Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Behav. Sci., Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2013), Pages 536-675

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-10
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Functional Perspectives on Emotion, Behavior, and Cognition
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(4), 536-540; doi:10.3390/bs3040536
Received: 26 September 2013 / Revised: 28 September 2013 / Accepted: 29 September 2013 / Published: 1 October 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (32 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This Editorial reviews the challenges and advantages posed by a functional perspective on the relationships among emotion, behavior, and cognition. We identify the core themes among the articles published as part of this Special Issue. The articles generally address two important questions: (1)
[...] Read more.
This Editorial reviews the challenges and advantages posed by a functional perspective on the relationships among emotion, behavior, and cognition. We identify the core themes among the articles published as part of this Special Issue. The articles generally address two important questions: (1) are emotions functional and what is their impact on behavioral and cognitive processes, and (2) how do the interactions among emotion, cognition, and behavior play out in particular situations that present adaptive challenges? We also identify two core questions raised by the articles included in this Special Issue. Future research must address the extent to which emotions are best represented as discrete emotional constructs (e.g., anger, sadness, fear) versus emotions that vary along dimensions, such as valence and arousal. Functional perspectives would also be facilitated by identification of situations or environments that are likely to elicit particular emotions and reactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Perspectives on Emotion, Behavior, and Cognition)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Symbol/Meaning Paired-Associate Recall: An “Archetypal Memory” Advantage?
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(4), 541-561; doi:10.3390/bs3040541
Received: 29 August 2013 / Revised: 25 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 9 October 2013
PDF Full-text (152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The theory of the archetypes and the hypothesis of the collective unconscious are two of the central characteristics of analytical psychology. These provoke, however, varying reactions among academic psychologists. Empirical studies which test these hypotheses are rare. Rosen, Smith, Huston and Gonzales proposed
[...] Read more.
The theory of the archetypes and the hypothesis of the collective unconscious are two of the central characteristics of analytical psychology. These provoke, however, varying reactions among academic psychologists. Empirical studies which test these hypotheses are rare. Rosen, Smith, Huston and Gonzales proposed a cognitive psychological experimental paradigm to investigate the nature of archetypes and the collective unconscious as archetypal (evolutionary) memory. In this article we report the results of a cross-cultural replication of Rosen et al. conducted in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. In short, this experiment corroborated previous findings by Rosen et al., based on English speakers, and demonstrated a recall advantage for archetypal symbol meaning pairs vs. other symbol/meaning pairings. The fact that the same pattern of results was observed across two different cultures and languages makes it less likely that they are attributable to a specific cultural or linguistic context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Psychology: Theory and Practice) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Evidence for the Effectiveness of Jungian Psychotherapy: A Review of Empirical Studies
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(4), 562-575; doi:10.3390/bs3040562
Received: 13 September 2013 / Revised: 9 October 2013 / Accepted: 22 October 2013 / Published: 24 October 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the 1990s several research projects and empirical studies (process and outcome) on Jungian Psychotherapy have been conducted mainly in Germany and Switzerland. Prospective, naturalistic outcome studies and retrospective studies using standardized instruments and health insurance data as well as several qualitative studies
[...] Read more.
Since the 1990s several research projects and empirical studies (process and outcome) on Jungian Psychotherapy have been conducted mainly in Germany and Switzerland. Prospective, naturalistic outcome studies and retrospective studies using standardized instruments and health insurance data as well as several qualitative studies of aspects of the psychotherapeutic process will be summarized. The studies are diligently designed and the results are well applicable to the conditions of outpatient practice. All the studies show significant improvements not only on the level of symptoms and interpersonal problems, but also on the level of personality structure and in every day life conduct. These improvements remain stable after completion of therapy over a period of up to six years. Several studies show further improvements after the end of therapy, an effect which psychoanalysis has always claimed. Health insurance data show that, after Jungian therapy, patients reduce health care utilization to a level even below the average of the total population. Results of several studies show that Jungian treatment moves patients from a level of severe symptoms to a level where one can speak of psychological health. These significant changes are reached by Jungian therapy with an average of 90 sessions, which makes Jungian psychotherapy an effective and cost-effective method. Process studies support Jungian theories on psychodynamics and elements of change in the therapeutic process. So finally, Jungian psychotherapy has reached the point where it can be called an empirically proven, effective method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Psychology: Theory and Practice) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Psychological Distress and Post-Traumatic Symptoms Following Occupational Accidents
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(4), 587-600; doi:10.3390/bs3040587
Received: 23 August 2013 / Revised: 15 October 2013 / Accepted: 21 October 2013 / Published: 25 October 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder frequently occur as a consequence of occupational accidents. To date, research has been primarily focused on high-risk workers, such as police officers or firefighters, and has rarely considered individuals whose occupational environment involves the risk of severe, but
[...] Read more.
Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder frequently occur as a consequence of occupational accidents. To date, research has been primarily focused on high-risk workers, such as police officers or firefighters, and has rarely considered individuals whose occupational environment involves the risk of severe, but not necessarily life-threatening, injury. Therefore, the present study was aimed at assessing the psychological consequences of accidents occurring in several occupational settings (e.g., construction and industry). Thirty-eight victims of occupational accidents (injured workers) and 38 gender-, age-, and years of education-matched workers who never experienced a work accident (control group) were recruited. All participants underwent a semi-structured interview administered by a trained psychologist, and then were requested to fill in the questionnaires. Injured workers reported more severe anxious, post-traumatic and depressive symptoms, and poorer coping skills, as compared to controls. In the injured group low levels of resilience predicted post-traumatic symptomatology, whereas the degree of physical injury and the length of time since the accident did not play a predictive role. The results suggest that occupational accidents may result in a disabling psychopathological condition, and that a brief psychological evaluation should be included in the assessment of seriously injured workers. Full article
Open AccessArticle Carl Gustav Jung, Quantum Physics and the Spiritual Mind: A Mystical Vision of the Twenty-First Century
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(4), 601-618; doi:10.3390/bs3040601
Received: 29 September 2013 / Revised: 2 November 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 13 November 2013
PDF Full-text (75 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We describe similarities in the ontology of quantum physics and of Carl Gustav Jung’s psychology. In spite of the fact that physics and psychology are usually considered as unrelated, in the last century, both of these disciplines have led at the same time
[...] Read more.
We describe similarities in the ontology of quantum physics and of Carl Gustav Jung’s psychology. In spite of the fact that physics and psychology are usually considered as unrelated, in the last century, both of these disciplines have led at the same time to revolutionary changes in the Western understanding of the cosmic order, discovering a non-empirical realm of the universe that doesn’t consist of material things but of forms. These forms are real, even though they are invisible, because they have the potential to appear in the empirical world and act in it. We present arguments that force us to believe, that the empirical world is an emanation out of a cosmic realm of potentiality, whose forms can appear as physical structures in the external world and as archetypal concepts in our mind. Accordingly, the evolution of life now appears no longer as a process of the adaptation of species to their environment, but as the adaptation of minds to increasingly complex forms that exist in the cosmic potentiality. The cosmic connection means that the human mind is a mystical mind. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Psychology: Theory and Practice) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Accounting for Material Reality in the Analytic Subject
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(4), 619-633; doi:10.3390/bs3040619
Received: 25 September 2013 / Revised: 5 November 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 20 November 2013
PDF Full-text (223 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Scientific advances made in the 21st century contend that the forces of nature and nurture work together through an ongoing series of complex correspondences between brain and mental activity in our daily activities with others. Jung’s cosmological model of the psyche minimizes the
[...] Read more.
Scientific advances made in the 21st century contend that the forces of nature and nurture work together through an ongoing series of complex correspondences between brain and mental activity in our daily activities with others. Jung’s cosmological model of the psyche minimizes the fundamental corporeal condition of human nature and as such is critiqued and amended, influenced by the transcendental materialist theories of subjectivity inspired by Žižek, Johnston and Laplanche. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Psychology: Theory and Practice) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle The Dialogical Jung: Otherness within the Self
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(4), 634-646; doi:10.3390/bs3040634
Received: 25 September 2013 / Revised: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 15 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
PDF Full-text (204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper explores dialogical currents in Jung’s analytical psychology, with reference to contemporary theories of the dialogical self. The dialogical self is a notion that has gained increasing currency in psychology since the 1990s, in response to the limitations of traditional notions of
[...] Read more.
This paper explores dialogical currents in Jung’s analytical psychology, with reference to contemporary theories of the dialogical self. The dialogical self is a notion that has gained increasing currency in psychology since the 1990s, in response to the limitations of traditional notions of the self, based on monological, encapsulated consciousness. Modern dialogical self theory construes the self as irrevocably embedded in a matrix of real and imagined dialogues with others. The theme of dialogical otherness within the self is also taken up in Jung’s analytical psychology, both in the practice of active imagination and psychotherapy and in the theory of archetypes, and a dialogical approach to inquiry is evident in Jung’s work from the outset. The implications of a dialogical re-conceptualization of analytical psychology and of analytical psychology for dialogical theory are considered in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Psychology: Theory and Practice) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Normality in Analytical Psychology
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(4), 647-661; doi:10.3390/bs3040647
Received: 30 September 2013 / Revised: 14 November 2013 / Accepted: 19 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s
[...] Read more.
Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Psychology: Theory and Practice) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Jung on the Nature and Interpretation of Dreams: A Developmental Delineation with Cognitive Neuroscientific Responses
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(4), 662-675; doi:10.3390/bs3040662
Received: 15 August 2013 / Revised: 18 September 2013 / Accepted: 12 October 2013 / Published: 22 November 2013
PDF Full-text (225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Post-Jungians tend to identify Jung’s dream theory with the concept of compensation; they tend to believe that Jung’s radically open stand constitutes his dream theory in its entirety. However, Jung’s theory regarding dreams was a product of an evolving process throughout his whole
[...] Read more.
Post-Jungians tend to identify Jung’s dream theory with the concept of compensation; they tend to believe that Jung’s radically open stand constitutes his dream theory in its entirety. However, Jung’s theory regarding dreams was a product of an evolving process throughout his whole intellectual and professional life. Unfortunately, the theory has not been understood in such a developmental light. Based on a historical and textual study of all dream articles found throughout The Collected Works of C.G. Jung, this paper maps a concise three-phase trajectory of Jung’s changing views on dreams and interpretation. The paper posits that Jung’s last essay, “Symbols and the Interpretation of Dreams” (1961), epitomizes his final stand, although such a stand is also reflected in a less explicit and less emphatic way during the latter period of the second phase. The paper also briefly addresses where Jung and Jungians have been enigmatic or negligent. For example, it has not been explicated fully why compensation as slight modifications and compensation as parallels to waking life situations are rare in Jung’s cases In addition, contemporary cognitive and neuroscientific approaches to the study of dreams, as represented by Harry Hunt, William Domhoff, and Allan Hobson, among others, are presented in connection with Jung. The juxtaposition of Jungian, cognitive, and neuroscientific approaches showcases how cognitive and scientific findings challenge, enrich, and in some ways confirm Jung’s dream theory and praxis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Psychology: Theory and Practice) Print Edition available

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview A Desire for Parsimony
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(4), 576-586; doi:10.3390/bs3040576
Received: 30 August 2013 / Revised: 16 October 2013 / Accepted: 22 October 2013 / Published: 24 October 2013
PDF Full-text (194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An understanding of wildness is being developed as a quality of interactive processing that increases survival opportunities in nature. A link is made between the need to improve interactive quality for wildness, and cognitive desires and interests in art, music, religion and philosophy
[...] Read more.
An understanding of wildness is being developed as a quality of interactive processing that increases survival opportunities in nature. A link is made between the need to improve interactive quality for wildness, and cognitive desires and interests in art, music, religion and philosophy as these can also be seen as attempts to improve interactive quality internally and externally. Interactive quality can be improved through gains in parsimony, that is, simplifications in the organisation of skills. The importance of parsimony in evolution is discussed, along with indicators of an internal parsimony desire that experiences joy if achieved through processes such as insight and understanding. A mechanism for the production and measurement of the parsimony desire is proposed, based on the number of subcortical pleasure hotspots that can be stimulated at once within the ‘archipelago’ available in the limbic system. Full article

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Behavioral Sciences Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
behavsci@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Behavioral Sciences
Back to Top