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Environments, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Rapid urban growth in the Kathmandu Valley between 1989 and 2016 has occurred along the rural–urban [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Pretreatments on Yields, Selectivity and Properties of Products from Pyrolysis of Phragmites australis (Common Reeds)
Environments 2017, 4(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4040096
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
Phragmites australis (PHA) is a grass-type biomass, commonly known as reed grass, which has the potential to be a valuable energy and chemical feedstock due to its high yield (4.5–7 kg biomass m−2 year−1). It is demonstrated that the physicochemical
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Phragmites australis (PHA) is a grass-type biomass, commonly known as reed grass, which has the potential to be a valuable energy and chemical feedstock due to its high yield (4.5–7 kg biomass m−2 year−1). It is demonstrated that the physicochemical properties and composition of phragmites can be altered by subjecting the feedstock to a combined acid hydrolysis at various level of acid concentrations and torrefaction pre-treatment processes. In this paper, we conducted fast pyrolysis on pretreated PHA, resulting in bio-oil with significantly higher selectivity towards levoglucosenone and appreciably reduced amounts of ketones and aldehydes being produced. The experiments demonstrated that 4% H3PO4 acid hydrolysis and 220 °C torrefaction combined pretreatments prior to fast pyrolysis resulted in 17 times increase of relative selectivity to levoglucosenone in the bio-oil portion along with a reduction of ketones and aldehydes relative concentrations from 23% to 13%. Pyrolysis of pretreated PHA produced higher amount of biochar. The phosphorus-enriched biochar offers a potential usage for soil amendment or sorbent material. This study presents an opportunity to convert this underutilized feedstock into valuable bio-based products. Additional in-depth investigation is essential to gather more data for assessing the economic and sustainability features of the proposed process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle System-Based Assessments—Improving the Confidence in the EIA Process
Environments 2017, 4(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4040095
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
This viewpoint article examines Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) practices in developed and transitioning nations, identifies weaknesses, and proposes a new quantitative approach. The literature indicates that there exists little to no standardization in EIA practice, transitioning nations rely on weak scientific impact analyses,
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This viewpoint article examines Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) practices in developed and transitioning nations, identifies weaknesses, and proposes a new quantitative approach. The literature indicates that there exists little to no standardization in EIA practice, transitioning nations rely on weak scientific impact analyses, and the establishment of baseline conditions is generally missing. The more fundamental issue is that the “receptor”-based approach leads to a qualitative and subjective EIA, as it does not adequately integrate the full measure of the complexity of ecosystems, ongoing project risks, and cumulative impacts. We propose the application of a new framework that aims to ensure full life cycle assessment of impacts applicable to any EIA process, within any jurisdictional context. System-Based EIA (SBEIA) is based on modeling to predict changes and rests on data analysis with a statistically rigorous approach to assess impacts. This global approach uses technologies and methodologies that are typically applied to characterize ecosystem structure and functioning, including remote sensing, modeling, and in situ monitoring. The aim of this approach is to provide a method that can produce quantifiable reproducible values of impact and risk and move EIA towards its substantive goal of sustainable development. The adoption of this approach would provide a better evaluation of economic costs and benefits for all stakeholders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Impact Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle Buellia dispersa (Lichens) Used as Bio-Indicators for Air Pollution Transport: A Case Study within the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada (USA)
Environments 2017, 4(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4040094
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 17 December 2017
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Abstract
Hazardous substances (e.g., toxic elements, oxides of nitrogen, carbon and sulfur) are discharged to the environment by a number of natural and anthropogenic activities. Anthropogenic air pollution commonly contains trace elements derived from contaminants and additives released into the atmosphere during fossil fuel
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Hazardous substances (e.g., toxic elements, oxides of nitrogen, carbon and sulfur) are discharged to the environment by a number of natural and anthropogenic activities. Anthropogenic air pollution commonly contains trace elements derived from contaminants and additives released into the atmosphere during fossil fuel combustion (automobiles, power generation, etc.) as well as physical processes (e.g., metal refining, vehicle brake wear, and tire and pavement wear). Analysis of pollutant chemical concentrations in lichens collected across the Las Vegas Valley allows documentation of the distribution of air pollution in the Valley. Analyses of lichen biomass (Buellia dispersa), when compared to windrose diagrams, shows pathways of airborne pollutant transport across the Las Vegas Valley. The west and north sectors of the Las Vegas Valley contained the lowest target contaminates (e.g., Cr, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni) and the highest NO3 while the east and south sectors contained the highest levels of target contaminates and lowest NO3. Additionally, metals and NO3 detected in the east and south sectors of the valley indicate that air pollution generated in the valley is moving from the south to the north-northeast and across the valley, exiting on the north and south side of Frenchman Mountain. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Disinfection Performance in Wastewater Stabilization Ponds in Cold Climate Conditions: A Case Study in Nunavut, Canada
Environments 2017, 4(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4040093
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
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Abstract
Disinfection processes in passive wastewater treatment systems, which are dependent on natural purification, can be greatly influenced by environmental factors. In the Canadian Arctic, the passive systems face more challenges due to the extreme environmental conditions. The new Wastewater Systems Effluent Regulations (WSER)
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Disinfection processes in passive wastewater treatment systems, which are dependent on natural purification, can be greatly influenced by environmental factors. In the Canadian Arctic, the passive systems face more challenges due to the extreme environmental conditions. The new Wastewater Systems Effluent Regulations (WSER) were implemented in Canada in 2012. Currently, they do not apply in the far North due to the limited wastewater treatment infrastructure in northern communities. In the summer of 2015, a field investigation was conducted to Pond Inlet, Nunavut, to assess the pathogen removal and inactivation of a wastewater stabilization pond (WSP). Sunlight disinfection was considered only effective at the water surface. The system achieved 0.76–1.2 log removal of E. coli and 0.79–1.02 log removal of total coliforms during the treatment season in 2015. Prior to annual decant, the average concentration of E. coli was 1.3 × 106 CFU/100 mL in the WSP, which exceeded discharge guidelines of 104 to 106 CFU/100 mL set by the Nunavut Water Board (NWB). Existing WSP disinfection models, which were typically designed for temperate or tropical regions, were selected to study their viability to predict the pathogen removal of Arctic WSPs. In general, the models over-predicted disinfection performance by an order of magnitude or more, and some were unable to replicate trends in the data. A modified model for northern WSPs should be developed in order to accurately predict disinfection performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Simulation of Various Agricultural Land Use Practices for Analysis of Impacts on Environments
Environments 2017, 4(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4040092
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
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Abstract
Current intensification and changes in agricultural land use practices increase environmental impact that can be reduced by bridging the gap between socio-economic demands and scientific justification of sustainable agricultural land use. This can be achieved by replacing the goal of maximum crop yields
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Current intensification and changes in agricultural land use practices increase environmental impact that can be reduced by bridging the gap between socio-economic demands and scientific justification of sustainable agricultural land use. This can be achieved by replacing the goal of maximum crop yields with the goal of minimal environmental impact. This paper presents results of integrated crop simulation system development for analysis of alternative planning strategies in agricultural land use, with focus on the crop rotation influence on environmental sustainability. The effective tools used in analysis include (1) long-term analysis of changes in agricultural land using a dynamic crop model with daily time step; (2) justification of arbitrary crop rotation scheme of different agro-technologies and sparing measures; and (3) analysis of modern farming management methods using model-oriented approach. The results of study also include estimation of two alternative practices of crop harvesting including remaining or removing whole crop residues from the agricultural field and their influence on basic parameters of soil fertility. In addition, we analyzed comparative efficiency of different agricultural measures neglecting the negative influence of possible climate changes in long-term consequences. Corresponding efficiency rating is the following: organic fertilizer, green manure legume sparing harvesting, winter catch crop, and rotation scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Agricultural Land Use Changes on Environments)
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Open AccessArticle Geopolymer Composites for Potential Applications in Cultural Heritage
Environments 2017, 4(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4040091
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
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Abstract
A new class of geopolymer composites, as materials alternative to traditional binders, was synthesized and its potentialities as restoration material in Cultural Heritage has been explored. This material has been prepared through a co-reticulation reaction in mild conditions of a metakaolin-based geopolymer inorganic
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A new class of geopolymer composites, as materials alternative to traditional binders, was synthesized and its potentialities as restoration material in Cultural Heritage has been explored. This material has been prepared through a co-reticulation reaction in mild conditions of a metakaolin-based geopolymer inorganic matrix and a commercial epoxy resin. The freshly prepared slurry displays a consistency, workability and thixotropic behavior that make it suitable to be spread on different substrates in restoration, repair and reinforcement actions, even on walls and ceilings. Applicability and compatibility tests on tuff and concrete substrates were carried out and the microstructure of the samples in correspondence of the transition zone was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. Our studies pointed out the formation of a continuous phase between the geopolymer composite and tuff and concrete substrates, highlighting a high compatibility of the geopolymer binder with different kinds of materials. These features indicate a large potential for applications of these materials in Cultural Heritage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmentally Friendly Geopolymer Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Post-Fire Vegetation Recovery Using Fire Severity and Geographical Data in the Mediterranean Region (Spain)
Environments 2017, 4(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4040090
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 10 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
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Abstract
Wildfires cause disturbances in ecosystems and generate environmental, economic, and social costs. Studies focused on vegetation regeneration in burned areas acquire interest because of the need to understand the species dynamics and to apply an adequate restoration policy. In this work we intend
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Wildfires cause disturbances in ecosystems and generate environmental, economic, and social costs. Studies focused on vegetation regeneration in burned areas acquire interest because of the need to understand the species dynamics and to apply an adequate restoration policy. In this work we intend to study the variables that condition short-term regeneration (5 years) of three species of the genus Pinus in the Mediterranean region of the Iberian Peninsula. Regeneration modelling has been performed through multiple regressions, using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Geographic Weight Regression (GWR). The variables used were fire severity, measured through the Composite Burn Index (CBI), and a set of environmental variables (topography, post-fire climate, vegetation type, and state after fire). The regeneration dynamics were measured through the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) obtained from Landsat images. The relationship between fire severity and regeneration dynamics showed consistent results. Short-term regeneration was slowed down when severity was higher. The models generated by GWR showed better results in comparison with OLS (adjusted R2 = 0.77 for Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster; adjusted R2 = 0.80 for Pinus halepensis). Further studies should focus on obtaining more precise variables and considering new factors which help to better explain post-fire vegetation recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Territorial Management)
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Open AccessArticle Addition of WEEE Glass to Metakaolin-Based Geopolymeric Binder: A Cytotoxicity Study
Environments 2017, 4(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4040089
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 2 December 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
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Abstract
Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) types of glass, including Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) glass, are now separately collected in European Union 28 (EU28) zone. Due to the high level of Pb and Ba in their compositions, this type of waste finds its
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Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) types of glass, including Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) glass, are now separately collected in European Union 28 (EU28) zone. Due to the high level of Pb and Ba in their compositions, this type of waste finds its way to the disposal. In the present research, a geopolymer matrix based on metakaolin is used to blend in fine powder panel and funnel glass from personal computer (PC) and television (TV) monitors. Such waste glass, which cannot be directed to glass melting furnaces, is safely incorporated into a geopolymer matrix. The consolidation of the geopolymeric matrix containing the waste glass was followed by pH and conductibility up to 28 days of curing. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) was used to obtain information on the microstructure of the consolidated products. Cytotoxicity tests helped the environmental evaluation of these materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmentally Friendly Geopolymer Composites)
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Open AccessArticle What Do Users Really Need? Participatory Development of Decision Support Tools for Environmental Management Based on Outcomes
Environments 2017, 4(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4040088
Received: 5 October 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
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Abstract
There is increasing demand from stakeholders for tools to support outcomes-based approaches in environmental management. For such tools to be useful, understanding user requirements is key. In Scotland, UK, stakeholders were engaged in the development of an Environmental Decision Support System (EDSS) to
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There is increasing demand from stakeholders for tools to support outcomes-based approaches in environmental management. For such tools to be useful, understanding user requirements is key. In Scotland, UK, stakeholders were engaged in the development of an Environmental Decision Support System (EDSS) to support the management of land and freshwater resources for multiple policy outcomes. A structured participatory engagement process was employed to determine stakeholder requirements, establish development principles to fulfil these requirements and road-test prototypes. The specification that emerged from this bottom-up process was for an EDSS to be spatially-explicit, free at the point of use, and mobile device compatible. This application, which is under development, does not closely resemble most existing published EDSS. We suggest that there is a mismatch between the way scientists typically conceptualise EDSS and the kinds of applications that are likely to be useful to decision-makers on the ground. Interactive mobile and web-based geospatial information services have become ubiquitous in our daily lives, but their importance is not reflected in the literature on EDSS. The current focus in environmental management on adaptive, stakeholder-centred strategies based on outcomes offers an opportunity to make better use of these new technologies to aid decision-making processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Territorial Management)
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Open AccessArticle Diffusive Uptake Rates of Volatile Organic Compounds on Standard ATD Tubes for Environmental and Workplace Applications
Environments 2017, 4(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4040087
Received: 28 October 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 2 December 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
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Abstract
Passive sampling for airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has gained popularity; however, diffusive uptake rates (URs) have been experimentally determined for only a small subset of VOCs. This study aims to develop empirical models that can interpolate effective URs (
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Passive sampling for airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has gained popularity; however, diffusive uptake rates (URs) have been experimentally determined for only a small subset of VOCs. This study aims to develop empirical models that can interpolate effective URs (UReff) for a wide range of VOCs. The modelling was based on the standard automated thermal desorption (ATD) tubes packed with Tenax TA and targeted the sampling efficiency (α), defined as the ratio between the ideal UR (URideal) and UReff. Available experimentally determined URs were compiled from literature. Method detection limits were determined on a thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS) system. The 8-h UReff can be modeled with retention volumes or boiling points (BPs) and the biases were within ±20%. The α for 7-day UReff can be estimated by the model: α = 0.3626 Ln(BP) − 1.2324. The 8-h and 7-day UReff values were then compiled for 75 VOCs commonly encountered in the environmental and occupational settings. The TD analytical method showed high precision, linearity and sensitivity, suitable for measuring indoor and outdoor VOCs. The approach and data presented here are anticipated to ease passive monitoring of VOCs for the general users. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Porous Geopolymer Insulating Core from a Metakaolin/Biomass Ash Composite
Environments 2017, 4(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4040086
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
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Abstract
Ashes derived from the combustion of vegetal and animal biomass still represent a mostly unexplored secondary raw material for the production of alkali-activated materials, given their peculiar chemical nature. In this work, calcium phosphate biomass ashes were successfully used as partially reactive fillers
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Ashes derived from the combustion of vegetal and animal biomass still represent a mostly unexplored secondary raw material for the production of alkali-activated materials, given their peculiar chemical nature. In this work, calcium phosphate biomass ashes were successfully used as partially reactive fillers in a metakaolin-based geopolymer composite to produce, by direct foaming, sustainable and lightweight boards with thermal insulating properties. The investigated materials were obtained by activating a blend of metakaolin and biomass ash in a weight ratio of 1: 1 and foamed with the addition of H2O2 in measure of 5 wt. %, to maximize the volume of disposed ash and ensure adequate properties to the material at the same time. The obtained geopolymer composite was characterized by microstructural, chemical-physical, mechanical and thermal analysis: the obtained results showed that biomass ash and metakaolin well integrated in the microstructure of the final porous material, which was characterized by a density of about 310 kg/m3 and a thermal conductivity of 0.073 W/mK at a mean test temperature of 30 °C, coupled with an acceptable compressive strength of about 0.6 MPa. Dilatometric and thermogravimetric analysis, performed up to 1000 °C, highlighted the thermal stability of the composite, which could be regarded as a promising material for low-cost, self-bearing thermal insulating partitions or lightweight cores for thermostructural sandwich panels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmentally Friendly Geopolymer Composites)
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Open AccessReview Biodesulfurization of Petroleum Distillates—Current Status, Opportunities and Future Challenges
Environments 2017, 4(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4040085
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 25 November 2017
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Abstract
Sulfur oxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are considered as one of the major air pollutants in the world today. In addition, high sulfur levels in petroleum distillates can promote the deactivation of catalysts through poisoning in fluidized catalytic
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Sulfur oxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are considered as one of the major air pollutants in the world today. In addition, high sulfur levels in petroleum distillates can promote the deactivation of catalysts through poisoning in fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) during hydrocracking of the heavy distillates to lighter ones. The presence of high sulfur-containing compounds in the process streams could cause corrosion of piping and fittings and equipment, thereby damaging the pipelines and leading to air emissions of sulfur-containing compounds, which are undesirable for mankind and his environment. In many cases, a large quantity of SOx is released into the atmosphere when petroleum distillates that contain substantial amount of sulphur-containing compounds are used as fuel and combust. In this article, a short overview of different desulfurization methods that are employed to remove sulfur from petroleum distillates is provided. In particular, the review concentrates on biodesulfurization technique. In addition, this article intends to provide its readers current status of biodesulfurization (BDS). It critically analyses the trend in the development of the technology to showcase its strength and weakness that could pave a way for future opportunities. Approaches that are suitable to remediate sulfur-contaminated environment are discussed as well. Lastly, speculations on future directions or opportunities that require exploration are provided as a way of provoking the thoughts of researchers in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fate of Toxic Pollutants in the Environment)
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Open AccessReview Ammonia Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria in East Asian Paddy Soils—A Mini Review
Environments 2017, 4(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4040084
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 12 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
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Abstract
Ammonia oxidation is crucial in nitrogen removal and global nitrogen dynamics since it is the first step of the nitrification process. In this review, we focus on the distribution and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in East Asian
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Ammonia oxidation is crucial in nitrogen removal and global nitrogen dynamics since it is the first step of the nitrification process. In this review, we focus on the distribution and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in East Asian paddy soils with variable soil properties. The available East Asian paddy soil data shows that the ammonium concentration and pH ranges from 0.4 to 370 mg/kg and 5.1 to 8.2, respectively. Our meta-analysis suggest that AOA specific gene sequences are generally more abundant than those of AOB in both acidic and alkaline paddy soils, where Nitrosophaera and Nitrosospira amoA clusters mainly dominate the microbial community, respectively. In addition, the contribution of ammonia oxidizers to the nitrification process has been demonstrated using DNA-SIP (DNA-based stable-isotope probing); the results of these studies indicate that pH is the most important factor in niche separation of AOA and AOB under a variety of edaphic conditions. Finally, we discuss a number of other environmental variables that affect the abundance, distribution, and activity of AOA and AOB in East Asian paddy soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil and Water Contamination, Remediation and Conservation)
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Open AccessArticle Vulnerability of Coastal Beach Tourism to Flooding: A Case Study of Galicia, Spain
Environments 2017, 4(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4040083
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 11 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
Flooding, as a result of heavy rains and/or storm surges, is a persistent problem in coastal areas. Under scenarios of climate change, there are expectations that flooding events will become more frequent in some areas and potentially more intense. This poses a potential
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Flooding, as a result of heavy rains and/or storm surges, is a persistent problem in coastal areas. Under scenarios of climate change, there are expectations that flooding events will become more frequent in some areas and potentially more intense. This poses a potential threat to coastal communities relying heavily on coastal resources, such as beaches for tourism. This paper develops a methodology for the assessment of coastal flooding risks, based on an index that compares 16 hydrogeomorphological, biophysical, human exposure and resilience indicators, with a specific focus on tourism. The paper then uses an existing flood vulnerability assessment of 724 beaches in Galicia (Spain) to test the index for tourism. Results indicate that approximately 10% of tourism beaches are at high risk to flooding, including 10 urban and 36 rural beaches. Implications for adaptation and coastal management are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Territorial Management)
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Open AccessArticle Testing Extended Accounts in Scheduled Conservation of Open Woodlands with Permanent Livestock Grazing: Dehesa de la Luz Estate Case Study, Arroyo de la Luz, Spain
Environments 2017, 4(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4040082
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 28 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
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Abstract
Standard Economic Accounts for Agriculture and Forestry do not measure the ecosystem services and intermediate products embedded in the final products recorded, and omit the private non-commercial intermediate products and self-consumption of private amenities. These limitations of the standard accounts are addressed by
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Standard Economic Accounts for Agriculture and Forestry do not measure the ecosystem services and intermediate products embedded in the final products recorded, and omit the private non-commercial intermediate products and self-consumption of private amenities. These limitations of the standard accounts are addressed by the extended Agroforestry Accounting System, which is being tested at the publicly-owned Dehesa de la Luz agroforestry estate. The extended accounts simulate conservation forestry of holm oak and cork oak for the current as well as successive rotation cycles during which scheduled conservation of the cultural woodland landscape of the Dehesa de la Luz is carried out, improving the natural physical growth of the firewood and cork. The estimated results for 2014 reveal that private ecosystem services make up 50% of the firewood and grazing products consumed; the private environmental income accounts for 13% of the total private income; and the private environmental asset represents 53% of the total opening capital. The net value added is more than 2.3 times the amount estimated using the standard accounts. The landowner donates intermediate products of non-commercial services at a value of 85 €/ha, which are used to enhance the supply of public products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Territorial Management)
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