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Actuators, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2016)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Thermoacoustic Model for High Aspect Ratio Nanostructures
Actuators 2016, 5(4), 23; doi:10.3390/act5040023
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 6 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
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Abstract
In this paper, we have developed a new thermoacoustic model for predicting the resonance frequency and quality factors of one-dimensional (1D) nanoresonators. Considering a nanoresonator as a fix-free Bernoulli-Euler cantilever, an analytical model has been developed to show the influence of material and
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In this paper, we have developed a new thermoacoustic model for predicting the resonance frequency and quality factors of one-dimensional (1D) nanoresonators. Considering a nanoresonator as a fix-free Bernoulli-Euler cantilever, an analytical model has been developed to show the influence of material and geometrical properties of 1D nanoresonators on their mechanical response without any damping. Diameter and elastic modulus have a direct relationship and length has an inverse relationship on the strain energy and stress at the clamp end of the nanoresonator. A thermoacoustic multiphysics COMSOL model has been elaborated to simulate the frequency response of vibrating 1D nanoresonators in air. The results are an excellent match with experimental data from independently published literature reports, and the results of this model are consistent with the analytical model. Considering the air and thermal damping in the thermoacoustic model, the quality factor of a nanowire has been estimated and the results show that zinc oxide (ZnO) and silver-gallium (Ag2Ga) nanoresonators are potential candidates as nanoresonators, nanoactuators, and for scanning probe microscopy applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hysteresis Curve Fitting Optimization of Magnetic Controlled Shape Memory Alloy Actuator
Actuators 2016, 5(4), 25; doi:10.3390/act5040025
Received: 2 September 2016 / Revised: 12 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
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Abstract
As a new actuating material, magnetic controlled shape memory alloys (MSMAs) have excellent characteristics such as a large output strain, fast response, and high energy density. These excellent characteristics are very attractive for precision positioning systems. However, the availability of MSMAs in practical
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As a new actuating material, magnetic controlled shape memory alloys (MSMAs) have excellent characteristics such as a large output strain, fast response, and high energy density. These excellent characteristics are very attractive for precision positioning systems. However, the availability of MSMAs in practical precision positioning is poor, caused by weak repeatability under a certain stimulus. This problem results from the error of a large magnetic hysteresis in an external magnetic field. A suitable hysteresis modelling method can reduce the error and improve the accuracy of the MSMA actuator. After analyzing the original hysteresis modelling methods, three kinds of hysteresis modelling methods are proposed: least squares method, back propagation (BP) artificial neural network, and BP artificial neural network based on genetic algorithms. Comparing the accuracy and convergence rate of three kinds of hysteresis modelling methods, the results show that the convergence rate of least squares method is the fastest, and the convergence accuracy of BP artificial neural networks based on genetic algorithms is the highest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS-based Actuators)
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Open AccessArticle MR Damper Controlled Vibration Absorber for Enhanced Mitigation of Harmonic Vibrations
Actuators 2016, 5(4), 27; doi:10.3390/act5040027
Received: 11 November 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
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Abstract
This paper describes a semi-active vibration absorber (SVA) concept based on a real-time controlled magnetorheological damper (MR-SVA) for the enhanced mitigation of structural vibrations due to harmonic disturbing forces. The force of the MR damper is controlled in real-time to generate the frequency
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This paper describes a semi-active vibration absorber (SVA) concept based on a real-time controlled magnetorheological damper (MR-SVA) for the enhanced mitigation of structural vibrations due to harmonic disturbing forces. The force of the MR damper is controlled in real-time to generate the frequency and damping controls according to the behaviour of the undamped vibration absorber for the actual frequency of vibration. As stiffness and damping emulations in semi-active actuators are coupled quantities the control is formulated to prioritize the frequency control by the controlled stiffness. The control algorithm is augmented by a stiffness correction method ensuring precise frequency control when the desired control force is constrained by the semi-active restriction and residual force of the MR damper. The force tracking task is solved by a model-based feed forward with feedback correction. The MR-SVA is numerically and experimentally validated for the primary structure with nominal eigenfrequency and when de-tuning of −10%, −5%, +5% and +10% is present. Both validations demonstrate that the MR-SVA improves the vibration reduction in the primary structure by up to 55% compared to the passive tuned mass damper (TMD). Furthermore, it is shown that the MR-SVA with only 80% of tuned mass leads to approximately the same enhanced performance while the associated increased relative motion amplitude of the tuned mass is more than compensated be the reduced dimensions of the mass. Therefore, the MR-SVA is an appropriate solution for the mitigation of tall buildings where the pendulum mass can be up to several thousands of metric tonnes and space for the pendulum damper is limited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetorheological Fluids, Devices, and Integrated Adaptive Systems)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Homopolar Permanent-Magnet-Biased Actuators and Their Application in Rotational Active Magnetic Bearing Systems
Actuators 2016, 5(4), 26; doi:10.3390/act5040026
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
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Abstract
Active Magnetic Bearings (AMBs) are already widely used in rotating machinery and continue to gain popularity due to the ever-present push to higher rotational speeds and decreasing prices of associated electronic components. They offer several advantages over conventional mechanical bearings including non-contact rotor
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Active Magnetic Bearings (AMBs) are already widely used in rotating machinery and continue to gain popularity due to the ever-present push to higher rotational speeds and decreasing prices of associated electronic components. They offer several advantages over conventional mechanical bearings including non-contact rotor support (thus eliminating mechanical wear and the need for lubricants), ability to tune bearing parameters through software for optimum machine performance, remote monitoring and health diagnostic, etc. In some applications, such as in a vacuum or in aggressive environments, they are often the only viable solution. An electromagnetic actuator, along with a position sensor and control electronics, is a key component of AMBs. While there is a variety of actuator designs described in the literature, most of the AMBs built commercially use heteropolar radial electrical actuators in combination with a dedicated electrically-biased axial actuators. On the contrary, since its inception in 1998, Calnetix Technologies mainly uses homopolar permanent magnet (PM)-biased radial actuators along with a homopolar PM-biased combination radial/axial actuators. In this paper, we provide an overview of the research we have done over the last 15 years in this area focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of this approach and explaining why we have made certain design choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Magnetic Bearing Actuators)
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Other

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Open AccessAddendum Addendum: Rivera, I.; Avila, A.; Wang, J. Fourth-Order Contour Mode ZnO-on-SOI Disk Resonators for Mass Sensing Applications. Actuators 2015, 4, 60–76
Actuators 2016, 5(4), 24; doi:10.3390/act5040024
Received: 31 August 2016 / Accepted: 13 September 2016 / Published: 23 September 2016
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