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Appl. Sci., Volume 6, Issue 12 (December 2016)

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Open AccessArticle PSO-Based Voltage Control Strategy for Loadability Enhancement in Smart Power Grids
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120449
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 18 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
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Abstract
This paper proposes a new voltage control methodology using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique for smart grid loadability enhancement. The goal of this paper is to achieve reliable and efficient voltage profile/stability regulation in power grids. This methodology is based on the
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This paper proposes a new voltage control methodology using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique for smart grid loadability enhancement. The goal of this paper is to achieve reliable and efficient voltage profile/stability regulation in power grids. This methodology is based on the decouple power flow equations and the worst-case design technique. Specifically, the secondary voltage control (SVC) problem is formulated as an L-infinity norm minimization problem which considers overall load voltage deviations in electrical power systems as an objective model, and the PSO technique is employed to determine a robust control action which aims to improve voltage profile and to enlarge transmission grid loadability by optimal coordinated control of VAR sources. The methodology was successfully tested on several IEEE benchmark systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 2016 International Conference on Inventions)
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Open AccessArticle Wavelength Selection for Detection of Slight Bruises on Pears Based on Hyperspectral Imaging
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120450
Received: 5 October 2016 / Revised: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
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Abstract
Hyperspectral imaging technology was employed to detect slight bruises on Korla pears. The spectral data of 60 bruised samples and 60 normal samples were collected by a hyperspectral imaging system. To select the characteristic wavelengths for detection, several chemometrics methods were used on
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Hyperspectral imaging technology was employed to detect slight bruises on Korla pears. The spectral data of 60 bruised samples and 60 normal samples were collected by a hyperspectral imaging system. To select the characteristic wavelengths for detection, several chemometrics methods were used on the raw spectra. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on the spectra ranging from 420 to 1000 nm of all samples. Considering that the reliability of the first two PCs was more than 90%, five characteristic wavelengths (472, 544, 655, 688 and 967 nm) were selected by the loading plot of PC1 and PC2. Then, each of the wavelength variables was considered as an independent classifier for bruised/normal classification, and all classifiers were evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Two wavelengths (472 and 967 nm) with the highest values under the curve (0.992 and 0.980) were finally selected for modeling. The classifying model was built by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and the bruised/normal classification accuracy of the modeling set (45 damaged samples and 45 normal samples) and prediction set (15 damaged samples and 15 normal samples) was 98.9% and 100%, respectively, which is similar to that of the PLS-DA model based on the whole spectral range. The result shows that it is feasible to select characteristic wavelengths for the detection of slight bruises on pears by the methods combining the PCA and ROC analysis. This study can lay a foundation for the development of an online detection system for slight bruise detection on pears. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Hyperspectral Imaging for Food and Agriculture)
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Open AccessArticle Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of a Swash-Plate Axial Piston Pump
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120399
Received: 30 October 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
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Abstract
This work proposes an MDO (multidisciplinary design optimization) procedure for a swash-plate axial piston pump based on co-simulation and integrated optimization. The integrated hydraulic-mechanical model of the pump is built to reflect its actual performance, and a hydraulic-mechanical co-simulation is conducted through data
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This work proposes an MDO (multidisciplinary design optimization) procedure for a swash-plate axial piston pump based on co-simulation and integrated optimization. The integrated hydraulic-mechanical model of the pump is built to reflect its actual performance, and a hydraulic-mechanical co-simulation is conducted through data exchange between different domains. The flow ripple of the pump is optimized by using a MDO procedure. A CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation of the pump’s flow field is done, which shows that the hydrodynamic shock of the pump is improved after optimization. To verify the MDO effect, an experimental system is established to test the optimized piston pump. Experimental results show that the simulated and experimental curves are similar. The flow ripple is improved by the MDO procedure. The peak of the pressure curve is lower than before optimization, and the pressure pulsation is reduced by 0.21 MPa, which shows that the pressure pulsation is improved with the decreasing of the flow ripple. Comparing the experimental and simulation results shows that MDO method is effective and feasible in the optimization design of the pump. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modeling of Integrated Nanoneedle-Microfluidic System for Single Cell Temperature Measurement
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120339
Received: 9 September 2016 / Revised: 22 October 2016 / Accepted: 28 October 2016 / Published: 18 December 2016
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Abstract
In this research, a finite element study on a nanoneedle-microfluidic system for single cell temperature measurement is presented. The nanoneedle design and electrical and mechanical characterization are analyzed, in which tungsten is used as the sensing material. A rectangular shaped sensor with a
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In this research, a finite element study on a nanoneedle-microfluidic system for single cell temperature measurement is presented. The nanoneedle design and electrical and mechanical characterization are analyzed, in which tungsten is used as the sensing material. A rectangular shaped sensor with a gap of 10.8 µm showed to give the same current density distribution within the nanoneedle, and a 90 nm2 cross-sectional area showed to cause minimum damage to the cell. Furthermore, the current showed to have a positive temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) with an increase in the temperature, and the nanoneedle showed to be able to resist ramp force up to 22.5 μN before failure. Electrical measurement on yeast cell showed that the nanoneedle was independent of the cell conductivity. The nanoneedle proved to be able to measure temperature with a current difference of 50 nA and a resolution of 0.02 °C in 10 ms. A Y-shaped microchannel was proposed and the microchannel cross-sectional area was optimized to be 63 μm2 and a flow rate of 24.6 pL/min allowed successful cell penetration causing minimal damage to the cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Biodegradable Nanoparticles Made of Amino-Acid-Based Ester Polymers: Preparation, Characterization, and In Vitro Biocompatibility Study
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120444
Received: 20 November 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
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Abstract
A systematic study of fabricating nanoparticles (NPs) by cost-effective polymer deposition/solvent displacement (nanoprecipitation) method has been carried out. Five amino acid based biodegradable (AABB) ester polymers (four neutral and one cationic), four organic solvents miscible with water, and eight surfactants were tested for
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A systematic study of fabricating nanoparticles (NPs) by cost-effective polymer deposition/solvent displacement (nanoprecipitation) method has been carried out. Five amino acid based biodegradable (AABB) ester polymers (four neutral and one cationic), four organic solvents miscible with water, and eight surfactants were tested for the fabrication of the goal NPs. Depending on the nature of the AABB polymers, organic solvents and surfactants, as well as on the fabrication conditions, the size (Mean Particle Diameter) of the NPs could be tuned within 42 ÷ 398 nm, the zeta-potential within 12.5 ÷ +28 mV. The stability (resuspendability) of the NPs upon storage (at room temperature and refrigerated) was tested as well. In Vitro biocompatibility study of the NPs was performed with four different stable cell lines: A549, HeLa (human); RAW264.7, Hepa 1-6 (murine). Comparing the NPs parameters, their stability upon storage, and the data of biological examinations the best were found: As the AABB polymer, a poly(ester amide) composed of l-leucine, 1,6-hexanediol and sebacic acid–8L6, as a solvent (organic phase—DMSO), and as a surfactant, Tween 20. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable and Biocompatible Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Automatic Taxonomic Classification of Fish Based on Their Acoustic Signals
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120443
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 25 November 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (6251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fish as well as birds, mammals, insects and other animals are capable of emitting sounds for diverse purposes, which can be recorded through microphone sensors. Although fish vocalizations have been known for a long time, they have been poorly studied and applied in
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Fish as well as birds, mammals, insects and other animals are capable of emitting sounds for diverse purposes, which can be recorded through microphone sensors. Although fish vocalizations have been known for a long time, they have been poorly studied and applied in their taxonomic classification. This work presents a novel approach for automatic remote acoustic identification of fish through their acoustic signals by applying pattern recognition techniques. The sound signals are preprocessed and automatically segmented to extract each call from the background noise. Then, the calls are parameterized using Linear and Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (LFCC and MFCC), Shannon Entropy (SE) and Syllable Length (SL), yielding useful information for the classification phase. In our experiments, 102 different fish species have been successfully identified with three widely used machine learning algorithms: K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Experimental results show an average classification accuracy of 95.24%, 93.56% and 95.58%, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A High-Thrust Screw-Type Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Motor with Three-Wavelength Exciting Mode
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120442
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
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Abstract
A high-thrust screw-type piezoelectric ultrasonic motor with a three-wavelength exciting mode is proposed in this paper. The motor mainly includes a stator and a screw output shaft, and the stator is composed of twelve rectangular piezoelectric plates and a hollow metal elastomer with
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A high-thrust screw-type piezoelectric ultrasonic motor with a three-wavelength exciting mode is proposed in this paper. The motor mainly includes a stator and a screw output shaft, and the stator is composed of twelve rectangular piezoelectric plates and a hollow metal elastomer with an internal thread. The stator can be excited to generate the combined micro ultrasonic vibration mode. With this ultrasonic vibration mode, a three-wavelength traveling wave can be synthesized. The three-wavelength traveling wave is used to drive the screw output shaft by means of the frictional force between the stator and the shaft. Rotary-linear motion can be achieved without any additional conversion mechanism. Large thrust output can be easily obtained using a three-wavelength exciting mode. The exciting mode is analyzed in detail. The prototype is designed, simulated, and fabricated. A series of experiments are carried out and the results indicate that the maximum output thrust is 50.8 N at an excitation frequency and peak-to-peak voltage of 28.9 kHz and 120 Vp-p, respectively. The maximum force density is 247.8 N/kg. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Enhancement and Reduction of Nonradiative Decay Process in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes by Gold Nanoparticles
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120441
Received: 19 September 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2003 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The influences of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and the buffer layer on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes are investigated in this study. The GNPs are doped into poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and the buffer layer is introduced between the hole-transport layer and emitting layer.
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The influences of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and the buffer layer on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes are investigated in this study. The GNPs are doped into poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and the buffer layer is introduced between the hole-transport layer and emitting layer. The GNPs are found to have the surface plasmon resonance at a wavelength of 530 nm when the mean particle size of the GNPs is 10 nm. The current efficiency of the device, at a current density of 145 mA/cm2, with GNPs and a buffer layer of 6 nm is about 1.93 times higher than that of the device with prime PEDOT:PSS because the GNPs will generate the surface plasmon resonance effect in the device and the buffer layer can considerably decrease the quenching of the fluorescence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design, Development and Implementation of a Smartphone Overdependence Management System for the Self-Control of Smart Devices
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120440
Received: 27 November 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 10 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Smartphone overdependence is a type of mental disorder that requires continuous treatment for cure and prevention. A smartphone overdependence management system that is based on scientific evidence is required. This study proposes the design, development and implementation of a smartphone overdependence management
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Background: Smartphone overdependence is a type of mental disorder that requires continuous treatment for cure and prevention. A smartphone overdependence management system that is based on scientific evidence is required. This study proposes the design, development and implementation of a smartphone overdependence management system for self-control of smart devices. Methods: The system architecture of the Smartphone Overdependence Management System (SOMS) primarily consists of four sessions of mental monitoring: (1) Baseline settlement session; (2) Assessment session; (3) Sensing & monitoring session; and (4) Analysis and feedback session. We developed the smartphone-usage-monitoring application (app) and MindsCare personal computer (PC) app to receive and integrate usage data from smartphone users. We analyzed smartphone usage data using the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID). Based on the baseline settlement results, we designed a feedback service to intervene. We implemented the system using 96 participants for testing and validation. The participants were classified into two groups: the smartphone usage control group (SUC) and the smartphone usage disorder addiction group (SUD). Results: The background smartphone monitoring app of the proposed system successfully monitored the smartphone usage based on the developed algorithm. The usage minutes of the SUD were higher than the usage minutes of the SUC in 11 of the 16 categories developed in our study. Via the MindsCare PC app, the data were successfully integrated and stored, and managers can successfully analyze and diagnose based on the monitored data. Conclusion: The SOMS is a new system that is based on integrated personalized data for evidence-based smartphone overdependence intervention. The SOMS is useful for managing usage data, diagnosing smartphone overdependence, classifying usage patterns and predicting smartphone overdependence. This system contributes to the diagnosis of an abstract mental status, such as smartphone overdependence, based on specific scientific indicators without reliance on consultation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Healthcare) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Icing Forecasting of High Voltage Transmission Line Using Weighted Least Square Support Vector Machine with Fireworks Algorithm for Feature Selection
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120438
Received: 14 September 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 11 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
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Abstract
Accurate forecasting of icing thickness has great significance for ensuring the security and stability of the power grid. In order to improve the forecasting accuracy, this paper proposes an icing forecasting system based on the fireworks algorithm and weighted least square support vector
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Accurate forecasting of icing thickness has great significance for ensuring the security and stability of the power grid. In order to improve the forecasting accuracy, this paper proposes an icing forecasting system based on the fireworks algorithm and weighted least square support vector machine (W-LSSVM). The method of the fireworks algorithm is employed to select the proper input features with the purpose of eliminating redundant influence. In addition, the aim of the W-LSSVM model is to train and test the historical data-set with the selected features. The capability of this proposed icing forecasting model and framework is tested through simulation experiments using real-world icing data from the monitoring center of the key laboratory of anti-ice disaster, Hunan, South China. The results show that the proposed W-LSSVM-FA method has a higher prediction accuracy and it may be a promising alternative for icing thickness forecasting. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Poly(α-hydroxy Acids)-Based Cell Microcarriers
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120436
Received: 27 October 2016 / Revised: 10 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2800 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biodegradable poly(α-hydroxyacids) have gained increasing interest in the biomedical field for their use as cell microcarriers thanks to their biodegradability, biocompatibility, tunable mechanical properties/degradation rates and processability. The synthesis of these poly(α-hydroxyacids) can be finely controlled to yield (co)polymers of desired mechanical properties
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Biodegradable poly(α-hydroxyacids) have gained increasing interest in the biomedical field for their use as cell microcarriers thanks to their biodegradability, biocompatibility, tunable mechanical properties/degradation rates and processability. The synthesis of these poly(α-hydroxyacids) can be finely controlled to yield (co)polymers of desired mechanical properties and degradation rates. On the other hand, by simple emulsion-solvent evaporation techniques, microspheres of controlled size and size distribution can be fabricated. The resulting microspheres can be further surface-modified to enhance cell adhesion and proliferation. As a result of this process, biodegradable microcarriers with advanced functionalities and surface properties that can be directly employed as injectable cell microcarriers are obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable and Biocompatible Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Development of a Sequential Restoration Strategy Based on the Enhanced Dijkstra Algorithm for Korean Power Systems
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120435
Received: 3 October 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
When a blackout occurs, it is important to reduce the time for power system restoration to minimize damage. For fast restoration, it is important to reduce taking time for the selection of generators, transmission lines and transformers. In addition, it is essential that
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When a blackout occurs, it is important to reduce the time for power system restoration to minimize damage. For fast restoration, it is important to reduce taking time for the selection of generators, transmission lines and transformers. In addition, it is essential that a determination of a generator start-up sequence (GSS) be made to restore the power system. In this paper, we propose the optimal selection of black start units through the generator start-up sequence (GSS) to minimize the restoration time using generator characteristic data and the enhanced Dijkstra algorithm. For each restoration step, the sequence selected for the next start unit is recalculated to reflect the system conditions. The proposed method is verified by the empirical Korean power systems. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Photonic Packaging: Transforming Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits into Photonic Devices
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120426
Received: 7 November 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (14310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dedicated multi-project wafer (MPW) runs for photonic integrated circuits (PICs) from Si foundries mean that researchers and small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) can now afford to design and fabricate Si photonic chips. While these bare Si-PICs are adequate for testing new device and circuit designs
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Dedicated multi-project wafer (MPW) runs for photonic integrated circuits (PICs) from Si foundries mean that researchers and small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) can now afford to design and fabricate Si photonic chips. While these bare Si-PICs are adequate for testing new device and circuit designs on a probe-station, they cannot be developed into prototype devices, or tested outside of the laboratory, without first packaging them into a durable module. Photonic packaging of PICs is significantly more challenging, and currently orders of magnitude more expensive, than electronic packaging, because it calls for robust micron-level alignment of optical components, precise real-time temperature control, and often a high degree of vertical and horizontal electrical integration. Photonic packaging is perhaps the most significant bottleneck in the development of commercially relevant integrated photonic devices. This article describes how the key optical, electrical, and thermal requirements of Si-PIC packaging can be met, and what further progress is needed before industrial scale-up can be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonics Components and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle A Label-Free Aptamer-Based Fluorescent Assay for Cadmium Detection
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120432
Received: 1 November 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 10 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
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Abstract
Selective detection of ultratrace amounts of cadmium (Cd2+) is extremely important for food safety and environmental monitoring because of its toxicity and widespread use. In this work, we developed a facile, rapid, sensitive, and highly selective method for the detection of
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Selective detection of ultratrace amounts of cadmium (Cd2+) is extremely important for food safety and environmental monitoring because of its toxicity and widespread use. In this work, we developed a facile, rapid, sensitive, and highly selective method for the detection of Cd2+ based on a label-free aptasensor using an unmodified double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid-specific dye (PicoGreen). The linear range was 0.10–100 µg/mL, and the detection limit (0.038 ng/mL) was lower than the guideline from the World Health Organization for Cd2+ in drinking water (3 ng/mL). The sensor exhibited excellent selectivity towards Cd2+ ions. We tested the aptasensor in application to a series of real water samples spiked with different concentrations of Cd2+. Compared with atomic absorption spectrometry, the results showed good tolerance to the matrix effect. The developed approach shows great potential for on-site and high-throughput analysis in routine monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Green High-Yielding One-Pot Approach to Biginelli Reaction under Catalyst-Free and Solvent-Free Ball Milling Conditions
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120431
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 3 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A simple, green, and efficient approach was used to synthesize 3,4-dihydropyrimidines derivatives. We showed that the application of the planetary ball milling method with a ball-to-reagent weight ratio of 8 for the Biginelli reaction provides 3,4-dihydropyrimidines derivatives with excellent yields (>98%) in a
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A simple, green, and efficient approach was used to synthesize 3,4-dihydropyrimidines derivatives. We showed that the application of the planetary ball milling method with a ball-to-reagent weight ratio of 8 for the Biginelli reaction provides 3,4-dihydropyrimidines derivatives with excellent yields (>98%) in a short reaction time from the one-pot, three-component condensation of aldehydes, ethyl acetoacetate, and urea (or thiourea). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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