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Agriculture 2013, 3(3), 381-397; doi:10.3390/agriculture3030381

Development of Recombinant Flagellar Antigens for Serological Detection of Salmonella enterica Serotypes Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium in Poultry

1 Department of Population Health, The University of Georgia, 953 College Station Rd., Athens, GA 30602, USA 2 USDA Food Safety Inspection Service, Athens, GA 30602, USA 3 Department of Infectious Diseases, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA 4 Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA 30605, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 May 2013 / Revised: 18 June 2013 / Accepted: 27 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety Management and Poultry Production)
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Accurate and fast detection of harmful Salmonella is a major concern of food safety. Common Salmonella serotypes responsible for human associated foodborne outbreaks are S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar, S. Heidelberg, and S. Typhimurium are also commonly isolated from poultry. Serology is commonly used to monitor disease in poultry, therefore application of Salmonella serotype-specific test will have added value in Salmonella surveillance or monitoring vaccine efficacy. Recombinant flagellins were purified to be used as antigens in an ELISA. In this study, an ELISA was developed for the serological detection of S. Enteritidis. Once optimized, 500 ng of purified recombinant S. Enteritidis flagellin and a 1:64 dilution were determined to be optimal for testing sera. A negative baseline cutoff was calculated to be an optical density (OD) of 0.35. All sera from birds with history of S. Enteritidis exposure tested positive and all sera from chickens with no exposure tested negative to this Salmonella serotype. Current ELISA for serological detection of Salmonella suffers from cross reactivity inherent in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or whole cell antigen based serological tests. This new ELISA eliminates common cross reactivity by focusing specifically on the flagellins of the Salmonella serotypes common in poultry and associated with foodborne outbreaks.
Keywords: Salmonella; ELISA; poultry; serotype; Enteritidis Salmonella; ELISA; poultry; serotype; Enteritidis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Minicozzi, J.; Sanchez, S.; Lee, M.D.; Holt, P.S.; Hofacre, C.L.; Maurer, J.J. Development of Recombinant Flagellar Antigens for Serological Detection of Salmonella enterica Serotypes Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium in Poultry. Agriculture 2013, 3, 381-397.

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