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Metals, Volume 8, Issue 5 (May 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Cover story: Numerically based phase transformation maps for friction stir welded aluminum 2017A [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometer Calibration Using Hydrogenated Zr-2.5Nb Alloy Standard Samples
Metals 2018, 8(5), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050372
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 20 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
Currently, standard samples of hydrogen-metal systems meeting the requirements of glow discharge optical emission spectrometers (GD-OES) are not available on the market. This article describes the preparation of Zr-Nb-H standard samples and the calibration of GD-OES with the usage of these samples. Samples
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Currently, standard samples of hydrogen-metal systems meeting the requirements of glow discharge optical emission spectrometers (GD-OES) are not available on the market. This article describes the preparation of Zr-Nb-H standard samples and the calibration of GD-OES with the usage of these samples. Samples of Zr-2.5Nb were chosen as the material for sample production. The creation procedure includes five main steps: sample preparation (polishing to an average roughness, Ra, of 0.04 m using sandpaper), annealing, hydrogenation, maintenance in an inert gas atmosphere, and characterization of the samples. The absolute hydrogen concentration in the samples was determined volumetrically and calculated from the weight change. The distribution of hydrogen was studied using GD-OES Profiler 2 by Jobin Yvon Emission Horiba Group. As a result of this work, calibration curves of Zr, H, Nb, O, and other elements were obtained. The calibration errors were in the range of 1–5%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication Technology and Material Characterization of Hot Rolled Cylindrical Fe-6.5 wt. % Si Bars
Metals 2018, 8(5), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050371
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
Cylindrical Fe-6.5 wt. % Si bars of 7.5 mm diameter were successfully fabricated from an as-cast ingot through three rolling stages, with 10 total passes: rough rolling at 850–900 °C and 8–10 m/min; medium rolling at 800–850 °C and 10–15 m/min; finish rolling
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Cylindrical Fe-6.5 wt. % Si bars of 7.5 mm diameter were successfully fabricated from an as-cast ingot through three rolling stages, with 10 total passes: rough rolling at 850–900 °C and 8–10 m/min; medium rolling at 800–850 °C and 10–15 m/min; finish rolling at 800–850 °C and 12–18 m/min. The evolution of the microstructure, texture, and ordered structure were studied, and the mechanical properties were investigated. Results indicated that the grains were refined by the hot bar rolling. Area fractions of the {100}<011> and {011}<100> oriented grains decreased to 0 during hot bar rolling, whereas the {100}<001>, {011}<211>, and {112}<110> components increased. Furthermore, the γ fiber with {111}<110> component was dominant. After the hot bar rolling, the DO3 ordered phase was suppressed, and the B2 ordered domains were refined. Ductility of the as-rolled bar was better than that of the rotary-swaged bar, due to the absence of the DO3 ordered phase, and refinement of the grains in the rolled bar. Moreover, discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX) occurred at a high deformation rate during the rough rolling, and continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) appeared at a low strain rate during the finish rolling. Hence, hot bar rolling technology is an excellent process for the fabrication of Fe-6.5 wt. % Si bars. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Influence of the Electrolyte Nature and PEO Process Parameters on Properties of Anodized Ti-15Mo Alloy Intended for Biomedical Applications
Metals 2018, 8(5), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050370
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of Ti-15Mo alloys conducted in electrolytes containing Ca and P compounds can be an efficient process with which to obtain bioactive coatings. This paper reports on the influence of the nature of the electrolyte, its concentration, and PEO process
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Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of Ti-15Mo alloys conducted in electrolytes containing Ca and P compounds can be an efficient process with which to obtain bioactive coatings. This paper reports on the influence of the nature of the electrolyte, its concentration, and PEO process parameters on the properties of anodized layers on Ti-15Mo. A wide range of Ca- and P-containing alkaline and acidic solutions was employed to incorporate Ca and P ions into the anodized layer. The efficiency of the incorporation was evaluated by the Ca/P ratio in the coating as compared to that in the electrolyte. It was found that alkaline solutions are not suitable electrolytes for the formation of good quality, uniform PEO coatings. Only acidic electrolytes are appropriate for obtaining well-adherent homogeneous layers on Ti-15Mo. However, the maximum Ca/P ratios reached in the coatings were rather low (close to 1). The variation of electrical signal (negative-to-positive current ratio, frequency) and time of electrolysis do not result in a substantial change of this value. The processing time, however, did influence the coating thickness. Despite their low Ca/P ratio, the anodized layers demonstrate good biological activity, comparable to pure microrough titanium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation)
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Open AccessArticle Transformation Induced Plasticity Effects of a Non-Equal Molar Co-Cr-Fe-Ni High Entropy Alloy System
Metals 2018, 8(5), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050369
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 13 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
Metastability-engineering strategy is an important topic for high entropy alloys (HEAs), owing to the transformation-induced plasticity effect (TRIP). In this work, TRIP effects of Co-Cr-Fe-Ni HEAs are investigated. Results indicate the tensile deformation-induced martensitic transformation occurs in Co35Cr25Fe40−x
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Metastability-engineering strategy is an important topic for high entropy alloys (HEAs), owing to the transformation-induced plasticity effect (TRIP). In this work, TRIP effects of Co-Cr-Fe-Ni HEAs are investigated. Results indicate the tensile deformation-induced martensitic transformation occurs in Co35Cr25Fe40−xNix (x = 0–15 at %) HEAs. The excellent combination of tensile strength (760 MPa–1000 MPa) and elongation (65–35%) owe to solid solution strengthening of Co and Cr, and the TRIP effect. In non-equal molar Co-Cr-Fe-Ni systems, with the decrease of Ni content, the values of stacking fault energy (SFE) decrease; thus, TRIP phenomena occurs. Based on the experimental investigation in three different regions of the Co-Cr-Fe-Ni multicomponent phase diagram, the face-centered cubic structured Co-Cr-Fe-Ni HEAs with VEC of ~8.0 is more metastable, and TRIP phenomena are more likely to occur. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Study on the Influence of a Swirling Flow Tundish on Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer in Mold
Metals 2018, 8(5), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050368
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
The effect of a new cylindrical swirling flow tundish design on the multiphase flow and heat transfer in a mold was studied. The RSM (Reynolds stress model) and the VOF (volume of fluid) model were used to solve the steel and slag flow
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The effect of a new cylindrical swirling flow tundish design on the multiphase flow and heat transfer in a mold was studied. The RSM (Reynolds stress model) and the VOF (volume of fluid) model were used to solve the steel and slag flow phenomena. The effect of the swirling flow tundish design on the temperature distribution and inclusion motion was also studied. The results show that the new tundish design significantly changed the flow behavior in the mold, compared to a conventional tundish casting. Specifically, the deep impingement jet from the SEN (Submerged Entry Nozzle) outlet disappeared in the mold, and steel with a high temperature moved towards the solidified shell due to the swirling flow effect. Steel flow velocity in the top of the mold was increased. A large velocity in the vicinity of the solidified shell was obtained. Furthermore, the risk of the slag entrainment in the mold was also estimated. With the swirling flow tundish casting, the temperature distribution became more uniform, and the dissipation of the steel superheat was accelerated. In addition, inclusion trajectories in the mold also changed, which tend to stay at the top of the mold for a time. A future study is still required to further optimize the steel flow in mold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuous Casting of Steel)
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Open AccessArticle Microstructural and XRD Analysis and Study of the Properties of the System Ti-TiAl-B4C Processed under Different Operational Conditions
Metals 2018, 8(5), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050367
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
High specific modulus materials are considered excellent for the aerospace industry. The system Ti-TiAl-B4C is presented herein as an alternative material. Secondary phases formed in situ during fabrication vary depending on the processing conditions and composition of the starting materials. The
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High specific modulus materials are considered excellent for the aerospace industry. The system Ti-TiAl-B4C is presented herein as an alternative material. Secondary phases formed in situ during fabrication vary depending on the processing conditions and composition of the starting materials. The final behaviors of these materials are therefore difficult to predict. This research focuses on the study of the system Ti-TiAl-B4C, whereby relations between microstructure and properties can be predicted in terms of the processing parameters of the titanium matrix composites (TMCs). The powder metallurgy technique employed to fabricate the TMCs was that of inductive hot pressing (iHP) since it offers versatility and flexibility. The short processing time employed (5 min) was set in order to test the temperature as a major factor of influence in the secondary reactions. The pressure was also varied. In order to perform this research, not only were X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses performed, but also microstructural characterization through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Significant results showed that there was an inflection temperature from which the trend to form secondary compounds depended on the starting material used. Hence, the addition of TiAl as an elementary blend or as prealloyed powder played a significant role in the final behavior of the TMCs fabricated, where the prealloyed TiAl provides a better precursor of the formation of the reinforcement phases from 1100 °C regardless of the pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing-Structure-Property Relationships in Metals)
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Open AccessArticle Phase Diagram of near Equiatomic Zr-Pd Alloy
Metals 2018, 8(5), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050366
Received: 28 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
The exact eutectoid and peritectoid temperatures in near equiatomic Zr-Pd compositions have been determined by using the diffusion couple method and microstructure analysis. The crystal structure of Zr13Pd12 compound were estimated to be orthorhombic with a = 1.78 nm, b
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The exact eutectoid and peritectoid temperatures in near equiatomic Zr-Pd compositions have been determined by using the diffusion couple method and microstructure analysis. The crystal structure of Zr13Pd12 compound were estimated to be orthorhombic with a = 1.78 nm, b = 0.80 nm and c = 1.00 nm from the electron diffraction experiments. The Zr13Pd12 compound is formed at 1100 ± 2 K with a peritectoid reaction between Zr2Pd and ZrPd compounds. The ZrPd compound transforms to Zr13Pd12 and Zr9Pd11 compounds by a eutectoid reaction at 1028 ± 4 K. Based on these results, the phase diagram of near equiatomic Zr-Pd binary system is reconstructed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zirconium Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle Tensile–Shear Fracture Behavior Prediction of High-Strength Steel Laser Overlap Welds
Metals 2018, 8(5), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050365
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract
A wider interface bead width is required for laser overlap welding by increasing the strength of the base material (BM) because the strength difference between the weld metal (WM) and the BM decreases. An insufficient interface bead width leads to interface fracturing rather
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A wider interface bead width is required for laser overlap welding by increasing the strength of the base material (BM) because the strength difference between the weld metal (WM) and the BM decreases. An insufficient interface bead width leads to interface fracturing rather than to the fracture of the BM and heat-affected zone (HAZ) during a tensile–shear test. An analytic model was developed to predict the tensile–shear fracture location without destructive testing. The model estimated the hardness of the WM and HAZ by using information such as the chemical composition and tensile strength of the BM provided by the steel makers. The strength of the weldments was calculated from the estimated hardness. The developed model considered overlap weldments with similar and dissimilar material combinations of various steel grades from 590 to 1500 MPa. The critical interface bead width for avoiding interface fracturing was suggested with an accuracy higher than 90%. Under all the experimental conditions, a bead width that was only 5% larger than the calculated value could prevent the fracture of the interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Welding of Industrial Metal Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle An Equivalent Calculation Method for Press-Braking Bending Analysis of Integral Panels
Metals 2018, 8(5), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050364
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 6 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract
Press-braking bending is widely applied in the manufacture of aircraft integral panels because of the advantages of strong adaptability to different contours, simplicity of bending tools, short manufacturing time and low process cost. However, a simulation of bending process requires long-time calculation and
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Press-braking bending is widely applied in the manufacture of aircraft integral panels because of the advantages of strong adaptability to different contours, simplicity of bending tools, short manufacturing time and low process cost. However, a simulation of bending process requires long-time calculation and consumes extensive computational resources. Considering the factors that the original model (ORM) of an integral panel is large and the press-braking bending is used only for the local area of integral panels with heavy thickness in practice, an equivalent calculation method for press-braking bending analysis of integral panels is proposed. The local bending area of an integral panel is simplified to a model of plate in this method. An exponential strengthening model is used to derive the equations of stress, strain and forming radius of the ORM and its simplified model (SPM). Meanwhile, the equivalent parameters of the SPM are determined and deduced based on three principles: that the material begin to be yielded simultaneously, the ultimate stress of the ORM is the same as that of the SPM at the same punch displacement, and the forming radii of neutral surfaces of the ORM and the SPM are identical after springback. The distribution of the stress and strain determined by finite element (FE) simulations are compared, and the FE simulations indicate that the contour curve of the SPM is in fairly good agreement with the profile of the ORM under the same bending process parameters, and the maximum difference is 13.17%. The computational efficiency is increased by more than 48%. Therefore, the proposed approach is quite suitable for industrial applications to improve the bending quality and efficiency of integral panels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Aerospace Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Electrodeposition of Fe-C Alloys from Citrate Baths: Structure, Mechanical Properties, and Thermal Stability
Metals 2018, 8(5), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050363
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
A new citrate-based electrolyte is proposed for the electrodeposition of thick Fe-C films. The structure and properties of the deposits are compared to those from another electrolyte previously reported in the literature. Both consist of a nanocrystalline single-phase structure with a grain size
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A new citrate-based electrolyte is proposed for the electrodeposition of thick Fe-C films. The structure and properties of the deposits are compared to those from another electrolyte previously reported in the literature. Both consist of a nanocrystalline single-phase structure with a grain size of 20 nm, which results in a hardness of up to 660 HV. Due to its higher growth rate, the new electrolyte is a promising candidate for the deposition of thick films. However, the codeposition of oxygen causes embrittlement, limiting the application of the deposits from both the new and the known electrolyte. On the other hand, the codeposited carbon and oxygen provide considerable thermal stability and even a hardening capacity upon annealing. The results are compared and discussed with respect to the previous investigations of electrodeposited Fe-C alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Deposition)
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Open AccessArticle Structure and Mechanical Properties of a Copper Combustion Chamber throughout Its Life Cycle
Metals 2018, 8(5), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050362
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 12 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
The material of a combustion chamber is subjected to high thermal and mechanical fatigue that can result in premature failure. Nevertheless, there is very little information in the literature concerning its characterization. In this work, the study of some properties of the copper
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The material of a combustion chamber is subjected to high thermal and mechanical fatigue that can result in premature failure. Nevertheless, there is very little information in the literature concerning its characterization. In this work, the study of some properties of the copper combustion chambers in water heaters throughout their life cycle is described. The microstructure, hardness, morphology, mechanical strength and roughness were evaluated, from the pristine copper sheet to a chamber subjected to 53,000 cycles. Throughout the whole cycle, changes were detected in the organization of the crystalline structure. Both after conformation and after completing the manufacturing process, the material exhibits a preferential orientation according to the direction [110], which is the most favorable to degradation of the material by thermal fatigue. The prevalence of the less dense crystallographic planes of the material in all stages of the life cycle allowed a better diffusion of the oxidant species facilitating the corrosion of the material. The oxidation products did not form a passivated layer and detached from the bulk copper, causing a progressive deterioration of the material. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Nanoporous Superalloy Membranes for the Production of Nanoemulsions
Metals 2018, 8(5), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050361
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
Premix membrane emulsification is a gentle process for producing nanoemulsions, i.e., for pharmaceutical purposes. The operating time of common membranes is short today, because of their fragility, membrane fouling and poor cleanability. In contrast, superalloy membranes are cleansable because of their high mechanical
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Premix membrane emulsification is a gentle process for producing nanoemulsions, i.e., for pharmaceutical purposes. The operating time of common membranes is short today, because of their fragility, membrane fouling and poor cleanability. In contrast, superalloy membranes are cleansable because of their high mechanical strength as well as high chemical and thermal resistances and therefore, could achieve clearly longer operating times. Their usability for premix membrane emulsification is investigated in this study. Different flow rates of the premix emulsion were tested up to 21 cycles with a small-scale extruder, three different nanoporous superalloy membrane structures have been tested in comparison to a common polymer membrane. Varying the two-phase-structure (γ- and γ′-phase) of superalloy bulk material through thermal or thermo-mechanical treatments and chemical extraction of either one of the phases, different membrane microstructures could be obtained. These membranes differ in pore size, pore structure, and porosity, resulting in different flow resistances, droplet sizes and droplet size distributions in the investigated premix membrane emulsification process. Emulsions with droplet sizes in the desired range of 100 to 500 nm and with acceptable droplet size distributions were achieved. Data display an improved process stability for superalloy membranes, however, special attention needs to be paid towards narrow droplet size distributions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Determination of the Critical Stress Associated with Dynamic Phase Transformation in Steels by Means of Free Energy Method
Metals 2018, 8(5), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050360
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
The double differentiation method overestimates the critical stress associated with the initiation of dynamic transformation (DT) because significant amounts of the dynamic phase must be present in order for its effect on the work hardening rate to be detectable. In this work, an
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The double differentiation method overestimates the critical stress associated with the initiation of dynamic transformation (DT) because significant amounts of the dynamic phase must be present in order for its effect on the work hardening rate to be detectable. In this work, an alternative method (referred to here as the free energy method) is presented based on the thermodynamic condition that the driving force is equal to the total energy obstacle during the exact moment of transformation. The driving force is defined as the difference between the DT critical stress (measured in the single-phase austenite region) and the yield stress of the fresh ferrite that takes its place. On the other hand, the energy obstacle consists of the free energy difference between austenite and ferrite, and the work of shear accommodation and dilatation associated with the phase transformation. Here, the DT critical stresses in a C-Mn steel were calculated using the free energy method at temperatures ranging from 870 °C to 1070 °C. The results show that the calculated critical stress using the present approach appears to be more accurate than the values measured by the double differentiation method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Property of Molybdenum Disulfide/Nickel Phosphide Hybrids in Alkaline Solution
Metals 2018, 8(5), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050359
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) property of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is undesirable because of the insufficient active edge sites and the poor conductivity. To enhance HER performance of MoS2, nickel phosphide (Ni2P) was combined with this catalyst
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The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) property of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is undesirable because of the insufficient active edge sites and the poor conductivity. To enhance HER performance of MoS2, nickel phosphide (Ni2P) was combined with this catalyst and three MoS2/Ni2P hybrids (38 wt % Ni2P addition for MoS2/Ni2P-38, 50 wt % Ni2P addition for MoS2/Ni2P-50, and 58 wt % Ni2P addition for MoS2/Ni2P-58) were fabricated via a hydrothermal synthesis process. Morphologies, crystallinities, chemical components, specific surface areas, and HER properties of the fabricated MoS2/Ni2P samples in an alkaline electrolyte were characterized and tested. In addition, the insight into the HER properties of as-prepared catalysts were revealed by the density functional theory (DFT) calculation. Additionally, the stabilities of pure MoS2, Ni2P, and MoS2/Ni2P-50 samples were evaluated. The results show that the addition of Ni2P can enhance the HER property of the MoS2 catalyst. Although HER properties of the above-mentioned three MoS2/Ni2P hybrids are inferior to that of pure Ni2P, they are much higher than that of MoS2. Among as-prepared three hybrids, MoS2/Ni2P-50 exhibits the best HER performance, which may be due to its uniform morphology, large specific surface area, and excellent stability. The MoS2/Ni2P-50 hybrid shows a high cathodic current density (70 mA/cm2 at −0.48 V), small Tafel slope (~58 mV/decade), and a low charge transfer resistance (0.83 kΩ·cm2). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Texture Control of Pure Titanium Sheet by the Surface Effect during Phase Transformation
Metals 2018, 8(5), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050358
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
The texture evolution of cold rolled pure titanium through different annealing parameters was investigated and different processes for various textures controls were proposed for further industrial application. Columnar grains with strong {11–20}//RD (rolling direction) texture was produced through cold rolling and a cooling-controlled
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The texture evolution of cold rolled pure titanium through different annealing parameters was investigated and different processes for various textures controls were proposed for further industrial application. Columnar grains with strong {11–20}//RD (rolling direction) texture was produced through cold rolling and a cooling-controlled annealing at 1100 °C with the Ar atmosphere. The preferred nucleation on the surface and the lowest strain energy of variant pairs during grain growth caused the formation of columnar grains and variant selection. Texture inheritance was discovered both in the cold-rolled and warm rolled-pure titanium sheets following 1000 °C annealing. The stored energy during cold rolling was the main reason causing the texture inheritance. Basal texture could be produced through warm rolling and subsequent annealing. The 30°-rotated around RD from basal texture could be preserved through both recrystallized annealing and transformed annealing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructure, Texture and Properties Control in Alloys)
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