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J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2011), Pages 31-87

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Strontium Ions Substitution in Brushite Crystals: The Role of Strontium Chloride
J. Funct. Biomater. 2011, 2(2), 31-38; doi:10.3390/jfb2020031
Received: 8 April 2011 / Revised: 16 May 2011 / Accepted: 30 May 2011 / Published: 31 May 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (398 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The incorporation of strontium chloride to brushite cement was successful to introduce strontium ions within the lattice of brushite crystals. The effect of strontium ions on brushite cement properties was concentration dependent; such that, the addition of 5% and 10% (w/w) SrCl [...] Read more.
The incorporation of strontium chloride to brushite cement was successful to introduce strontium ions within the lattice of brushite crystals. The effect of strontium ions on brushite cement properties was concentration dependent; such that, the addition of 5% and 10% (w/w) SrCl2 significantly increased the cement FST and the addition of 10% SrCl2 decreased the cement tensile strength. Further, cement weight loss was shown to be increased by cement modification with SrCl2. The combination of ionic substitution and the degradability of brushite cements would constitute a system for the local delivery of strontium ions in the treatment of osteoporosis. Full article
Open AccessArticle Multi-Composite Bioactive Osteogenic Sponges Featuring Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Platelet-Rich Plasma, Nanoporous Silicon Enclosures, and Peptide Amphiphiles for Rapid Bone Regeneration
J. Funct. Biomater. 2011, 2(2), 39-66; doi:10.3390/jfb2020039
Received: 4 May 2011 / Revised: 25 May 2011 / Accepted: 17 June 2011 / Published: 21 June 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel bioactive sponge was created with a composite of type I collagen sponges or porous poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), BMP2-loaded nanoporous silicon enclosure (NSE) microparticles, mineralizing peptide amphiphiles (PA), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Primary MSC from cortical bone [...] Read more.
A novel bioactive sponge was created with a composite of type I collagen sponges or porous poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), BMP2-loaded nanoporous silicon enclosure (NSE) microparticles, mineralizing peptide amphiphiles (PA), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Primary MSC from cortical bone (CB)  tissue proved to form more and larger colony units, as well as produce more mineral matrix under osteogenic differentiation, than MSC from bone marrow (BM). Coating pre-treatments were optimized for maximum cell adhesion and mineralization, while a PRP-based gel carrier was created to efficiently deliver and retain MSC and  microparticles within a porous scaffold while simultaneously promoting cell recruitment, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Components and composite sponges were evaluated for osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Osteogenic sponges were loaded with MSC, PRP, PA, and NSE and implanted subcutaneously in rats to evaluate the formation of bone tissue and angiogenesis in vivo. It was found that the combination of a collagen sponge with CB MSC, PRP, PA, and the BMP2-releasing NSE formed the most bone and was most vascularized by four weeks compared to analogous composites featuring BM MSC or PCL or lacking PRP, PA, and NSE. This study indicates that CB MSC should be considered as an alternative to marrow as a source of stem cells, while the PRP-PA cell and microparticle delivery system may be utilized for diverse tissue engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cells and Biomaterials)

Review

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Open AccessReview Mechanotransduction: Tuning Stem Cells Fate
J. Funct. Biomater. 2011, 2(2), 67-87; doi:10.3390/jfb2020067
Received: 6 May 2011 / Revised: 7 June 2011 / Accepted: 17 June 2011 / Published: 21 June 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is a general concern that the success of regenerative medicine-based applications is based on the ability to recapitulate the molecular events that allow stem cells to repair the damaged tissue/organ. To this end biomaterials are designed to display properties that, in [...] Read more.
It is a general concern that the success of regenerative medicine-based applications is based on the ability to recapitulate the molecular events that allow stem cells to repair the damaged tissue/organ. To this end biomaterials are designed to display properties that, in a precise and physiological-like fashion, could drive stem cell fate both in vitro and in vivo. The rationale is that stem cells are highly sensitive to forces and that they may convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. In this review, we describe novelties on stem cells and biomaterials interactions with more focus on the implication of the mechanical stimulation named mechanotransduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cells and Biomaterials)

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