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Coatings 2013, 3(2), 59-81; doi:10.3390/coatings3020059

Computational Tools and Approaches for Design and Control of Coating and Composite Color, Appearance, and Electromagnetic Signature

1
Department of Coatings and Polymeric Materials, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102, USA
2
Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, USA
Present Address: Boeing Research
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 November 2012 / Revised: 10 February 2013 / Accepted: 3 April 2013 / Published: 11 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multifunctional Coatings for Next Generation Applications)
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Abstract

The transport behavior of electromagnetic radiation through a polymeric coating or composite is the basis for the material color, appearance, and overall electromagnetic signature. As multifunctional materials become more advanced and next generation in-service applications become more demanding, a need for predictive design of electromagnetic signature is desired. This paper presents various components developed and used in a computational suite for the study and design of electromagnetic radiation transport properties in polymeric coatings and composites. Focus is given to the treatment of the forward or direct scattering problem on surfaces and in bulk matrices of polymeric materials. The suite consists of surface and bulk light scattering simulation modules that may be coupled together to produce a multiscale model for predicting the electromagnetic signature of various material systems. Geometric optics ray tracing is used to predict surface scattering behavior of realistically rough surfaces, while a coupled ray tracing-finite element approach is used to predict bulk scattering behavior of material matrices consisting of microscale and nanoscale fillers, pigments, fibers, air voids, and other inclusions. Extension of the suite to color change and appearance metamerism is addressed, as well as the differences between discrete versus statistical material modeling.
Keywords: electromagnetic radiation; light scattering; surface scattering; bulk scattering; inclusion scattering; color; appearance; electromagnetic signature; geometric optics electromagnetic radiation; light scattering; surface scattering; bulk scattering; inclusion scattering; color; appearance; electromagnetic signature; geometric optics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sapper, E.D.; Hinderliter, B.R. Computational Tools and Approaches for Design and Control of Coating and Composite Color, Appearance, and Electromagnetic Signature. Coatings 2013, 3, 59-81.

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