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Microorganisms 2014, 2(1), 73-91; doi:10.3390/microorganisms2010073

A Comparative Overview of the Flagellar Apparatus of Dinoflagellate, Perkinsids and Colpodellids

Centre for Microbial Diversity and Evolution, Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, 3529-6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
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Received: 24 November 2013 / Revised: 29 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 10 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology of Dinoflagellates: Advances in the Last 25 Years (1987-2012))
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Abstract

Dinoflagellates are a member of the Alveolata, and elucidation of the early evolution of alveolates is important for our understanding of dinoflagellates, and vice versa. The ultrastructure of the flagellar apparatus has been described from several dinoflagellates in the last few decades, and the basic components appear to be well conserved. The typical dinoflagellate apparatus is composed of two basal bodies surrounded by striated collars attached to a connective fiber. The longitudinal basal body is connected to a longitudinal microtubular root (LMR; equivalent of R1) and single microtubular root (R2), whereas the transverse basal body is connected to a transverse microtubular root (TMR; R3) and transverse striated root (TSR) with a microtubule (R4). Some of these components, especially the connective fibers and collars, are dinoflagellate specific characteristics that make their flagellar apparatus relatively complex. We also compare these structures with the flagellar apparatus from a number of close relatives of dinoflagellates and their sister, the apicomplexans, including colpodellids, perkinsids, and Psammosa. Though the ultrastructural knowledge of these lineages is still relatively modest, it provides us with an interesting viewpoint of the character evolution of the flagellar apparatus among those lineages. View Full-Text
Keywords: apicomplexa; Chromera; Colpodella; colpodellids; dinoflagellates; Dinozoa; Oxyrrhis; perkinsids; Perkinsus; Psammosa; Rastrimonas; the apical complex; the flagellar apparatus; Vitrella apicomplexa; Chromera; Colpodella; colpodellids; dinoflagellates; Dinozoa; Oxyrrhis; perkinsids; Perkinsus; Psammosa; Rastrimonas; the apical complex; the flagellar apparatus; Vitrella
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Okamoto, N.; Keeling, P.J. A Comparative Overview of the Flagellar Apparatus of Dinoflagellate, Perkinsids and Colpodellids. Microorganisms 2014, 2, 73-91.

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