 5000 cycles. The samples were subjected to visual inspection after each phase of testing, before being examined for metallographic studies, surface crack measurement, and hardness characteristics. Furthermore, the samples were segmented and examined under optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The areas around the crack zones were additionally examined under Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS). The crack’s maximum length and Vickers hardness profiles were obtained; and from the metallographic study, an increase in the number of cycles during the testing phase resulted in an increase in the surface crack formation; suggesting an increase in the thermal stress at higher cycle numbers. The crack length of Region I (spherically shaped) was about 47 to 127 µm, with a high oxygen content that was analyzed within 140 µm from the surface of the sample. At 700 °C, there is a formation of aluminum oxides, which was in contact with the surface of the H13 sample. These stresses propagate the thermal wear crack length into the tool material of spherically shaped Region I and cylindrically shape Region II, while hardness parameters presented a different observation. The crack length of Region I was about 32% higher than the crack length of Region II. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Wear for Steels)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle In Situ Characterization of Inconel 718 Post-Dynamic Recrystallization within a Scanning Electron Microscope
Metals 2017, 7(11), 476; doi:10.3390/met7110476
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 29 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
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Abstract
Microstructure evolution within the post-dynamic regime following hot deformation was investigated in Inconel 718 samples with different dynamically recrystallized volume fractions and under conditions such that no δ-phase particles were present. In situ annealing treatments carried out to mimic post-dynamic conditions inside the
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Microstructure evolution within the post-dynamic regime following hot deformation was investigated in Inconel 718 samples with different dynamically recrystallized volume fractions and under conditions such that no δ-phase particles were present. In situ annealing treatments carried out to mimic post-dynamic conditions inside the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) chamber suggest the occurrence of both metadynamic and static recrystallization mechanisms. Static recrystallization was observed in addition to metadynamic recrystallization, only when the initial dynamically recrystallized volume fraction was very small. The initial volume fraction of dynamically recrystallized grains appears to be decisive for subsequent microstructural evolution mechanisms and kinetics. In addition, the formation of annealing twins is observed along with the growth of recrystallized grains, but then the twin density decreases as the material enters the capillarity-driven grain growth regime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior of Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Fly Ash Addition on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of AA6063 Alloy Reinforcement
Metals 2017, 7(11), 477; doi:10.3390/met7110477
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
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Abstract
Aluminum-fly ash particulate-reinforced composites (AA6063-FA) have been used in various engineering fields, such as automotive and aerospace industries, due to their low density and good mechanical properties. There are many fabrication techniques available to manufacture these composites according to matrix and reinforcement materials.
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Aluminum-fly ash particulate-reinforced composites (AA6063-FA) have been used in various engineering fields, such as automotive and aerospace industries, due to their low density and good mechanical properties. There are many fabrication techniques available to manufacture these composites according to matrix and reinforcement materials. The compocasting technique for the fabrication of the AA6063 matrix composite reinforced with fly ash particles is the focus of this research. Fly ash content was in the range of 0–12 wt % in increasing increments of 2%. Fly ash particles were added to the molten AA6063 alloy until they were completely blended and cooled down just below the liquidus to keep the slurry in the semi-solid state. After this, the molten AA6063-FA composites were cast into prepared cast iron molds. Bulk density and apparent porosity measurements, Charpy impact testing, Vickers microhardness measurements, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS) elemental mapping were used to evaluate these materials. The results showed that an increase in the fly ash content in the melted leads results in an increase in the microhardness and porosity in the composites. In contrast, the bulk density and Charpy impact energy of the composites decreased with an increase in the fly ash content. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Microstructure Formation and Resistivity Change in CuCr during Rapid Solidification
Metals 2017, 7(11), 478; doi:10.3390/met7110478
Received: 5 October 2017 / Revised: 29 October 2017 / Accepted: 29 October 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
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Abstract
The formation of the surface-near microstructure after a current interruption of CuCr contact materials in a vacuum interrupter is characterized by a fast heating and subsequently rapid solidification process. In the present article, we reveal and analyse the formation of two distinct microstructural
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The formation of the surface-near microstructure after a current interruption of CuCr contact materials in a vacuum interrupter is characterized by a fast heating and subsequently rapid solidification process. In the present article, we reveal and analyse the formation of two distinct microstructural regions that result from the heat, which is generated and dissipated during interruption. In the topmost region, local and global texture, as well as the resulting microstructure, indicate that both Cu and Cr were melted during rapid heating and solidification whereas in the region underneath, only Cu was melted and elongated Cu-grains solidified with the <001>-direction perpendicularly aligned to the surface. By analysing the lattice parameter of the Cu solid solution, a supersaturation of the solid solution with about 2.25 at % Cr was found independent if Cu was melted solely or together with the Cr. The according reduction of electrical conductivity in the topmost region subsequent to current interruption and the resulting heat distribution are discussed based on these experimental results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Method to Determine the Electrical Resistance of a Metallic Powder Mass under Compression
Metals 2017, 7(11), 479; doi:10.3390/met7110479
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, a phenomenological model to predict the value of the electrical resistance of a compressed metal powder mass is proposed. The model, based on the experimental compressibility and resistivity-porosity curves, is useful in the field of the electrical resistance consolidation. In
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In this paper, a phenomenological model to predict the value of the electrical resistance of a compressed metal powder mass is proposed. The model, based on the experimental compressibility and resistivity-porosity curves, is useful in the field of the electrical resistance consolidation. In this area is often required to find out whether a certain mass of powder inside a die of specified inner section, and subjected to a certain compression, reaches a sufficiently small resistance value so that it can be consolidated by electrical means. The model also predicts the electrical resistance value of the powder mass in case of powders with no oxide layers, or after removing them mechanically or electrically by a previous activation process. The model predictions have been successfully validated through direct measurements of electrical resistance in powder aggregates both in as-received state and after electrical activation. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Anisotropic Hardening Behaviour and Springback of Advanced High-Strength Steels
Metals 2017, 7(11), 480; doi:10.3390/met7110480
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
Advanced high-strength steels (AHSSs) exhibit large, and sometimes anisotropic, springback recovery after forming. Accurate description of the anisotropic elasto-plastic behaviour of sheet metals is critical for predicting their anisotropic springback behaviour. For some materials, the initial anisotropy is maintained while hardening progresses. However,
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Advanced high-strength steels (AHSSs) exhibit large, and sometimes anisotropic, springback recovery after forming. Accurate description of the anisotropic elasto-plastic behaviour of sheet metals is critical for predicting their anisotropic springback behaviour. For some materials, the initial anisotropy is maintained while hardening progresses. However, for other materials, anisotropy changes with hardening. In this work, to account for the evolution of anisotropy of a dual-phase steel, an elastoplastic material constitutive model is developed. In particular, the combined isotropic–kinematic hardening model was modified. Tensile loading–unloading, uniaxial and biaxial tension, and tension–compression tests were conducted along the rolling, diagonal, and transverse directions to measure the anisotropic properties, and the parameters of the proposed constitutive model were determined. For validation, the proposed model was applied to a U-bending process, and the measured springback angles were compared to the predicted ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plastic Forming of Metals)
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Open AccessArticle Development of a Novel Degradation-Controlled Magnesium-Based Regeneration Membrane for Future Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) Therapy
Metals 2017, 7(11), 481; doi:10.3390/met7110481
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
This study aimed to develop and evaluate the ECO-friendly Mg-5Zn-0.5Zr (ECO505) alloy for application in dental-guided bone regeneration (GBR). The microstructure and surface properties of biomedical Mg materials greatly influence anti-corrosion performance and biocompatibility. Accordingly, for the purpose of microstructure and surface modification,
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This study aimed to develop and evaluate the ECO-friendly Mg-5Zn-0.5Zr (ECO505) alloy for application in dental-guided bone regeneration (GBR). The microstructure and surface properties of biomedical Mg materials greatly influence anti-corrosion performance and biocompatibility. Accordingly, for the purpose of microstructure and surface modification, heat treatments and surface coatings were chosen to provide varied functional characteristics. We developed and integrated both an optimized solution heat-treatment condition and surface fluoride coating technique to fabricate a Mg-based regeneration membrane. The heat-treated Mg regeneration membrane (ARRm-H380) and duplex-treated regeneration membrane group (ARRm-H380-F24 h) were thoroughly investigated to characterize the mechanical properties, as well as the in vitro corrosion and in vivo degradation behaviors. Significant enhancement in ductility and corrosion resistance for the ARRm-H380 was obtained through the optimized solid-solution heat treatment; meanwhile, the corrosion resistance of ARRm-H380-F24 h showed further improvement, resulting in superior substrate integrity. In addition, the ARRm-H380 provided the proper amount of Mg-ion concentration to accelerate bone growth in the early stage (more than 80% new bone formation). From a specific biomedical application point of view, these research results point out a successful manufacturing route and suggest that the heat treatment and duplex treatment could be employed to offer custom functional regeneration membranes for different clinical patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Metals)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Short-Range Order on the Magnetic and Mechanical Properties of FeCoNi(AlSi)x High Entropy Alloys
Metals 2017, 7(11), 482; doi:10.3390/met7110482
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
The properties of a material are sensitive to chemically-ordered structure in multi-element alloys. Understanding the effects of chemical short-range order (SRO) on magnetic and mechanical properties is important. In this work, we use the Monte Carlo method in combination with density functional theory
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The properties of a material are sensitive to chemically-ordered structure in multi-element alloys. Understanding the effects of chemical short-range order (SRO) on magnetic and mechanical properties is important. In this work, we use the Monte Carlo method in combination with density functional theory to investigate atomic nearest neighbor distribution, magnetic moment and elastic modulus in FeCoNi (AlSi)x alloys. It is found that the prominent feature of the FeCoNi (AlSi)x alloys is the change of SRO parameters: the SRO parameters are positive between Al-Al, Al-Si, Si-Si pairs and negative between Ni-Al, Co-Si, Fe-Co, Ni-Si and Fe-Si pairs. The Al and Si elements tend to bond with Fe, Co, Ni elements to form an SRO structure. The change of the atomic nearest neighbor environment leads to a reduction in the atomic magnetic moments of magnetic elements. The calculated saturation magnetizations by considering the effect of SRO are in good accord with the experimental values. We further show that SRO leads to an increase of the elastic modulus, by sacrificing ductility and isotropy. In the study of the structure and properties of high entropy alloys, the effect of SRO should not be ignored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructure based Modeling of Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Study on Solidification Behavior and Structure of Continuously Cast U71Mn Steel
Metals 2017, 7(11), 483; doi:10.3390/met7110483
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
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Abstract
The solidification behavior and structure of continuous casting high rail U71Mn bloom, under different secondary cooling conditions and superheat, were numerically investigated using the Cellular Automaton-Finite Element (CAFE) model implemented with ProCAST software. Nail shooting and macro etch experiments of the bloom samples
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The solidification behavior and structure of continuous casting high rail U71Mn bloom, under different secondary cooling conditions and superheat, were numerically investigated using the Cellular Automaton-Finite Element (CAFE) model implemented with ProCAST software. Nail shooting and macro etch experiments of the bloom samples under different cooling conditions were conducted to verify the model of macroscopic solidification and structure. The results showed that the simulated results of the solidified shell and solidification structure are basically consistent with experimental results. The secondary cooling condition has little effect on the grain size and distribution of the bloom, while both the bloom surface and corner temperatures are higher and the temperature rise at the beginning of the air-cooling zone is smaller under the super-slow cooling condition. The percentage of center-equiaxed grains decreases from 44.6% to 20.1% and the grain average radius increases from 1.025 to 1.128 mm when the superheat increases from 15 to 40 K, with little change in the grain size occurring between 15 and 20 K. Moreover, for a step increase in the superheat of 5 K, the solidification end is lengthened by about 0.19 m and the surface temperature is enhanced by 3 K. The super-slow secondary cooling condition with the superheat controlled within 20 K is suitable for big-bloom casting. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation of Forming Forces in Frictional Stir Incremental Forming of Aluminum Alloy AA6061-T6
Metals 2017, 7(11), 484; doi:10.3390/met7110484
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
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Abstract
The incremental sheet forming (ISF) process is an emerging flexible sheet-forming process, which is adequate for the manufacturing of unique or small-volume batches. Single-point incremental forming (SPIF) is the original technology of incremental sheet-forming processes. In this article, frictional stir-assisted SPIF was used
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The incremental sheet forming (ISF) process is an emerging flexible sheet-forming process, which is adequate for the manufacturing of unique or small-volume batches. Single-point incremental forming (SPIF) is the original technology of incremental sheet-forming processes. In this article, frictional stir-assisted SPIF was used to deform AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy. Experimental tests were conducted to measure the forming forces during this process for the concerned lightweight material. The influence of process parameters was investigated, which included tool rotation speed, feed rate, step size and tool diameter on the produced forming forces. A Taguchi technique for the design of experiment (DOE) and the varying wall angle conical frustum (VWACF) test was employed in this study. The results show that the rotation spindle speed was the most dominant parameter that affects the forming forces, followed by the step size, feed rate and tool diameter. In addition, the interaction between the feed rate and step size has a notable impact on the values of the forming forces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Materials and Manufacturing)
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Open AccessCommunication Rapid Degradation of Azo Dyes by Melt-Spun Mg-Zn-Ca Metallic Glass in Artificial Seawater
Metals 2017, 7(11), 485; doi:10.3390/met7110485
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 November 2017 / Published: 8 November 2017
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Abstract
Mg-Zn-Ca metallic glass (MG) is effective for degrading azo dyes; however, the related surface evolution and degradation mechanisms are little known. We comparatively investigated the initial surface corrosion morphologies of melt-spun Mg66Zn30Ca4 MG in deionized water and artificial
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Mg-Zn-Ca metallic glass (MG) is effective for degrading azo dyes; however, the related surface evolution and degradation mechanisms are little known. We comparatively investigated the initial surface corrosion morphologies of melt-spun Mg66Zn30Ca4 MG in deionized water and artificial seawater. It was found that the basic corrosion behavior of the MG was the same, except that the corrosion process was accelerated in seawater. The presence of NaCl obviously promotes the formation of nano-ZnO on the surface of ribbons, causing the rapid degradation of azo dyes due to the photocatalytic effect. The degradation efficiency when combined with 3.5 wt % NaCl was over 100 times higher than that without NaCl. This indicates that Mg-Zn-Ca MG ribbons are effective additives for the degradation of azo dyes in seawater. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Investigation of the Micro-Electrical Discharge Machining of Nickel-Titanium Shape Memory Alloy Using Grey Relations Coupled with Principal Component Analysis
Metals 2017, 7(11), 486; doi:10.3390/met7110486
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 5 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
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Abstract
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are advanced engineering materials which possess shape memory effects and super-elastic properties. Their high strength, high wear-resistance, pseudo plasticity, etc., makes the machining of Ni-Ti based SMAs difficult using traditional techniques. Among all non-conventional processes, micro-electric discharge machining (micro-EDM)
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Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are advanced engineering materials which possess shape memory effects and super-elastic properties. Their high strength, high wear-resistance, pseudo plasticity, etc., makes the machining of Ni-Ti based SMAs difficult using traditional techniques. Among all non-conventional processes, micro-electric discharge machining (micro-EDM) is considered one of the leading processes for micro-machining, owing to its high aspect ratio and capability to machine hard-to-cut materials with good surface finish.The selection of the most appropriate input parameter combination to provide the optimum values for various responses is very important in micro-EDM. This article demonstrates the methodology for optimizing multiple quality characteristics (overcut, taper angle and surface roughness) to enhance the quality of micro-holes in Ni-Ti based alloy, using the Grey–Taguchi method. A Taguchi-based grey relational analysis coupled with principal component analysis (Grey-PCA) methodology was implemented to investigate the effect of three important micro-EDM process parameters, namely capacitance, voltage and electrode material.The analysis of the individual responses established the importance of multi-response optimization. The main effects plots for the micro-EDM parameters and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicate that every parameter does not produce same effect on individual responses, and also that the percent contribution of each parameter to individual response is highly varied. As a result, multi-response optimization was implemented using Grey-PCA. Further, this study revealed that the electrode material had the strongest effect on the multi-response parameter, followed by the voltage and capacitance. The main effects plot for the Grey-PCA shows that the micro-EDM parameters “capacitance” at level-2 (i.e., 475 pF), “discharge voltage” at level-1 (i.e., 80 V) and the “electrode material” Cu provided the best multi-response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machining and Finishing of Nickel and Titanium Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Surface Mechanical Properties and Grindability of Binary Ti Alloys Containing 5 wt % Al, Cr, Sn, and V
Metals 2017, 7(11), 487; doi:10.3390/met7110487
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
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Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the surface mechanical properties and the grindability of Ti alloys. Binary Ti alloys containing 5 wt % concentrations of Al, Cr, Sn, or V were prepared using a vacuum arc melting furnace, and their surface
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This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the surface mechanical properties and the grindability of Ti alloys. Binary Ti alloys containing 5 wt % concentrations of Al, Cr, Sn, or V were prepared using a vacuum arc melting furnace, and their surface properties and grindability were compared to those of commercially pure Ti (cp-Ti). Ti alloys containing Al and Sn had microstructures that consisted of only α phase, while Ti alloys containing Cr and V had lamellar microstructures that consisted of α + β phases. The Vickers microhardness of Ti alloys was increased compared to those of cp-Ti by the solid solution strengthening effect. Among Ti alloys, Ti alloy containing Al had the highest Vickers microhardness. At a low SiC wheel speed of 5000 rpm, the grinding rates of Ti alloys showed an increasing tendency as the hardness values of Ti alloys decreased. At a high SiC wheel speed of 10,000 rpm, the grinding rates of Ti alloys showed an increasing tendency as the tensile strength values increased. The Ti alloy containing Al, which showed the lowest tensile strength, had the lowest grinding rate. The grinding ratios of the Ti alloys were higher than those of cp-Ti at both wheel revolution speeds of 5000 and 10,000 rpm. The grinding ratio of the Ti alloy containing Al was significantly increased at 10,000 rpm (p < 0.05). Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Inhibition of Brass (80/20) by 5-Mercaptopentyl-3-Amino-1,2,4-Triazole in Neutral Solutions
Metals 2017, 7(11), 488; doi:10.3390/met7110488
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 5 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
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Abstract
The effect of the adsorption of 5-mercaptopentyl-3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (MPATA) on the corrosive behavior of brass (Cu80/Zn20) in neutral (pH 7.4) borate buffer solutions with and without 0.01 M NaCl was studied. Electrochemical methods show significant decrease of the anodic and cathodic currents on the
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The effect of the adsorption of 5-mercaptopentyl-3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (MPATA) on the corrosive behavior of brass (Cu80/Zn20) in neutral (pH 7.4) borate buffer solutions with and without 0.01 M NaCl was studied. Electrochemical methods show significant decrease of the anodic and cathodic currents on the polarization curves in the presence of MPATA. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals MPATA adsorption on the brass surface from an inhibitor solution. After 17 h of exposure, a mixed complex [CuxZnyMPATAz] with a thickness of about 3–3.5 nm is formed on the surface. This nanolayer has sufficient protective ability to withstand corrosion tests in a salt fog chamber: after 5 days of testing, the samples remain glossy and less than 1% of the surface has been damaged. After corrosion tests in a salt fog chamber, the surface of unprotected samples is enriched with zinc, while at the surface of inhibitor-treated samples, the copper and zinc are present in practically equal contents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion Inhibition)
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Open AccessArticle Revisiting Mg–Mg2Ni System from Electronic Perspective
Metals 2017, 7(11), 489; doi:10.3390/met7110489
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
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Abstract
Both Mg and Mg2Ni are promising electrode materials in conversion-type secondary batteries. Earlier studies have shown their single-phase prospects in electro-devices, while in this work, we have quantitatively reported the electronic properties of their dual-phase materials, that is, Mg–Mg2Ni
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Both Mg and Mg2Ni are promising electrode materials in conversion-type secondary batteries. Earlier studies have shown their single-phase prospects in electro-devices, while in this work, we have quantitatively reported the electronic properties of their dual-phase materials, that is, Mg–Mg2Ni alloys, and analyzed the underlying reasons behind the property changes of materials. The hypoeutectic Mg–Mg2Ni alloys are found to be evidently more conductive than the hypereutectic Mg–Mg2Ni system. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations give the intrinsic origin of electronic structures of both Mg2Ni and Mg. The morphology of quasi-nanoscale eutectics is another factor that can affect the electronic properties of the investigated alloy system; that is, the electrical property change of the investigated alloys system is due to a combination of the intrinsic property difference between the two constituting phases and the change of eutectic microstructures that affect electron scattering. In addition, regarding the Mg–Mg2Ni alloy design for device applications, the electronic property and mechanical aspect should be well balanced. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Dynamic Reheating Induced by Weaving on the Microstructure of GTAW Weld Metal of 25% Cr Super Duplex Stainless Steel Weld Metal
Metals 2017, 7(11), 490; doi:10.3390/met7110490
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
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Abstract
The importance of the additional growth and/or transformation of the austenite phase that occurs in weld metals of super duplex stainless steel upon reheating is known. However, the effects have not been fully investigated, especially with respect to reheating induced by weaving during
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The importance of the additional growth and/or transformation of the austenite phase that occurs in weld metals of super duplex stainless steel upon reheating is known. However, the effects have not been fully investigated, especially with respect to reheating induced by weaving during single-pass welding. In this work, bead-on-pipe gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) was conducted on super duplex stainless steel to understand the effect of weaving on the microstructure of weld metal. Microstructural analysis, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and focused ion beam transmission electron microscopy (FIB-TEM) were carried out to investigate the relationship between weaving and microstructural change. The weaving of GTAW produced a dynamic reheated area just before the weld bead during welding. It was revealed that extensive reheated weld existed even after one welding pass, and that the content of the austenite phase in the reheated area was higher than that in the non-reheated area, indicating the existence of a large quantity of intragranular austenite phase. In addition, the Cr2N content in the reheated area was lower than that in the non-reheated area. This reduction of Cr2N was closely related to the reheating resulting from weaving. TEM analysis revealed that Cr2N in the non-reheated area was dispersed following heating and transformed to secondary austenite. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Validation of an FSW Model with an Enhanced Friction Law: Application to a Threaded Cylindrical Pin Tool
Metals 2017, 7(11), 491; doi:10.3390/met7110491
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
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Abstract
This work adopts a fast and accurate two-stage computational strategy for the analysis of FSW (Friction stir welding) processes using threaded cylindrical pin tools. The coupled thermo-mechanical problem is equipped with an enhanced friction model to include the effect of non-uniform pressure distribution
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This work adopts a fast and accurate two-stage computational strategy for the analysis of FSW (Friction stir welding) processes using threaded cylindrical pin tools. The coupled thermo-mechanical problem is equipped with an enhanced friction model to include the effect of non-uniform pressure distribution under the pin shoulder. The overall numerical strategy is successfully validated by the experimental measurements provided by the industrial partner (Sapa). The verification of the numerical model using the experimental evidence is not only accomplished in terms of temperature evolution but also in terms of torque, longitudinal, transversal and vertical forces. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar Al/Steel Butt Joints Produced by Autogenous Laser Keyhole Welding
Metals 2017, 7(11), 492; doi:10.3390/met7110492
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
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Abstract
Dissimilar Al/steel butt joints of 6.0 mm thick plates have been achieved using fiber laser keyhole welding autogenously. The cross sections, interface microstructures, hardness and tensile properties of Al/steel butt joints obtained under different travel speeds and laser beam offsets were investigated. The
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Dissimilar Al/steel butt joints of 6.0 mm thick plates have been achieved using fiber laser keyhole welding autogenously. The cross sections, interface microstructures, hardness and tensile properties of Al/steel butt joints obtained under different travel speeds and laser beam offsets were investigated. The phase morphology and thickness of the intermetallic compound (IMC) layers at the interface were analyzed by scanning electronic microscopes (SEM) using the energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The results show that travel speeds and laser beam offsets are of considerable importance for the weld shape, morphology and thickness of IMC layers, and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of Al/steel butt joints. This proves that the IMC layers consist of Fe2Al5 phases and Fe4Al13 phases by EBSD phase mapping. Increasing laser beam offsets from 0.3 mm to 0.7 mm significantly decreases the quantity of Fe4Al13 phases and the thickness of Fe2Al5 layers at the interface. During tensile processing, the Fe2Al5 layer with the weakest bonding strength is the most brittle region at the interface. However, an intergranular fracture that occurred at Fe2Al5 layers leads to a relatively high UTS of Al/steel butt joints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Welding)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Hydrogen on the Elastic and Anelastic Properties of the R Phase in Ti50Ni46.1Fe3.9 Alloy
Metals 2017, 7(11), 493; doi:10.3390/met7110493
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
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Abstract
The linear and non-linear internal friction, effective Young’s modulus, and amplitude-dependent modulus defect of a Ti50Ni46.1Fe3.9 alloy have been studied after different heat treatments, affecting hydrogen content, at temperatures of 13–300 K, and frequencies near 90 kHz. It
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The linear and non-linear internal friction, effective Young’s modulus, and amplitude-dependent modulus defect of a Ti50Ni46.1Fe3.9 alloy have been studied after different heat treatments, affecting hydrogen content, at temperatures of 13–300 K, and frequencies near 90 kHz. It has been shown that the contamination of the alloy by hydrogen gives rise to an internal friction maximum in the R martensitic phase and a complicated pinning stage in the temperature dependence of the effective Young’s modulus at temperatures corresponding to the high-temperature side of the maximum. Dehydrogenation of the H-contaminated alloy transforms the internal friction maximum into a plateau and minimizes the pinning stage. The internal friction maximum is associated with a competition of two different temperature-dependent processes affecting the hydrogen concentration in the core regions of twin boundaries. The amplitude-dependent anelasticity of the R phase is also very sensitive to hydrogen content, its temperature dependence reflects the evolution of extended hydrogen atmospheres near twin boundaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Alloys 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Annealing Behavior of 6061 Al Alloy Subjected to Differential Speed Rolling Deformation
Metals 2017, 7(11), 494; doi:10.3390/met7110494
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
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Abstract
This study investigated the effects of heat treatment (annealing) on the microstructure of ultrafine grained 6061 Al alloy samples fabricated by a differential speed rolling (DSR) process. The samples were fabricated using two passes DSR with 75% thickness reduction and a speed ratio
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This study investigated the effects of heat treatment (annealing) on the microstructure of ultrafine grained 6061 Al alloy samples fabricated by a differential speed rolling (DSR) process. The samples were fabricated using two passes DSR with 75% thickness reduction and a speed ratio of 1:4. The DSR-deformed 6061 Al alloy sample exhibited a lamellar boundary structure composed mostly of subgrains surrounded by low-angle grain boundaries. After annealing, the DSR-deformed 6061 Al alloy samples exhibited coarse grained structure and transformed from lamellar to equiaxed, where both the grain size and grain shape aspect ratio increased with increasing annealing temperature. The fraction of grain boundaries with high misorientation angles increased progressively during annealing, to ~77% at annealing temperature of 350 °C. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Si and Zr on the Microstructure and Properties of Al-Fe-Si-Zr Alloys
Metals 2017, 7(11), 495; doi:10.3390/met7110495
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 11 November 2017
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Abstract
The effects of Si and Zr on the microstructure, microhardness and electrical conductivity of Al-Fe-Si-Zr alloys were studied. An increase in the Zr content over 0.3 wt. % leads to the formation of primary Al3Zr inclusions and also decreases mechanical properties.
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The effects of Si and Zr on the microstructure, microhardness and electrical conductivity of Al-Fe-Si-Zr alloys were studied. An increase in the Zr content over 0.3 wt. % leads to the formation of primary Al3Zr inclusions and also decreases mechanical properties. Therefore, the Zr content should not be more than 0.3 wt. %, although the smaller content is insufficient for the strengthening by the secondary Al3Zr precipitates. The present results indicate that high content of Si significantly affects the hardness and electrical conductivity of the investigated alloys. However, the absence of Si led to the formation of harmful needle-shaped Al3Fe particles in the microstructure of the investigated alloys after annealing. Therefore, the optimum amount of Si was 0.25–0.50 wt. % due to the formation of the Al8Fe2Si phase with the preferable platelet morphology. The maximum microhardness and strengthening effects in Al-1% Fe-0.25% Si-0.3% Zr were observed after annealing at 400–450 °C due to the formation of nanosized coherent Al3Zr (L12) dispersoids. The effect of the increasing of the electrical conductivity can be explained by the decomposition of the solid solution. Thus, Al-1% Fe-0.25% Si-0.3% Zr alloy annealed at 450 °C has been studied in detail as the most attractive with respect to the special focus on transmission line applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Virtual Testing of Composite Structures Made of High Entropy Alloys and Steel
Metals 2017, 7(11), 496; doi:10.3390/met7110496
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 11 November 2017
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Abstract
High entropy alloys (HEA) are metallic materials obtained from a mixture of at least five atomic-scale chemical elements. They are characterized by high mechanical strength, good thermal stability and hardenability. AlCrFeCoNi alloys have high compression strength and tensile strength values of 2004 MPa,
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High entropy alloys (HEA) are metallic materials obtained from a mixture of at least five atomic-scale chemical elements. They are characterized by high mechanical strength, good thermal stability and hardenability. AlCrFeCoNi alloys have high compression strength and tensile strength values of 2004 MPa, respectively 1250 MPa and elongation of about 32.7%. These materials can be used to create HEA-steel type composite structures which resist to dynamic deformation during high speed impacts. The paper presents four different composite structures made from a combination of HEA and carbon steel plates, using different joining processes. The numerical simulation of the impact behavior of the composite structures was performed by virtual methods, taking into account the mechanical properties of both materials. For analyzing each constructive variant, three virtual shootings were designed, using a 7.62 × 39 mm cal. incendiary armor-piercing bullet and different impact velocities. The best ballistic behavior was provided by the composite structures obtained by welding and brazing that have good continuity and rigidity. The other composite structures, which do not have good surface adhesion, show high fragmentation risk, because the rear plate can fragment on the axis of shooting due to the combination between the shock waves and the reflected ones. The order of materials in the composite structure has a very important role in decreasing the impact energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Entropy Alloys (HEAs))
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Open AccessArticle The Formation of Composite Ti-Al-N Coatings Using Filtered Vacuum Arc Deposition with Separate Cathodes
Metals 2017, 7(11), 497; doi:10.3390/met7110497
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 12 November 2017
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Abstract
Ti-Al-N coatings were deposited on high-speed steel substrates by filtered vacuum arc deposition (FVAD) during evaporation of aluminum and titanium cathodes. Distribution of elements, phase composition, and mechanical properties of Ti-Al-N coatings were investigated using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission
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Ti-Al-N coatings were deposited on high-speed steel substrates by filtered vacuum arc deposition (FVAD) during evaporation of aluminum and titanium cathodes. Distribution of elements, phase composition, and mechanical properties of Ti-Al-N coatings were investigated using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoindentation, respectively. Additionally, tribological tests and scratch tests of the coatings were performed. The stoichiometry of the coating changes from Ti0.6Al0.4N to Ti0.48Al0.52N with increasing aluminum arc current from 70 A to 90 A, respectively. XRD and TEM showed only face-centered cubic Ti-Al-N phase with preferred orientation of the crystallites in (220) direction with respect to the sample normal and without precipitates of AlN or intermetallics inside the coatings. Incorporation of Al into the TiN lattice caused shifting of the (220) reflex to a higher 2θ angle with increasing Al content. Low content and size of microdroplets were obtained using coaxial plasma filters, which provides good mechanical and tribological properties of the coatings. The highest value of microhardness (36 GPa) and the best wear-resistance were achieved for the coating with higher Al content, thus for Ti0.48Al0.52N. These coatings exhibit good adhesive properties up to 30 N load in the scratch tests. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of the Deformation Mechanism of a near β Titanium Alloy through Isothermal Compression
Metals 2017, 7(11), 498; doi:10.3390/met7110498
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 12 November 2017
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Abstract
This study investigated the hot deformation behavior of Ti-4Al-1Sn-2Zr-5Mo-8V-2.5Cr alloy through isothermal compression tests at temperatures from 780 to 930 °C with strain rates ranging from 0.001 to 1 s−1. The flow stress decreases with a decreased strain rate and an
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This study investigated the hot deformation behavior of Ti-4Al-1Sn-2Zr-5Mo-8V-2.5Cr alloy through isothermal compression tests at temperatures from 780 to 930 °C with strain rates ranging from 0.001 to 1 s−1. The flow stress decreases with a decreased strain rate and an increased temperature. A constitutive equation was established for this alloy and the dependence of activation energy on temperature and strain rate is discussed. We further proposed a processing map using the dynamic materials model. On the processing map various domains of flow stability and flow instability can be identified. The deformation mechanisms associated with flow stability regions are mainly dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and dynamic recovery (DRV). The flow instability is manifested in the form of the band of flow localizations. The optimum processing conditions are suggested such that the temperature range is from 780 to 880 °C and the strain rate ranges from 0.001 to 0.01 s−1. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Reduced Graphene Oxide Reinforced 7075 Al Matrix Composites: Powder Synthesis and Mechanical Properties
Metals 2017, 7(11), 499; doi:10.3390/met7110499
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
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Abstract
Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) reinforced 7075 Al matrix composites were fabricated by electrostatic self-assembly and powder metallurgy. 7075 Al powders were surface modified by introducing a cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) membrane on the surface, which was able to form a strong bonding
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Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) reinforced 7075 Al matrix composites were fabricated by electrostatic self-assembly and powder metallurgy. 7075 Al powders were surface modified by introducing a cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) membrane on the surface, which was able to form a strong bonding with graphene oxide (GO) through electrostatic interaction. During the vacuum sintering process, CTAB was effectively removed and GO was thermally reduced into rGO. Morphologies of GO nanosheets, GO/7075 Al powders, microstructures, and tensile fractographs of the composites were observed. The effect of rGO content on mechanical properties of rGO/7075 Al composites was investigated. The results show that a good bonding between rGO and matrix is achieved. With the rGO content increasing, the hardness increases gradually, while the ultimate tensile strength and yield strength initially increase and later decrease. The improvement in strength of rGO/7075 Al composites was attributed to stress transfer and dislocation strengthening. With rGO content reaching 0.50 wt %, the excessive addition of rGO gave rise to a weakening in the enhancement of the tensile properties due to the increasing amounts of brittle Al4C3 and cracks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Matrix Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Microstructure and Properties of Porous Si3N4/Dense Si3N4 Joints Bonded Using RE–Si–Al–O–N (RE = Y or Yb) Glasses
Metals 2017, 7(11), 500; doi:10.3390/met7110500
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
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Abstract
The joining of porous Si3N4 to dense Si3N4 ceramics has been successfully performed using mixed RE2O3 (RE = Y or Yb), Al2O3, SiO2, and α-Si3N4
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The joining of porous Si3N4 to dense Si3N4 ceramics has been successfully performed using mixed RE2O3 (RE = Y or Yb), Al2O3, SiO2, and α-Si3N4 powders. The results suggested that the α-Si3N4 powders partly transformed into β-SiAlON and partly dissolved into oxide glass to form oxynitride glass. Thus, composites of glass/β-SiAlON-ceramic formed in the seam of joints. Due to the capillary action of the porous Si3N4 ceramic, the molten glass solder infiltrated into the porous Si3N4 ceramic side during the joining process and formed the “infiltration zone” with a thickness of about 400 μm, which contributed to the heterogeneous distribution of the RE–Si–Al–O–N glasses in the porous Si3N4 substrate. In-situ formation of β-SiAlON in the seam resulted in a high bonding strength. The maximum bending strength of 103 MPa and 88 MPa was reached for the porous Si3N4/dense Si3N4 joints using Y–Si–Al–O–N and Yb–Si–Al–O–N glass solders, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diffusion Bonding and Brazing of Advanced Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Characterization of a Low Magnetic Zr-1Mo Alloy by Powder Bed Fusion Using a Fiber Laser
Metals 2017, 7(11), 501; doi:10.3390/met7110501
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 4 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
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Abstract
A low magnetic Zr-1Mo alloy was fabricated by a powder bed fusion (PBF) process using a fiber laser. The microstructure, surface morphology, and pore distribution of the as-built Zr-1Mo alloy were observed. Its magnetic susceptibility and Vickers hardness were evaluated by magnetic susceptibility
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A low magnetic Zr-1Mo alloy was fabricated by a powder bed fusion (PBF) process using a fiber laser. The microstructure, surface morphology, and pore distribution of the as-built Zr-1Mo alloy were observed. Its magnetic susceptibility and Vickers hardness were evaluated by magnetic susceptibility balance and a microindentation tester, respectively. The as-built Zr-1Mo alloy mainly consisted of an α′ phase with an acicular structure. From the processing maps of the surface morphology and pore distribution, open pores on the top surface due to the lack of fusion corresponded to grid-like distributed pores, and large pores corresponded to balling particles on the top surface. The Vickers hardness was influenced by the oxygen and nitrogen contents rather than the porosity. The magnetic susceptibilities of the as-built Zr-1Mo alloy still were one-third those of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb, thus PBF can be applicable to the fabrication process for the low magnetic Zr-1Mo alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zirconium Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Matte Grade on the Distribution of Minor Elements (Pb, Zn, As, Sb, and Bi) in the Bottom Blown Copper Smelting Process
Metals 2017, 7(11), 502; doi:10.3390/met7110502
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
With increasing impurity contents in concentrates, the control of the minor elements is an important issue for the oxygen bottom blown copper smelting process (Shuikoushan process or SKS process). In this work, the distribution behaviors of the minor elements (such as Pb, Zn,
[...] Read more.
With increasing impurity contents in concentrates, the control of the minor elements is an important issue for the oxygen bottom blown copper smelting process (Shuikoushan process or SKS process). In this work, the distribution behaviors of the minor elements (such as Pb, Zn, As, Sb, and Bi) among the matte, slag, and gas phases as a function of matte grades was investigated by adjusting the ratios of oxygen/ore in the SKS process. With a matte grade around 70%, about 82% As and 70% Bi enters the gas phase, and about 70% Sb and 64% Zn reports to the slag phase, while 55% lead enters the matte phase. The tendency of changes in the distribution of the minor elements in the SKS process is different from that in the Isasmelt process and the Flash smelting process. It may be concluded from this study that the distributions of the minor elements could be optimized to reduce adverse effects in the SKS process by regulating the matte grade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Determination and Removal)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Nitrogen on Deformation-Induced Martensitic Transformation in an Austenitic 301 Stainless Steels
Metals 2017, 7(11), 503; doi:10.3390/met7110503
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
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Abstract
The effect of nitrogen on deformation-induced martensitic transformation (DIMT) in metastable 301 austenitic stainless steel has been studied based on the inelastic deformation theory. DIMT is regarded here as continuous relaxation process of internal strain energy accumulated during inelastic deformation. Using the kinetics
[...] Read more.
The effect of nitrogen on deformation-induced martensitic transformation (DIMT) in metastable 301 austenitic stainless steel has been studied based on the inelastic deformation theory. DIMT is regarded here as continuous relaxation process of internal strain energy accumulated during inelastic deformation. Using the kinetics equation based on the inelastic deformation theory the relationship between the volume fraction of transformed martensite and inelastic strain for DIMT has been successfully verified with the parameter representing the stability of austenite. The addition of nitrogen is experimentally found to increase austenite stability and the critical inelastic strain below which any DIMT is not observed to occur and to decrease the saturation volume fraction of α’ martensite. On the other hand, DIMT has been analyzed with its effect on stress-strain curve shape and mechanical properties in relation to the addition of nitrogen. The characteristic transition from sigmoidal to parabolic curve shape in stress-strain response has disappeared with the addition of nitrogen. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Laser Welding of BTi-6431S High Temperature Titanium Alloy
Metals 2017, 7(11), 504; doi:10.3390/met7110504
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
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Abstract
A new type of high temperature titanium alloy, BTi-6431S, has recently become the focus of attention as a potential material for aircraft engine applications, which could be used up to 700 °C. Pulsed laser welding was used to butt join the BTi-6431S titanium
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A new type of high temperature titanium alloy, BTi-6431S, has recently become the focus of attention as a potential material for aircraft engine applications, which could be used up to 700 °C. Pulsed laser welding was used to butt join the BTi-6431S titanium alloy in order to understand the feasibility of using fusion-based welding techniques on this material. The effect of laser energy on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints was investigated. The microstructural features of the joints were characterized by means of microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Tensile testing was conducted at both room temperature and high temperature to simulate potential service conditions. The results show that the microstructure of the laser welded joints consists of primary α phase and needle α’ phase, while the microstructure of the heat affected zone consists of α, β, and needle α’ phases. The tensile strength of the welded joints at room temperature was similar to that of the base material, despite a reduction in the maximum elongation was observed. This was related to the unfavorable microstructure in the welded joints. Nonetheless, based on these results, it is suggested that laser welding is a promising joining technique for the new BTi-6431S titanium alloy for aerospace applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Welding)
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Open AccessArticle Thermo-Calc Prediction of Mushy Zone in AlSiFeMn Alloys
Metals 2017, 7(11), 506; doi:10.3390/met7110506
Received: 22 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
Convection forces can cause significant segregation within the liquid during directional solidification, influencing the structure of the mushy zone and the type and distribution of phases present in the solidified alloy. The solidification behavior of AlSiFeMn alloys with strong convection was investigated via
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Convection forces can cause significant segregation within the liquid during directional solidification, influencing the structure of the mushy zone and the type and distribution of phases present in the solidified alloy. The solidification behavior of AlSiFeMn alloys with strong convection was investigated via experimental results combined with thermodynamic calculations. Experimental specimens were processed in a directional solidification facility with forced melt flow, resulting in high levels of elemental segregation across samples. The resulting local compositions were located on phase diagrams Al-Si-Fe, Al-Si-Mn and Al-Fe-Mn for prediction of the variation in solidification behavior. Phase mass fraction diagrams created in Thermo-Calc showed the effect of segregation on the characteristic temperatures, mushy zone length and the order of occurring phases precipitating across specimens. These findings were used to create 2D maps for visualization of the mushy zone, mass fraction of α-Al dendrites, β-Al5FeSi, Al15Si2Mn4 and their spatial location. The specimen centers showed enrichment in AlSi-eutectic but for β-Al5FeSi and Al15Si2Mn4 results are ambiguous. Fe-phases start to grow mainly behind the dendrites tips and in general may flow between them. Mn-rich phases start to precipitate at higher temperatures than β and in many places before α-Al and in this way may flow in the melt above the mushy zone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of High-Pressure Torsion on Structure and Microhardness of Ti/TiB Metal–Matrix Composite
Metals 2017, 7(11), 507; doi:10.3390/met7110507
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
PDF Full-text (4612 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Effect of high-pressure torsion (HPT) at 400 °C on microstructure and microhardness of a Ti/TiB metal–matrix composite was studied. The starting material was produced by spark plasma sintering of a mixture of a pure Ti and TiB2 (10 wt %) powders at
[...] Read more.
Effect of high-pressure torsion (HPT) at 400 °C on microstructure and microhardness of a Ti/TiB metal–matrix composite was studied. The starting material was produced by spark plasma sintering of a mixture of a pure Ti and TiB2 (10 wt %) powders at 1000 °C. The microstructure evolution during HPT was associated with an increase in dislocation density and substructure development that resulted in a gradual microstructure refinement of the Ti matrix and shortening/redistribution of TiB whiskers. After five revolutions, a nanostructure with (sub) grain size of ~30 nm was produced in Ti matrix. The microhardness increased with strain attaining the value ~520 HV after five revolutions. The contribution of different hardening mechanisms into the hardness of the Ti/TiB metal–matrix composite was quantitatively analyzed. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Modeling Inclusion Formation during Solidification of Steel: A Review
Metals 2017, 7(11), 460; doi:10.3390/met7110460
Received: 9 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
The formation of nonmetallic inclusions in the solidification process can essentially influence the properties of steels. Computational simulation provides an effective and valuable method to study the process due to the difficulty of online investigation. This paper reviews the modeling work of inclusion
[...] Read more.
The formation of nonmetallic inclusions in the solidification process can essentially influence the properties of steels. Computational simulation provides an effective and valuable method to study the process due to the difficulty of online investigation. This paper reviews the modeling work of inclusion formation during the solidification of steel. Microsegregation and inclusion formation thermodynamics and kinetics are first introduced, which are the fundamentals to simulate the phenomenon in the solidification process. Next, the thermodynamic and kinetic models coupled with microsegregation dedicated to inclusion formation are briefly described and summarized before the development and future expectations are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Recycling of Palladium from Spent Catalysts Using Solvent Extraction—Some Critical Points
Metals 2017, 7(11), 505; doi:10.3390/met7110505
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
Electrical and electronics equipment and automotive and industrial catalysts are some examples of top technological devices whose functioning rely on the use of platinum-group metals (PGMs). The PGMs’ high economic value and difficult to replace technological properties, together with their scarcity in the
[...] Read more.
Electrical and electronics equipment and automotive and industrial catalysts are some examples of top technological devices whose functioning rely on the use of platinum-group metals (PGMs). The PGMs’ high economic value and difficult to replace technological properties, together with their scarcity in the Earth’s crust, justify concerns about their critical condition and reinforce the importance of developing recycling practices for PGM end-of-life materials. This article presents and discusses recent advances regarding the use of hydrometallurgical solvent extraction to recover one PGM, palladium, from spent catalysts. Two different tendencies are implicit in the literature concerning Pd(II) extraction: a few groups focus on the adjustment and optimization of current commercial extractants, while others prefer to design new extracting compounds. Actually, the leach solutions obtained from the treatment of anthropogenic materials generally exhibit different compositions when compared to those coming from the primary resources. The pros and cons of both approaches are critically discussed, and the assumptions backing some of the reported achievements are also appraised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solvent Extraction of Critical Metals)
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Open AccessOpinion Osseoconductive and Corrosion-Inhibiting Plasma-Sprayed Calcium Phosphate Coatings for Metallic Medical Implants
Metals 2017, 7(11), 468; doi:10.3390/met7110468
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 21 October 2017 / Accepted: 22 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
During the last several decades, research into bioceramic coatings for medical implants has emerged as a hot topic among materials scientists and clinical practitioners alike. In particular, today, calcium phosphate-based bioceramic materials are ubiquitously used in clinical applications to coat the stems of
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During the last several decades, research into bioceramic coatings for medical implants has emerged as a hot topic among materials scientists and clinical practitioners alike. In particular, today, calcium phosphate-based bioceramic materials are ubiquitously used in clinical applications to coat the stems of metallic endoprosthetic hips as well as the surfaces of dental root implants. Such implants frequently consist of titanium alloys, CoCrMo alloy, or austenitic surgical stainless steels, and aim at replacing lost body parts or restoring functions to diseased or damaged tissues of the human body. In addition, besides such inherently corrosion-resistant metals, increasingly, biodegradable metals such as magnesium alloys are being researched for osseosynthetic devices and coronary stents both of which are intended to remain in the human body for only a short time. Biocompatible coatings provide not only vital biological functions by supporting osseoconductivity but may serve also to protect the metallic parts of implants from corrosion in the aggressive metabolic environment. Moreover, the essential properties of hydroxylapatite-based bioceramic coatings including their in vitro alteration in contact with simulated body fluids will be addressed in this current review paper. In addition, a paradigmatic shift is suggested towards the development of transition metal-substituted calcium hexa-orthophosphates with the NaSiCON (Na superionic conductor) structure to be used for implant coatings with superior degradation resistance in the corrosive body environment and with pronounced ionic conductivity that might be utilized in novel devices for electrical bone growth stimulation. Full article
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