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Adm. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 1 (March 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Administrative Sciences in 2016
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 2; doi:10.3390/admsci7010002
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
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Abstract
The editors of Administrative Sciences would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Determinants of Academic Startups’ Orientation toward International Business Expansion
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 1; doi:10.3390/admsci7010001
Received: 24 July 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
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Abstract
This study explores the determinants of academic startups’ orientation toward international business expansion, focusing on their technological capabilities, availability of public support, the regional characteristics of their locations, and the research standards of their parent universities. Using unique survey data on 448 academic
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This study explores the determinants of academic startups’ orientation toward international business expansion, focusing on their technological capabilities, availability of public support, the regional characteristics of their locations, and the research standards of their parent universities. Using unique survey data on 448 academic startups in Japan and by estimating an ordered logit model, we find that academic startups are strongly oriented toward expanding their businesses internationally if they have strong technological capabilities, receive public support, are established in regions with a high ratio of exporting small firms, or are affiliated with a parent university with an excellent research reputation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Retailers’ Responsibility towards Consumers and Key Drivers of Their Development in Poland
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 3; doi:10.3390/admsci7010003
Received: 15 October 2016 / Revised: 21 December 2016 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 14 January 2017
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Abstract
Multinational retailers are now very powerful and their activities could influence whole economies. In this paper, we investigate why they engage in corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices towards consumers, how it fosters sustainable development, and what the role of institutions are in the
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Multinational retailers are now very powerful and their activities could influence whole economies. In this paper, we investigate why they engage in corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices towards consumers, how it fosters sustainable development, and what the role of institutions are in the process of developing CSR strategies. Changes that have taken place in Poland since 1989, when the transition process into a market economy started, constituted an excellent research field due to the fact that the retail market was not saturated at the beginning, consumers were only slightly protected by the law, and there were no institutions promoting the implementation of social responsibility standards by companies. Research involving analysis of secondary data drawn from retailers’ websites, CSR reports, and published data relating to the CSR institutions allowed the following: (1) identification of three stages of development in consumers’ conception of CSR characterized by the immoral, amoral, and moral management; (2) showing that these activities have a business case; and (3) explaining the role of institutions and competition in this process. It is also shown how multinational retailers could contribute to the sustainable development of less mature markets in which they invest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Issues in Marketing)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Strategy Implementation Style and Public Service Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 4; doi:10.3390/admsci7010004
Received: 17 December 2016 / Revised: 30 January 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
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Abstract
Strategic decision-making theories suggest that organizations that combine rational and incremental strategy implementation styles are likely to perform better than those that emphasize a single style. To assess whether these arguments apply to the public sector; we explore the strategy implementation style and
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Strategic decision-making theories suggest that organizations that combine rational and incremental strategy implementation styles are likely to perform better than those that emphasize a single style. To assess whether these arguments apply to the public sector; we explore the strategy implementation style and perceived service effectiveness, efficiency and equity of Turkish municipal government departments. Using fuzzy cluster analysis, we identify four distinctive though inter-related styles of strategy implementation in our sample organizations: logical-incremental; mostly rational; mostly incremental; and no clear approach. A logical-incremental and mostly rational style of implementation are associated with better effectiveness, efficiency and equity; with the absence of an implementation style associated with worse performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Can Servant Leaders Fuel the Leadership Fire? The Relationship between Servant Leadership and Followers’ Leadership Avoidance
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 6; doi:10.3390/admsci7010006
Received: 14 January 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
This study tested the effect of servant leadership on followers’ inclinations to strive for and, in contrast, to avoid leadership responsibility. Results from a study in the health care context, including two waves of data from 222 employees, revealed that servant leadership had
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This study tested the effect of servant leadership on followers’ inclinations to strive for and, in contrast, to avoid leadership responsibility. Results from a study in the health care context, including two waves of data from 222 employees, revealed that servant leadership had a small but positive effect on followers’ leadership avoidance. This effect was influenced by followers’ implicit conception of an ideal leader. Specifically, servant leadership was found to reduce leadership avoidance when the congruence with the followers’ ideal leader prototype was high. Furthermore, followers’ core self-evaluations and affective motivation to lead mediated the relationship between servant leadership and reduced leadership avoidance. Implications of these patterns for theory and practice and avenues for future research are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Servant Leadership, New Directions in Research, Theory and Practice)
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Heavy Perceived Nurse Workloads on Patient and Nurse Outcomes
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 7; doi:10.3390/admsci7010007
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 5 March 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the relationships between seven workload factors and patient and nurse outcomes. (1) Background: Health systems researchers are beginning to address nurses’ workload demands at different unit, job and task levels; and the types of administrative interventions needed for specific workload
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This study investigated the relationships between seven workload factors and patient and nurse outcomes. (1) Background: Health systems researchers are beginning to address nurses’ workload demands at different unit, job and task levels; and the types of administrative interventions needed for specific workload demands. (2) Methods: This was a cross-sectional correlational study of 472 acute care nurses from British Columbia, Canada. The workload factors included nurse reports of unit-level RN staffing levels and patient acuity and patient dependency; job-level nurse perceptions of heavy workloads, nursing tasks left undone and compromised standards; and task-level interruptions to work flow. Patient outcomes were nurse-reported frequencies of medication errors, patient falls and urinary tract infections; and nurse outcomes were emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. (3) Results: Job-level perceptions of heavy workloads and task-level interruptions had significant direct effects on patient and nurse outcomes. Tasks left undone mediated the relationships between heavy workloads and nurse and patient outcomes; and between interruptions and nurse and patient outcomes. Compromised professional nursing standards mediated the relationships between heavy workloads and nurse outcomes; and between interruptions and nurse outcomes. (4) Conclusion: Administrators should work collaboratively with nurses to identify work environment strategies that ameliorate workload demands at different levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Work Environments)

Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview The Functions of a Servant Leader
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 5; doi:10.3390/admsci7010005
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
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Abstract
Servant leadership has been researched internationally and various types of favourable individual, team, and organisational outcomes have been linked to the construct. Different servant leadership measures have been validated to date and a clear distinction has been made between the theory of servant
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Servant leadership has been researched internationally and various types of favourable individual, team, and organisational outcomes have been linked to the construct. Different servant leadership measures have been validated to date and a clear distinction has been made between the theory of servant leadership and other leadership theories. However, it seems that research on the implementation of servant leadership within an organisation is still in need. The main functions of a servant leader are not yet conceptualised in the literature to help researchers or practitioners to implement servant leadership successfully within organisations. After conducting a systematic literature review, the main functions of a servant leader were identified. These functions were clustered into strategic servant leadership and operational servant leadership and supported by servant leadership characteristics and competencies as defined by current literature. The results of this study might help practitioners to develop servant leaders more effectively and assist organisations to cultivate a servant leadership culture within companies. Limitations and future research needs are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Servant Leadership, New Directions in Research, Theory and Practice)
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