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DNA Immunization for HIV Vaccine Development
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Recent Developments in Preclinical DNA Vaccination
Vaccines 2014, 2(1), 160-178; doi:10.3390/vaccines2010160

DNA/MVA Vaccines for HIV/AIDS

*  and *
Emory Vaccine Center, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 January 2014 / Revised: 31 January 2014 / Accepted: 6 February 2014 / Published: 28 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Vaccines)
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Since the initial proof-of-concept studies examining the ability of antigen-encoded plasmid DNA to serve as an immunogen, DNA vaccines have evolved as a clinically safe and effective platform for priming HIV-specific cellular and humoral responses in heterologous “prime-boost” vaccination regimens. Direct injection of plasmid DNA into the muscle induces T- and B-cell responses against foreign antigens. However, the insufficient magnitude of this response has led to the development of approaches for enhancing the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. The last two decades have seen significant progress in the DNA-based vaccine platform with optimized plasmid constructs, improved delivery methods, such as electroporation, the use of molecular adjuvants and novel strategies combining DNA with viral vectors and subunit proteins. These innovations are paving the way for the clinical application of DNA-based HIV vaccines. Here, we review preclinical studies on the DNA-prime/modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-boost vaccine modality for HIV. There is a great deal of interest in enhancing the immunogenicity of DNA by engineering DNA vaccines to co-express immune modulatory adjuvants. Some of these adjuvants have demonstrated encouraging results in preclinical and clinical studies, and these data will be examined, as well.
Keywords: adjuvant; SIV; rhesus macaque; CD40L; GM-CSF adjuvant; SIV; rhesus macaque; CD40L; GM-CSF
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Iyer, S.S.; Amara, R.R. DNA/MVA Vaccines for HIV/AIDS. Vaccines 2014, 2, 160-178.

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