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J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030055

A Challenge to Aging Society by microRNA in Extracellular Vesicles: microRNA in Extracellular Vesicles as Promising Biomarkers and Novel Therapeutic Targets in Multiple Myeloma

1
Division of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan
2
Clinical Physiology and Therapeutics, Keio University Faculty of Pharmacy, 1-5-30 Shibakoen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0011, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 February 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 12 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA biomarkers in Aging Society)
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Abstract

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of terminally differentiated plasma cells and is the second most common hematological cancer. MM frequently occurs in the elderly population with the median age as the middle sixties. Over the last 10 years, the prognosis of MM has been dramatically improved by new therapeutic drugs; however, MM is still incurable. The pathogenesis of MM is still unclear, thus greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms of MM malignancy is desirable. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) were shown to modulate the expression of genes critical for MM pathogenesis. In addition, miRNAs are secreted via extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are released from various cell types including MM cells, and these miRNAs are involved in multiple types of cell-cell interactions, which lead to the malignancy of MM. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of miRNA secretion via EVs and of EVs themselves in MM development. We also discuss the potential clinical applications of EVs as promising biomarkers and new therapeutic targets for improving the outcome of MM, resulting in a brighter future for aging societies. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosome; microRNA; multiple myeloma; biomarker extracellular vesicles; exosome; microRNA; multiple myeloma; biomarker
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Yamamoto, T.; Kosaka, N.; Hattori, Y.; Ochiya, T. A Challenge to Aging Society by microRNA in Extracellular Vesicles: microRNA in Extracellular Vesicles as Promising Biomarkers and Novel Therapeutic Targets in Multiple Myeloma. J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 55.

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