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Med. Sci., Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Acute High-Intensity Interval Training on Hematological Parameters in Sedentary Subjects
Med. Sci. 2017, 5(3), 15; doi:10.3390/medsci5030015
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
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Abstract
The objective of the study was to determine the effects of acute high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on hematological parameters in sedentary men. Ten healthy, non-smoker, and sedentary men aged between 18 and 24 years participated in the study. All subjects performed four Wingate
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The objective of the study was to determine the effects of acute high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on hematological parameters in sedentary men. Ten healthy, non-smoker, and sedentary men aged between 18 and 24 years participated in the study. All subjects performed four Wingate tests with 4 min intervals between the tests. Blood samples were collected at pre-exercise, immediately after, 3 and 6 h after the fourth Wingate test. Hematological parameters were analyzed in these samples. The results showed that hematocrit percentage, hemoglobin values, red cell count, mean cell volume, platelet count, total white cell count, and counts of the white cell subgroups increased immediately after the acute HIIT and their values began to return to resting levels 3 h after exercise, and completely returned to resting levels 6 h after exercise. In conclusion, acute HIIT causes an inflammatory response in blood. Full article
Open AccessArticle VEGF-B Levels in the Vitreous of Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients with Ocular Diseases and Its Correlation with Structural Parameters
Med. Sci. 2017, 5(3), 17; doi:10.3390/medsci5030017
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 29 July 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
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Abstract
Vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) is one of the enigmatic members of the VEGF family. The knowledge gap about VEGF-B expression and how its levels are altered in diabetic eyes were the focus of this investigation that was addressed by comparing and
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Vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) is one of the enigmatic members of the VEGF family. The knowledge gap about VEGF-B expression and how its levels are altered in diabetic eyes were the focus of this investigation that was addressed by comparing and correlating vitreous VEGF-B between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. VEGF-B levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in vitreous samples (n = 33) from diabetic (n = 25) and non-diabetic (n = 8) patients. Results were compared between groups. Optical coherence tomography from diabetic patients was evaluated for central retinal thickness (CRT) and macular volume (MV). Mean vitreous VEGF-B concentration was higher in diabetic (18.82 ± 1.44 pg/mL ) vs. non-diabetic patients (17.90 ± 0.32 pg/mL) (p = 0.006), and in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) (19.03 ± 1.52 pg/mL) vs. non-PDR (NPDR) patients (18.18 ±0.96 pg/mL) (p = 0.025). In diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients, correlation between VEGF-B and CRT (μm) was positive and moderate: rs = 0.441 (p ≤ 0.05) and the correlation between VEGF-B and MV (mm3) was positive and robust: rs = 0.716 (p ≤ 0.01). VEGF-B levels are overexpressed in vitreous of diabetic patients, and the levels are higher in developed stages of DR. Correlation results show that CRT and MV increase with increased levels of VEGF-B. Targeting VEGF-B inhibition may have therapeutic beneficial implications. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication Molecular Characterization of Peripheral Extracellular Vesicles in Clinically Isolated Syndrome: Preliminary Suggestions from a Pilot Study
Med. Sci. 2017, 5(3), 19; doi:10.3390/medsci5030019
Received: 21 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), nanoparticles originated from different cell types, seem to be implicated in several cellular activities. In the Central Nervous System (CNS), glia and neurons secrete EVs and recent studies have demonstrated that the intercellular communication mediated by EVs has versatile functional
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Extracellular vesicles (EVs), nanoparticles originated from different cell types, seem to be implicated in several cellular activities. In the Central Nervous System (CNS), glia and neurons secrete EVs and recent studies have demonstrated that the intercellular communication mediated by EVs has versatile functional impact in the cerebral homeostasis. This essential role may be due to their proteins and RNAs cargo that possibly modify the phenotypes of the targeted cells. Despite the increasing importance of EVs, little is known about their fluctuations in physiological as well as in pathological conditions. Furthermore, only few studies have investigated the contents of contemporary EVs subgroups (microvesicles, MVs and exosomes, EXOs) with the purpose of discriminating between their features and functional roles. In order to possibly shed light on these issues, we performed a pilot study in which MVs and EXOs extracted from serum samples of a little cohort of subjects (patients with the first clinical evidence of CNS demyelination, also known as Clinically Isolated Syndrome and Healthy Controls) were submitted to deep small-RNA sequencing. Data were analysed by an in-home bioinformatics platform. In line with previous reports, distinct classes of non-coding RNAs have been detected in both the EVs subsets, offering interesting suggestions on their origins and functions. We also verified the feasibility of this extensive molecular approach, thus supporting its valuable use for the analysis of circulating biomarkers (e.g., microRNAs) in order to investigate and monitor specific diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Pathogenesis of Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Disparities in Brain Cancer in the United States: A Literature Review of Gliomas
Med. Sci. 2017, 5(3), 16; doi:10.3390/medsci5030016
Received: 14 May 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 25 July 2017
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Abstract
In the human body, the central regulatory system of homeostasis is maintained by the brain. Its complexity is mesmerizing and many of its functions are largely uncharted. Unfortunately, its functionality is often impaired through neoplastic growths, like gliomas, which are devastating to patients
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In the human body, the central regulatory system of homeostasis is maintained by the brain. Its complexity is mesmerizing and many of its functions are largely uncharted. Unfortunately, its functionality is often impaired through neoplastic growths, like gliomas, which are devastating to patients and their families. Annually, gliomas are the most common primary brain tumours affecting over 20,000 people in the United States. However, despite their status as the third most common cause of cancer related death for individuals between ages 20 and 39, the aetiology of gliomas remains unknown. This paper aims to review the latest information regarding the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) 4th edition classifications of gliomas, their malignant effects, and disparities within these classifications, as well as identify areas for further research. These suggestions for future inquiry may contribute to a better understanding of the pathology of these cancers enabling improvement in prevention, screening, and treatment. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Association between Sleep and Theory of Mind in School Aged Children with ADHD
Med. Sci. 2017, 5(3), 18; doi:10.3390/medsci5030018
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
Theory of Mind (ToM) is defined as the ability to infer a range of internal mental states of others, including beliefs, intentions, desires, and emotions. These abilities are associated with children’s ability to socialize effectively with peers. ToM impairments are associated with peer
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Theory of Mind (ToM) is defined as the ability to infer a range of internal mental states of others, including beliefs, intentions, desires, and emotions. These abilities are associated with children’s ability to socialize effectively with peers. ToM impairments are associated with peer rejection and psychiatric disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Previous studies have found poor sleep negatively impacts executive functioning (EF) and emotional information processing, which are essential for the effective use of ToM. Youth with ADHD have EF deficits and sleep problems. However, the relationship between sleep, executive functioning, and ToM in children with ADHD has not been studied. In this review, we propose that the poor social and interpersonal skills characterizing individuals with ADHD could be explained by the impact of poor sleep on the emotional and cognitive mechanisms underlying ToM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates in Pediatric Sleep and Child Psychiatry)
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