Next Article in Journal
Variation in Protein and Calorie Consumption Following Protein Malnutrition in Rattus norvegicus
Next Article in Special Issue
Early Results of Three-Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants’ Behavioral Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events
Previous Article in Journal
Attitudes of College Undergraduates Towards Coyotes (Canis latrans) in an Urban Landscape: Management and Public Outreach Implications
Animals 2013, 3(1), 19-32; doi:10.3390/ani3010019

Possible Electromagnetic Effects on Abnormal Animal Behavior Before an Earthquake

1 Hayakawa Institute of Seismo Electromagnetics Co. Ltd., University of Electro-Communications (UEC) Incubation Center, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585, Japan 2 Advanced Wireless Communications Research Center, UEC, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585, Japan 3 Earthquake Analysis Laboratory, Kita-aoyama 2-12-42-R305, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-0061, Japan 
Received: 4 December 2012 / Revised: 24 December 2012 / Accepted: 4 January 2013 / Published: 10 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Anomalies Prior to Earthquakes)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [523 KB, uploaded 10 January 2013]   |  
Simple Summary: Possible electromagnetic effects on abnormal animal behavior before earthquakes.


The former statistical properties summarized by Rikitake (1998) on unusual animal behavior before an earthquake (EQ) have first been presented by using two parameters (epicentral distance (D) of an anomaly and its precursor (or lead) time (T)). Three plots are utilized to characterize the unusual animal behavior; (i) EQ magnitude (M) versus D, (ii) log T versus M, and (iii) occurrence histogram of log T. These plots are compared with the corresponding plots for different seismo-electromagnetic effects (radio emissions in different frequency ranges, seismo-atmospheric and -ionospheric perturbations) extensively obtained during the last 15–20 years. From the results of comparisons in terms of three plots, it is likely that lower frequency (ULF (ultra-low-frequency, f ≤ 1 Hz) and ELF (extremely-low-frequency, f ≤ a few hundreds Hz)) electromagnetic emissions exhibit a very similar temporal evolution with that of abnormal animal behavior. It is also suggested that a quantity of field intensity multiplied by the persistent time (or duration) of noise would play the primary role in abnormal animal behavior before an EQ.
Keywords: abnormal animal behavior; earthquakes; seismogenic electromagnetic emissions abnormal animal behavior; earthquakes; seismogenic electromagnetic emissions
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Hayakawa, M. Possible Electromagnetic Effects on Abnormal Animal Behavior Before an Earthquake. Animals 2013, 3, 19-32.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Animals EISSN 2076-2615 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert