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Antioxidants, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2014), Pages 1-189

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Antioxidants in 2013
Antioxidants 2014, 3(1), 114-115; doi:10.3390/antiox3010114
Received: 28 February 2014 / Accepted: 28 February 2014 / Published: 28 February 2014
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Abstract The editors of Antioxidants would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2013. [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant and Antigenotoxic Activities of the Brazilian Pine Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze
Antioxidants 2014, 3(1), 24-37; doi:10.3390/antiox3010024
Received: 12 November 2013 / Revised: 18 December 2013 / Accepted: 30 December 2013 / Published: 6 January 2014
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Abstract
Polyphenols are natural products with recognized potential in drug discovery and development. We aimed to evaluate the polyphenolic profile of Araucaria angustifolia bracts, and their ability to scavenge reactive species. The antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of A. angustifolia polyphenols in MRC5 human lung
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Polyphenols are natural products with recognized potential in drug discovery and development. We aimed to evaluate the polyphenolic profile of Araucaria angustifolia bracts, and their ability to scavenge reactive species. The antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of A. angustifolia polyphenols in MRC5 human lung fibroblast cells were also explored. The total polyphenol extract of A. angustifolia was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and the chemical composition was confirmed by HPLC. Reactive oxygen species’ scavenging ability was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and superoxide dismutase- and catalase-like activities. The protective effect of the extract in MRC5 cells was carried out by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method and the determination of oxidative lipids, protein, and DNA (alkaline and enzymatic comet assay) damage. Total phenolic content of the A. angustifolia extract was 1586 ± 14.53 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g of bracts. Catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, and apigenin were the major polyphenols. The extract was able to scavenge DPPH radicals and exhibited potent superoxide dismutase and catalase-like activities. Moreover, A. angustifolia extract significantly protected MRC5 cells against H2O2-induced mortality and oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA. Therefore, A. angustifolia has potential as a source of bioactive chemical compounds. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Perilla frutescens Extract on the Oxidative Stability of Model Food Emulsions
Antioxidants 2014, 3(1), 38-54; doi:10.3390/antiox3010038
Received: 5 December 2013 / Revised: 9 January 2014 / Accepted: 16 January 2014 / Published: 22 January 2014
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Abstract
The polyphenolic profile of leaves and stalks of Perilla frutescens, was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. The amount of caffeic and rosmarinic acids, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were 0.51 mg/g dry weight (DW) and 2.29 mg/g DW, respectively.
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The polyphenolic profile of leaves and stalks of Perilla frutescens, was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. The amount of caffeic and rosmarinic acids, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were 0.51 mg/g dry weight (DW) and 2.29 mg/g DW, respectively. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were 65.03 mg Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 179.60 mg TE/g DW and 44.46 mg TE/g DW, respectively. P. frutescens extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during storage at 32 °C. Perilla extract at 320 ppm was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at 20 ppm in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hexanal content. The results of this study indicate that extract of P. frutescens may be suitable for use in the food matrix to help achieve potential health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Oils)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Activity in Two Pearl Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) Cultivars as Influenced by Processing
Antioxidants 2014, 3(1), 55-66; doi:10.3390/antiox3010055
Received: 30 December 2013 / Revised: 27 January 2014 / Accepted: 7 February 2014 / Published: 12 February 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research on the effect of processing on the retention of bioactive components with potential antioxidant activity is gaining importance. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of various processing methods (milling, boiling, pressure cooking, roasting and germination respectively) on the
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Research on the effect of processing on the retention of bioactive components with potential antioxidant activity is gaining importance. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of various processing methods (milling, boiling, pressure cooking, roasting and germination respectively) on the antioxidant components as well as the antioxidant activities in the commonly used pearl millet cultivars—Kalukombu (K) and Maharashtra Rabi Bajra (MRB). The methanolic extracts of processed pearl millet flours were analyzed for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay (RPA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays respectively. The samples were also evaluated for tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid content which was then correlated with the antioxidant activity assayed using three methods. The results indicated that the bran rich fraction showed high antioxidant activity (RPA) owing to high tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid levels. Heat treatments exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher antioxidant activity (DPPH scavenging activity and RPA) reflecting the high flavonoid content. Processing did not have any significant effect on the FRAP activity of pearl millet. The data on the correlation coefficient suggests that DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay in the K variety was largely due to the presence of flavonoid content, however in MRB, no relationship was found between antioxidant activities and antioxidant components. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antioxidative Polyphenols from Defatted Oilseed Cakes: Effect of Solvents
Antioxidants 2014, 3(1), 67-80; doi:10.3390/antiox3010067
Received: 1 January 2014 / Revised: 28 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 24 February 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes were extracted with different solvent systems namely methanol, ethanol, acetone, methanol 80%, acetone 80% and mixed solvent of methanol:acetone:water (MAW, 7:7:6, v/v/v). Each extract was analyzed for antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl
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Defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes were extracted with different solvent systems namely methanol, ethanol, acetone, methanol 80%, acetone 80% and mixed solvent of methanol:acetone:water (MAW, 7:7:6, v/v/v). Each extract was analyzed for antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. MAW exhibited the highest extraction of phenolic and flavonoid contents in the seed cakes, followed by acetone 80% and methanol 80%. The antioxidant capacity was proportional to the polyphenols recovery in the extracts. Canola seed cakes possessed the highest recovery of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, followed by hemp and flax seed cakes. MAW extract of canola contained total phenolic content, 2104.67 ± 2.52 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight; total flavonoids, 37.79 ± 0.04 mg LUE/100 g fresh weight; percentage inhibition of DPPH, 33.03 ± 0.38%; FRAP assay, 8.78 ± 0.07 μmol Fe (II)/g fresh weight. Identification of individual polyphenol compounds were performed HPLC. MAW extract of canola had the highest (P < 0.05) concentration of all individual polyphenols except gallic acid and catechin. Highest concentration of quercetin and luteolin in MAW extract of hemp was obtained among all solvent systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Oils)
Open AccessArticle Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Juniper Berry (Juniperus communis L.) Essential Oil. Action of the Essential Oil on the Antioxidant Protection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model Organism
Antioxidants 2014, 3(1), 81-98; doi:10.3390/antiox3010081
Received: 11 December 2013 / Revised: 26 January 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2014 / Published: 24 February 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (329 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The essential oil of juniper berries (Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae) is traditionally used for medicinal and flavoring purposes. As elucidated by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS methods), the juniper berry oil from Bulgaria is largely comprised of
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The essential oil of juniper berries (Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae) is traditionally used for medicinal and flavoring purposes. As elucidated by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS methods), the juniper berry oil from Bulgaria is largely comprised of monoterpene hydrocarbons such as α-pinene (51.4%), myrcene (8.3%), sabinene (5.8%), limonene (5.1%) and β-pinene (5.0%). The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was evaluated in vitro by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation scavenging, hydroxyl radical (ОН) scavenging and chelating capacity, superoxide radical (O2) scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects, hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The antioxidant activity of the oil attributable to electron transfer made juniper berry essential oil a strong antioxidant, whereas the antioxidant activity attributable to hydrogen atom transfer was lower. Lipid peroxidation inhibition by the essential oil in both stages, i.e., hydroperoxide formation and malondialdehyde formation, was less efficient than the inhibition by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). In vivo studies confirmed these effects of the oil which created the possibility of blocking the oxidation processes in yeast cells by increasing activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Oils)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Dielectric Properties of a Solvent-Water Mixture Used in Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Antioxidants from Potato Peels
Antioxidants 2014, 3(1), 99-113; doi:10.3390/antiox3010099
Received: 6 November 2013 / Revised: 20 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 24 February 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1051 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The dielectric properties of a methanol-water mixture were measured at different temperatures from 20 to 80 °C at two frequencies 915 MHz and 2450 MHz. These frequencies are most commonly used on industrial and domestic scales respectively. In this study, the dielectric properties
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The dielectric properties of a methanol-water mixture were measured at different temperatures from 20 to 80 °C at two frequencies 915 MHz and 2450 MHz. These frequencies are most commonly used on industrial and domestic scales respectively. In this study, the dielectric properties of a methanol-water mixture were found to be dependent on temperature, solvent concentration, and presence of plant matrix. Linear and quadratic equations were developed to establish the dependency between factors. At 2450 MHz, the dielectric constant of methanol-water mixtures was significantly affected by concentration of methanol rather than by temperature, whereas the dielectric loss factor was significantly affected by temperature rather than by methanol concentration. Introduction of potato peel led to an increase in the effect of temperature on the dielectric properties of the methanol fractions. At 915 MHz, both the dielectric properties were significantly affected by the increase in temperature and solvent concentration, while the presence of potato peel had no significant effect on the dielectric properties. Statistical analysis of the dissipation factor at 915 and 2450 MHz revealed that both temperature and solvent concentration had a significant effect on it, whereas introduction of potato peels at 915 MHz reduced the effect of temperature as compared to 2450 MHz. The total phenolic yield of the microwave-assisted extraction process was significantly affected by the solvent concentration, the dissipation factor of the methanol-water mixture and the extraction time. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions
Antioxidants 2014, 3(1), 116-128; doi:10.3390/antiox3010116
Received: 16 December 2013 / Revised: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 3 March 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (304 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A.
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Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A. annua was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were established and three assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were 314.99 µM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 736.26 µM TE/g DW and 212.18 µM TE/g DW, respectively. A. annua extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during prolonged storage (45 days) at 32 °C. Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at 0.02 g/L in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results of this study indicate that extract of A. annua may be suitable for use in the food matrix as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Oils)
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Open AccessArticle Green Tea Extract Induces the Resistance of Caenorhabditis elegans against Oxidative Stress
Antioxidants 2014, 3(1), 129-143; doi:10.3390/antiox3010129
Received: 20 January 2014 / Revised: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 4 March 2014
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Abstract
Epidemiological studies on the effects of green tea consumption (Camellia sinensis) have demonstrated a reduction for the risk of age-related diseases. The investigation of the in vivo and in vitro antioxidant properties of an aqueous extract of green tea (GTE) was
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Epidemiological studies on the effects of green tea consumption (Camellia sinensis) have demonstrated a reduction for the risk of age-related diseases. The investigation of the in vivo and in vitro antioxidant properties of an aqueous extract of green tea (GTE) was the aim of the current study. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion radical (O2•−) assays were used to estimate the GTE antioxidant activity. To investigate the protective effects of GTE against oxidative stress, wild-type N2 and transgenic strains (TJ374, hsp-16.2/GFP) of the model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), were chosen. In the current study, the following catechins were identified by LC/ESI-MS: catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin and epigallocatechin gallate. GTE exhibited a free radical scavenging activity of DPPH and O2•− with IC50 8.37 and 91.34 µg/mL, respectively. In the C. elegans strain (TJ374, hsp-16.2/GFP), the expression of hsp-16.2/GFP was induced by a nonlethal dose of juglone, and the fluorescence density of hsp-16.2/GFP was measured. The hsp-16.2/GFP was reduced by 68.43% in the worms pretreated with 100 µg/mL GTE. N2 worms pretreated with 100 µg/mL GTE exhibited an increased survival rate of 48.31% after a lethal dose application of juglone. The results suggest that some green tea constituents are absorbed by the worms and play a substantial role to enhance oxidative stress resistance in C. elegans. Full article
Open AccessArticle Identification of Phenolic Compounds and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Euphorbia Tirucalli L.
Antioxidants 2014, 3(1), 159-175; doi:10.3390/antiox3010159
Received: 19 December 2013 / Revised: 4 February 2014 / Accepted: 15 February 2014 / Published: 17 March 2014
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Abstract
Bioactive compounds extracted from natural sources can benefit human health. The aim of this work was to determine total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L. followed by identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds, as well as their
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Bioactive compounds extracted from natural sources can benefit human health. The aim of this work was to determine total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L. followed by identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds, as well as their antibacterial activities. Antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH and ABTS•+ assay. Identification of phenolic compounds was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and antimicrobial activities were verified by agar dilution methods and MIC values. Total phenolic content ranged from 7.73 to 30.54 mg/100 g gallic acid equivalent. Extracts from dry plants showed higher antioxidant activities than those from fresh ones. The DPPH EC50 values were approximately 12.15 μg/mL and 16.59 μg/mL, respectively. Antioxidant activity measured by the ABTS method yielded values higher than 718.99 μM trolox/g for dry plants, while by the Rancimat® system yielded protection factors exceeding 1 for all extracts, comparable to synthetic BHT. Ferulic acid was the principal phenolic compound identified and quantified through HPLC-UV in all extracts. The extracts proved effective inhibitory potential for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. These results showed that extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L. have excellent antioxidant capacity and moderate antimicrobial activity. These can be attributed to the high concentration of ferulic acid. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effectiveness of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol in a CLA-Rich Oil
Antioxidants 2014, 3(1), 176-188; doi:10.3390/antiox3010176
Received: 31 December 2013 / Revised: 12 February 2014 / Accepted: 25 February 2014 / Published: 17 March 2014
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Abstract
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with conjugated double bounds. Positive health properties have been attributed to some isomers, such as anticarcinogenic activity, antiartherosclerotic effects and reduction of body fat gain. Hence, oils rich
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Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with conjugated double bounds. Positive health properties have been attributed to some isomers, such as anticarcinogenic activity, antiartherosclerotic effects and reduction of body fat gain. Hence, oils rich in CLA such as Tonalin® oil (TO), normally obtained through alkaline isomerization of safflower oil (SO), an oil rich in linoleic acid (LA), are currently used in functional foods. However, special care must be taken to protect them from oxidation to ensure the quality of the supplemented foods. The objective of this work was to evaluate the oxidation and effectiveness of different tocopherol homologues (α-, γ- and δ-), alone or in combination with synergists (ascorbyl palmitate and lecithin), in TO compared to SO at different conditions, ambient temperature (25 °C) and accelerated conditions in Rancimat (100 °C). The oils, the oils devoid of their antioxidants and the latter containing the antioxidants added were assayed. Results showed great differences between SO and TO in terms of formation of hydroperoxides and polymers and also in the effectiveness of tocopherols to delay oxidation. TO showed higher levels of polymerization and, in general, the effectiveness of tocopherol homologues, alone or in combination with synergists, was also lower in the TO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Oils)

Review

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Open AccessReview Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil
Antioxidants 2014, 3(1), 1-23; doi:10.3390/antiox3010001
Received: 16 October 2013 / Revised: 27 November 2013 / Accepted: 28 November 2013 / Published: 20 December 2013
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Abstract
Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the
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Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Antioxidants)
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Open AccessReview Dietary Polyphenols, Berries, and Age-Related Bone Loss: A Review Based on Human, Animal, and Cell Studies
Antioxidants 2014, 3(1), 144-158; doi:10.3390/antiox3010144
Received: 31 December 2013 / Revised: 23 February 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 11 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bone loss during aging has become an increasing public health concern as average life expectancy has increased. One of the most prevalent forms of age-related bone disease today is osteoporosis in which the body slows down bone formation and existing bone is increasingly
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Bone loss during aging has become an increasing public health concern as average life expectancy has increased. One of the most prevalent forms of age-related bone disease today is osteoporosis in which the body slows down bone formation and existing bone is increasingly being resorbed by the body to maintain the calcium balance. Some causes of this bone loss can be attributed to dysregulation of osteoblast and osteoclast activity mediated by increased oxidative stress through the aging process. Due to certain serious adverse effects of the currently available therapeutic agents that limit their efficacy, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has garnered interest as a natural means for the prevention of this debilitating disease. Natural antioxidant supplementation, a type of CAM, has been researched to aid in reducing bone loss caused by oxidative stress. Naturally occurring polyphenols, such as anthocyanins rich in berries, are known to have anti-oxidative properties. Several studies have been reviewed to determine the impact polyphenol intake—particularly that of berries—has on bone health. Studies reveal a positive association of high berry intake and higher bone mass, implicating berries as possible inexpensive alternatives in reducing the risk of age related bone loss. Full article

Other

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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Racchi, M.L. Antioxidant Defenses in Plants with Attention to Prunus and Citrus spp. Antioxidants 2013, 2, 340-369
Antioxidants 2014, 3(1), 189; doi:10.3390/antiox3010189
Received: 28 February 2014 / Accepted: 5 March 2014 / Published: 20 March 2014
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Abstract I have found two inadvertent errors in my review published in Antioxidants [1]. [...] Full article

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