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Cosmetics, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Comparative Analysis of Four Facial Foundation Lotions with Reference to Its Antioxidant Richness and Bio-Safety
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 12; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4020012
Received: 13 March 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
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Abstract
The market these days is a hub of a variety of commercially available cosmetic products, and foundation makeup to be precise, containing various types of important bioactive compounds both from natural and synthetic sources. The current study explores the usage of foundation lotions
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The market these days is a hub of a variety of commercially available cosmetic products, and foundation makeup to be precise, containing various types of important bioactive compounds both from natural and synthetic sources. The current study explores the usage of foundation lotions among undergraduate female students of an engineering college in West Bengal, India, and its antioxidant potential such as free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation, and reducing power. Red Blood Corpuscles hemolysis assay was also tested for evaluating it safety measures. Results confirmed the presence of antioxidant-related bioactive components and hence the antioxidant property in each brand tested, albeit in varying degrees. Free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation, and reducing power were also exhibited by all samples tested. Hemolytic activity was not significantly noted among the foundations, though each exhibited different results. Lotion with the least bioactive components exhibited high hemolytic activity. The findings of this study reveal the secret behind the usefulness of foundation lotions on the basis of antioxidant contents and free radical scavenging activity. The results of this study confirmed that it is very unlikely that all the essential qualities of a good cosmetic product will be present all at once. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Efficacy of Phoenix dactylifera L. (Date Palm) Creams on Healthy Skin
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 13; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4020013
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 8 May 2017
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Abstract
The date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae) is used in most of the countries of the world and is an essential part of the diet, especially in many Arabian countries. Phoenix dactylifera L. fruits are a rich source of sugars (glucose
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The date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae) is used in most of the countries of the world and is an essential part of the diet, especially in many Arabian countries. Phoenix dactylifera L. fruits are a rich source of sugars (glucose and fructose), vitamins (A, C, and B complex), fibers, minerals, and phenolic compounds having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study is designed to explore the Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit for skin care. A single-blinded, placebo control trial was conducted, including 11 healthy female volunteers after their informed consent. The efficacy of the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract (4%) was evaluated in cream form after one, two, three, four, six, and eight weeks of treatment compared with the baseline. Prior to the study, the composition of the extract was analyzed to understand the underlying mechanisms by which the extract affects skin. Treating facial skin with the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract significantly improved all parameters investigated, such as skin elasticity, pigmentation, redness, brightness, and hydration and led to the improvement of the facial skin. There were no adverse reactions noted during the course of the patch test, demonstrating that the extract could be safe to apply on the skin. The Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit extract serves as a skin care ingredient that significantly improves characteristics important for perception of skin ageing and health. The efficacy of the treatment is possibly due to a combination of numerous active substances found in the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The New Sunscreens among Formulation Strategy, Stability Issues, Changing Norms, Safety and Efficacy Evaluations
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 15; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4020015
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 16 May 2017
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Abstract
The sun-and-skin interactions have controversial sides. Besides important beneficial effects, we need to take into consideration also some serious harmful results. In particular, these are connected to the portion of the solar spectrum traditionally identified as ultraviolet type A and B. The topical
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The sun-and-skin interactions have controversial sides. Besides important beneficial effects, we need to take into consideration also some serious harmful results. In particular, these are connected to the portion of the solar spectrum traditionally identified as ultraviolet type A and B. The topical application of sunscreens (and the avoidance of extreme exposure to sun rays) is worldwide recognized as the best strategy to avoid sunburn and oedema. Moreover, such strategy can efficiently prevent the onset of skin cancer. Therefore, the first aim of sunscreen products is to efficiently minimize all damage of sun exposure, while, at the same time, keeping good skin tolerability, avoiding safety problems and developing pleasant sensorial properties. Sunscreens, i.e., substances able to reflect and/or absorb, at a partial or complete extent, UV radiation are the key actors in skin protection. They are used to implement the level of primary photoprotection against UV rays. This means that when they absorb the radiation energy, their molecules pass to an excited state and successively re-emit energy in other forms (vibrational, rotational, infrared radiation) to come back to the ground state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sunscreens: Efficacy and Safety—An Overview and Update)
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Open AccessArticle Thermosensitive Hydrogel Mask Significantly Improves Skin Moisture and Skin Tone; Bilateral Clinical Trial
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 17; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4020017
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 1 June 2017
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Abstract
Objective: A temperature-sensitive state-changing hydrogel mask was used in this study. Once it comes into contact with the skin and reaches the body temperature, it uniformly and quickly releases the active compounds, which possess moisturizing, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. Methods: An open
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Objective: A temperature-sensitive state-changing hydrogel mask was used in this study. Once it comes into contact with the skin and reaches the body temperature, it uniformly and quickly releases the active compounds, which possess moisturizing, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. Methods: An open label clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the test product on skin hydration, skin tone and skin ageing. Subjects applied the product to one side of their face and underwent Corneometer® and Chromameter measurements, Visual assessment of facial skin ageing and facial photography. All assessments and Self-Perception Questionnaires (SPQ) were performed at baseline, after the first application of the test product and after four applications. Results: After a single treatment we observed an increase in skin moisturisation, an improvement of skin tone/luminosity and a reduction in signs of ageing, all statistically significant. After four applications a further improvement in all measured parameters was recorded. These results were confirmed by the subjects’ own perceptions, as reported in the SPQ both after one and four applications. Conclusion: The hydrogel mask tested in this study is very effective in improving skin hydration, skin radiance and luminosity, in encouraging an even skin tone and in reducing skin pigmentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Cosmetics and Nanocosmetics: Innovations and Limitations)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Skin-Aging Activity of a Standardized Extract from Panax ginseng Leaves In Vitro and In Human Volunteer
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 18; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4020018
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 24 May 2017 / Accepted: 25 May 2017 / Published: 1 June 2017
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Abstract
Ginseng leaves contain high saponin composition and content, but are used less often than the root part. To develop a use for the leaves that exploits their properties, we studied ginseng leaves as the raw material of anti-aging cosmetics. This study highlights an
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Ginseng leaves contain high saponin composition and content, but are used less often than the root part. To develop a use for the leaves that exploits their properties, we studied ginseng leaves as the raw material of anti-aging cosmetics. This study highlights an assessment of the cellular factivity and clinical efficacy of ginseng leaf extract, providing necessary information relevant to the development of new cosmetic products. Panax ginseng leaf purified extracts (PGLE) were shown to have high contents of Rb3 and Rb2. Rb3, the major chemical components of PGLE, promoted collagen synthesis though the activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in human skin fibroblast cells. In addition, the possibility of PGLE as an anti-skin-aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow’s feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in the region of interest (RI) treated with PGLE lotion over an eight-week period. Based on these results, we suggest the possibility that PGLE, having high levels of Rb3, be considered as an attractive, wrinkle-reducing candidate for topical application. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sensory Evaluation and Oxidative Stability of a Suncream Formulated with Thermal Spring Waters from Ourense (NW Spain) and Sargassum muticum Extracts
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 19; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4020019
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this work was to evaluate four thermal spring waters from Ourense and a Sargassum muticum extract as cosmetic ingredients for the preparation of a suncream. The thermal spring waters were tested for their suitability as an aqueous phase main component,
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The purpose of this work was to evaluate four thermal spring waters from Ourense and a Sargassum muticum extract as cosmetic ingredients for the preparation of a suncream. The thermal spring waters were tested for their suitability as an aqueous phase main component, and the algal extract was added as an antioxidant instead of using synthetic preservatives in the cosmetic formula. The emulsion was tested for lipid oxidation during a period of 9 months and for consumer acceptance by performing a sensory test on controls and blanks. Further, color parameters were considered, and a pH determination was performed. The S. muticum extract protected from primary and secondary oxidation as efficiently as Fucus sp. or α-tocopherol extracts. In addition, the sensorial test revealed that consumers preferred suncreams prepared with the S. muticum extract and with thermal spring water from O Tinteiro and A Chavasqueira. The pH of the suncreams varied with the selection of the ingredients, and no oscillations in colorimetric values were visually observed. Our results indicate that the algal extract and the thermal spring waters from Ourense are potential cosmetic ingredients, since they showed effectiveness as antioxidant ingredients, and the suncreams were well accepted by consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetics from Marine Sources)
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Open AccessCommunication Toxic Evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus Chemical Fractions in E. coli
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 20; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4020020
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
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Abstract
Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf is consumed as a popular decoction owing to its nice flavor and hypotensor property. Its aqueous extract radioprotector and antimutagenic properties have been experimentally demonstrated. In addition, its DNA protective activity against UV light has been proved in plasmid
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Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf is consumed as a popular decoction owing to its nice flavor and hypotensor property. Its aqueous extract radioprotector and antimutagenic properties have been experimentally demonstrated. In addition, its DNA protective activity against UV light has been proved in plasmid DNA and bacterial models. The fractioning process is important in order to identify phytocompounds responsible for this activity. In this work, the toxicity of three fractions obtained from Cymbopogon citratus (essential oils, butanolic and aqueous fractions) were tested using the SOS Chromotest in Escherichia coli. Cymbopogon citratus chemical fractions possess cytotoxic properties in E. coli in the following order butanolic > aqueous > essentials oils. Genotoxic properties were detected in any of the fractions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products)

Review

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Open AccessReview Cosmetic Ingredients as Emerging Pollutants of Environmental and Health Concern. A Mini-Review
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 11; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4020011
Received: 10 March 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 31 March 2017 / Published: 5 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (772 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cosmetic and personal care products are used in huge quantities throughout the world; as a result of their regular use, they are continuously released into the environment in very large amounts. Many of these products are biologically active and are characterized by persistence
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Cosmetic and personal care products are used in huge quantities throughout the world; as a result of their regular use, they are continuously released into the environment in very large amounts. Many of these products are biologically active and are characterized by persistence and bioaccumulation potential, posing a threat to ecosystem and human health. On the basis of the most recent scientific literature available on this subject, this paper provides an overview of some cosmetic ingredients that are considered environmental emerging pollutants of particular concern such as UV filters, some preservatives (parabens, triclosan), and microplastics. Full article
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Open AccessReview Meta Analysis of Skin Microbiome: New Link between Skin Microbiota Diversity and Skin Health with Proposal to Use This as a Future Mechanism to Determine Whether Cosmetic Products Damage the Skin
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 14; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4020014
Received: 3 March 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 14 May 2017
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Abstract
There is a skin allergy epidemic in the western world, and the rate of deterioration has increased significantly in the past 5–10 years. It is probable that there are many environmental contributing factors, yet some studies have linked it primarily to the rise
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There is a skin allergy epidemic in the western world, and the rate of deterioration has increased significantly in the past 5–10 years. It is probable that there are many environmental contributing factors, yet some studies have linked it primarily to the rise in the use of synthetic chemical ingredients in modern cosmetics. Our challenge, therefore, was to find a mechanism to determine the effect these substances have on skin health, and whether they really are a primary cause of long term damage to the skin. The first problem is the lack of any definitive way to measure skin health. Motivated by the overwhelming evidence for a link between deficient gut flora and ill health, we decided to look at whether our skin microbiota could similarly be used as an indicator of skin health. Our research illustrates how microbiota diversity alone can predict whether skin is healthy or not, after we revealed a complete lack of conclusive findings linking the presence or abundance of particular species of microbe to skin problems. This phenomenon is replicated throughout nature, where high biodiversity always leads to healthy ecosystems. ‘Caveman’ skin, untouched by modern civilisation, was far different to “western” skin and displayed unprecedented levels of bacterial diversity. The less exposed communities were to western practices, the higher the skin diversity, which is clear evidence of an environmental factor in the developed world damaging skin. For the first time we propose benchmark values of diversity against which we can measure skin to determine how healthy it is. This gives us the ability to be able to predict which people are more likely to be prone to skin ailments, and start to test whether cosmetic ingredients and products are a main cause of the skin allergy epidemic. Full article
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Open AccessReview Topical Peptide Treatments with Effective Anti-Aging Results
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 16; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4020016
Received: 26 December 2016 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
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Abstract
In the last two decades, many new peptides have been developed, and new knowledge on how peptides improve the skin has been uncovered. The spectrum of peptides in the field of cosmetics is continuously growing. This review summarizes some of the effective data
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In the last two decades, many new peptides have been developed, and new knowledge on how peptides improve the skin has been uncovered. The spectrum of peptides in the field of cosmetics is continuously growing. This review summarizes some of the effective data on cosmeceutical peptides that work against intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Some peptides have been proven in their efficacy through clinical skin trials. Well-known and documented peptides like copper tripeptide are still under research to obtain more details on their effectiveness, and for the development of new treatments. Palmitoyl pentapeptide-4 and Carnosine are other well-researched cosmeceuticals. Additionally, there are many more peptides that are used in cosmetics. However, study results for some are sparse, or have not been published in scientific journals. This article summarizes topical peptides with proven efficacy in controlled in vivo studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Efficacy Assessment of Cosmetics)

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