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Antibiotics, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2013), Pages 182-327

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle The Economic Impact of Starting, Stopping, and Restarting an Antibiotic Stewardship Program: A 14-Year Experience
Antibiotics 2013, 2(2), 256-264; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2020256
Received: 17 February 2013 / Revised: 11 April 2013 / Accepted: 15 April 2013 / Published: 24 April 2013
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Abstract
Regions Hospital started a multidisciplinary antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) in 1998. The program effectively shut down from 2002–2004 as key personnel departed and was then restarted but without the dedicated pharmacist and infectious diseases physician. Purchasing data (in dollars or dollars/patient/day) unadjusted for
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Regions Hospital started a multidisciplinary antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) in 1998. The program effectively shut down from 2002–2004 as key personnel departed and was then restarted but without the dedicated pharmacist and infectious diseases physician. Purchasing data (in dollars or dollars/patient/day) unadjusted for inflation served as a surrogate marker of antibiotic consumption. These data were reviewed monthly, quarterly, and yearly along with antibiotic susceptibility patterns on a semi-annual basis. Segmented regression analysis was use to compare restricted antibiotic purchases for performance periods of 1998–2001 (construction), 2002–2004 (de-construction), and 2005–2011 (reconstruction). After 4 years (1998–2001) of operation, a number of key participants of the ASP departed. For the following three years (2002–2004) the intensity and focus of the program floundered. This trend was averted when the program was revitalized in early 2005. The construction, deconstruction, and reconstruction of our ASP provided a unique opportunity to statistically examine the financial impact of our ASP or lack thereof in the same institution. We demonstrate a significant economic impact during ASP deconstruction and reconstruction. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Effects of Two Novel Copper-Based Formulations on Helicobacter pylori
Antibiotics 2013, 2(2), 265-273; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2020265
Received: 30 March 2013 / Revised: 1 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
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Abstract
We investigated the effects of two novel copper-based inorganic formulations for their activity against 60 isolates of Helicobacter pylori (Hp). The two copper-based formulations were tested against three NCTC Helicobacter pylori isolates and 57 clinical strains isolated from the UK and Italy in
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We investigated the effects of two novel copper-based inorganic formulations for their activity against 60 isolates of Helicobacter pylori (Hp). The two copper-based formulations were tested against three NCTC Helicobacter pylori isolates and 57 clinical strains isolated from the UK and Italy in time-kill assays. Both copper-based formulations were bio-cidal against all Helicobacter pylori strains tested reducing the viable count by 4–5 log within 2 h. These two copper-based anti-microbial agents deserve further study in relation to the treatment of H. pylori-related gastric disease. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Presence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Seawater Samples from Coastal Area of Gran Canaria Island (Spain)
Antibiotics 2013, 2(2), 274-287; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2020274
Received: 7 March 2013 / Revised: 17 May 2013 / Accepted: 21 May 2013 / Published: 30 May 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (609 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study presents the evaluation of seven pharmaceutical compounds belonging to different commonly used therapeutic classes in seawater samples from coastal areas of Gran Canaria Island. The target compounds include atenolol (antihypertensive), acetaminophen (analgesic), norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (antibiotics), carbamazepine (antiepileptic) and ketoprofen and
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This study presents the evaluation of seven pharmaceutical compounds belonging to different commonly used therapeutic classes in seawater samples from coastal areas of Gran Canaria Island. The target compounds include atenolol (antihypertensive), acetaminophen (analgesic), norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (antibiotics), carbamazepine (antiepileptic) and ketoprofen and diclofenac (anti-inflammatory). Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used for the extraction and preconcentration of the samples, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for the determination of the compounds. Under optimal conditions, the recoveries obtained were in the range of 78.3% to 98.2%, and the relative standard deviations were less than 11.8%. The detection and quantification limits of the method were in the ranges of 0.1–2.8 and 0.3–9.3 ng·L−1, respectively. The developed method was applied to evaluate the presence of these pharmaceutical compounds in seawater from four outfalls in Gran Canaria Island (Spain) during one year. Ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found in a large number of samples in a concentration range of 9.0–3551.7 ng·L−1. Low levels of diclofenac, acetaminophen and ketoprofen were found sporadically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environmental Footprint of Antibiotics)
Figures

Open AccessCommunication Prescriber and Patient Responsibilities in Treatment of Acute Respiratory Tract Infections — Essential for Conservation of Antibiotics
Antibiotics 2013, 2(2), 316-327; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2020316
Received: 29 March 2013 / Revised: 16 May 2013 / Accepted: 24 May 2013 / Published: 4 June 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inappropriate antibiotic use in normally self-limiting acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs), such as sore throat and the common cold, is a global problem and an important factor for increasing levels of antibiotic resistance. A new group of international experts—the Global Respiratory Infection Partnership
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Inappropriate antibiotic use in normally self-limiting acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs), such as sore throat and the common cold, is a global problem and an important factor for increasing levels of antibiotic resistance. A new group of international experts—the Global Respiratory Infection Partnership (GRIP)—is committed to addressing this issue, with the interface between primary care practitioners and their patients as their core focus. To combat the overuse of antibiotics in the community, and facilitate a change from prescribing empiric antibiotic treatment towards cautious deferment combined with symptomatic relief, there is a need to introduce and enhance evidence-based dialogue between primary care practitioners and their patients. Communication with patients should focus on the de-medicalisation of self-limiting viral infections, which can be achieved via a coherent globally endorsed framework outlining the rationale for appropriate antibiotic use in acute RTIs in the context of antibiotic stewardship and conservancy. The planned framework is intended to be adaptable at a country level to reflect local behaviours, cultures and healthcare systems, and has the potential to serve as a model for change in other therapeutic areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Respiratory Tract Infections)

Review

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Open AccessReview Tracking Change: A Look at the Ecological Footprint of Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance
Antibiotics 2013, 2(2), 191-205; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2020191
Received: 16 February 2013 / Revised: 19 March 2013 / Accepted: 20 March 2013 / Published: 27 March 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Among the class of pollutants considered as ‘emerging contaminants’, antibiotic compounds including drugs used in medical therapy, biocides and disinfectants merit special consideration because their bioactivity in the environment is the result of their functional design. Antibiotics can alter the structure and function
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Among the class of pollutants considered as ‘emerging contaminants’, antibiotic compounds including drugs used in medical therapy, biocides and disinfectants merit special consideration because their bioactivity in the environment is the result of their functional design. Antibiotics can alter the structure and function of microbial communities in the receiving environment and facilitate the development and spread of resistance in critical species of bacteria including pathogens. Methanogenesis, nitrogen transformation and sulphate reduction are among the key ecosystem processes performed by bacteria in nature that can also be affected by the impacts of environmental contamination by antibiotics. Together, the effects of the development of resistance in bacteria involved in maintaining overall ecosystem health and the development of resistance in human, animal and fish pathogens, make serious contributions to the risks associated with environmental pollution by antibiotics. In this brief review, we discuss the multiple impacts on human and ecosystem health of environmental contamination by antibiotic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environmental Footprint of Antibiotics)
Open AccessReview Rifampicin Resistance: Fitness Costs and the Significance of Compensatory Evolution
Antibiotics 2013, 2(2), 206-216; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2020206
Received: 1 February 2013 / Revised: 28 March 2013 / Accepted: 28 March 2013 / Published: 3 April 2013
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Abstract
Seventy years after the introduction of antibiotic chemotherapy to treat tuberculosis, problems caused by drug-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis have become greater than ever. The discovery and development of novel drugs and drug combination therapies will be critical to managing these problematic infections. However,
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Seventy years after the introduction of antibiotic chemotherapy to treat tuberculosis, problems caused by drug-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis have become greater than ever. The discovery and development of novel drugs and drug combination therapies will be critical to managing these problematic infections. However, to maintain effective therapy in the long-term and to avoid repeating the mistakes of the past, it is essential that we understand how resistance to antibiotics evolves in M. tuberculosis. Recent studies in genomics and genetics, employing both clinical isolates and model organisms, have revealed that resistance to the frontline anti-tuberculosis drug, rifampicin, is very strongly associated with the selection of fitness compensatory mutations in the different subunits of RNA polymerase. This mode of resistance evolution may also apply to other drugs, and knowledge of the rates and mechanisms could be used to design improved diagnostics and by tracking the evolution of infectious strains, to inform the optimization of therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance)
Open AccessReview Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Impact of Acquired and Intrinsic Fosfomycin Resistance
Antibiotics 2013, 2(2), 217-236; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2020217
Received: 11 March 2013 / Revised: 5 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 April 2013 / Published: 16 April 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1062 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacterial infections caused by antibiotic-resistant isolates have become a major health problem in recent years, since they are very difficult to treat, leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality. Fosfomycin is a broad-spectrum bactericidal antibiotic that inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in both
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Bacterial infections caused by antibiotic-resistant isolates have become a major health problem in recent years, since they are very difficult to treat, leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality. Fosfomycin is a broad-spectrum bactericidal antibiotic that inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. This antibiotic has a unique mechanism of action and inhibits the initial step in peptidoglycan biosynthesis by blocking the enzyme, MurA. Fosfomycin has been used successfully for the treatment of urinary tract infections for a long time, but the increased emergence of antibiotic resistance has made fosfomycin a suitable candidate for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens, especially in combination with other therapeutic partners. The acquisition of fosfomycin resistance could threaten the reintroduction of this antibiotic for the treatment of bacterial infection. Here, we analyse the mechanism of action and molecular mechanisms for the development of fosfomycin resistance, including the modification of the antibiotic target, reduced antibiotic uptake and antibiotic inactivation. In addition, we describe the role of each pathway in clinical isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance)
Open AccessReview Phenotypic Resistance to Antibiotics
Antibiotics 2013, 2(2), 237-255; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2020237
Received: 4 February 2013 / Revised: 22 March 2013 / Accepted: 9 April 2013 / Published: 18 April 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (493 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of antibiotic resistance is usually associated with genetic changes, either to the acquisition of resistance genes, or to mutations in elements relevant for the activity of the antibiotic. However, in some situations resistance can be achieved without any genetic alteration; this
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The development of antibiotic resistance is usually associated with genetic changes, either to the acquisition of resistance genes, or to mutations in elements relevant for the activity of the antibiotic. However, in some situations resistance can be achieved without any genetic alteration; this is called phenotypic resistance. Non-inherited resistance is associated to specific processes such as growth in biofilms, a stationary growth phase or persistence. These situations might occur during infection but they are not usually considered in classical susceptibility tests at the clinical microbiology laboratories. Recent work has also shown that the susceptibility to antibiotics is highly dependent on the bacterial metabolism and that global metabolic regulators can modulate this phenotype. This modulation includes situations in which bacteria can be more resistant or more susceptible to antibiotics. Understanding these processes will thus help in establishing novel therapeutic approaches based on the actual susceptibility shown by bacteria during infection, which might differ from that determined in the laboratory. In this review, we discuss different examples of phenotypic resistance and the mechanisms that regulate the crosstalk between bacterial metabolism and the susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, information on strategies currently under development for diminishing the phenotypic resistance to antibiotics of bacterial pathogens is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance)
Open AccessReview Multiple Pathways of Genome Plasticity Leading to Development of Antibiotic Resistance
Antibiotics 2013, 2(2), 288-315; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2020288
Received: 7 March 2013 / Revised: 21 May 2013 / Accepted: 23 May 2013 / Published: 30 May 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (557 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The emergence of multi-resistant bacterial strains is a major source of concern and has been correlated with the widespread use of antibiotics. The origins of resistance are intensively studied and many mechanisms involved in resistance have been identified, such as exogenous gene acquisition
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The emergence of multi-resistant bacterial strains is a major source of concern and has been correlated with the widespread use of antibiotics. The origins of resistance are intensively studied and many mechanisms involved in resistance have been identified, such as exogenous gene acquisition by horizontal gene transfer (HGT), mutations in the targeted functions, and more recently, antibiotic tolerance through persistence. In this review, we focus on factors leading to integron rearrangements and gene capture facilitating antibiotic resistance acquisition, maintenance and spread. The role of stress responses, such as the SOS response, is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance)

Other

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Open AccessOpinion Photobactericides—A Local Option against Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria
Antibiotics 2013, 2(2), 182-190; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2020182
Received: 14 January 2013 / Revised: 18 March 2013 / Accepted: 22 March 2013 / Published: 27 March 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (444 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of light-activated bactericidal agents—photobactericides—is suggested in local infection in order to conserve conventional antibacterials for more systemic disease. Local administration of a photobactericide such as methylene blue coupled with locally-targeted red light illumination ensures the production of non-specific reactive oxygen species
[...] Read more.
The use of light-activated bactericidal agents—photobactericides—is suggested in local infection in order to conserve conventional antibacterials for more systemic disease. Local administration of a photobactericide such as methylene blue coupled with locally-targeted red light illumination ensures the production of non-specific reactive oxygen species and thus a rapid and localised antibacterial response, regardless of the conventional resistance status. To this end, the response of photobactericides to conventional resistance mechanisms, and their potential use in infection, is discussed. Full article

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