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Antibiotics 2013, 2(2), 288-315; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2020288

Multiple Pathways of Genome Plasticity Leading to Development of Antibiotic Resistance

1
Institut Pasteur, Unité Plasticité du Génome Bactérien, Paris 75015, France
2
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 3525, Paris 75015, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 March 2013 / Revised: 21 May 2013 / Accepted: 23 May 2013 / Published: 30 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance)
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Abstract

The emergence of multi-resistant bacterial strains is a major source of concern and has been correlated with the widespread use of antibiotics. The origins of resistance are intensively studied and many mechanisms involved in resistance have been identified, such as exogenous gene acquisition by horizontal gene transfer (HGT), mutations in the targeted functions, and more recently, antibiotic tolerance through persistence. In this review, we focus on factors leading to integron rearrangements and gene capture facilitating antibiotic resistance acquisition, maintenance and spread. The role of stress responses, such as the SOS response, is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: integron; SOS; sub-MIC; reactive oxygen species; horizontal gene transfer; RpoS; CRP integron; SOS; sub-MIC; reactive oxygen species; horizontal gene transfer; RpoS; CRP
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Baharoglu, Z.; Garriss, G.; Mazel, D. Multiple Pathways of Genome Plasticity Leading to Development of Antibiotic Resistance. Antibiotics 2013, 2, 288-315.

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