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Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 33; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030033

Water-Soluble Organic Germanium Promotes Both Cornified Cell Envelope Formation and Ceramide Synthesis in Cultured Keratinocytes

1
Bionics Program, Tokyo University of Technology Graduate School, 1404-1 Katakuramachi, Hachioji City, Tokyo 192-0982, Japan
2
School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Technology, 1404-1 Katakuramachi, Hachioji City, Tokyo 192-0982, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 July 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 9 September 2017
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Abstract

We investigated whether 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid increases the formation of cornified cell envelopes and the level of ceramide in cultured epidermal keratinocytes and in a three-dimensional human epidermis model. The activity and mRNA expression of transglutaminase were increased when 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid was added to the cell cultures. The formation of cornified cell envelopes in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes was increased in the presence of 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid. Ceramide levels were increased in the presence of 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid. The activity of serine palmitoyltransferase and mRNA levels of serine palmitoyltransferase 2 were also increased when 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid was added to the cultures. The extent to which ceramide levels were increased in the presence of 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid appeared dependent on serine palmitoyltransferase 2 upregulation. These results suggest that 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid can promote cornified cell envelope formation by inducing transglutaminase expression and ceramide synthesis via the induction of serine palmitoyltransferase activity, thereby improving the barrier function and moisture of dry, rough skin. View Full-Text
Keywords: barrier function; ceramide; keratinization; organic germanium; transglutaminase barrier function; ceramide; keratinization; organic germanium; transglutaminase
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kato, M.; Zeng, H.; Gu, L.; Maeda, K. Water-Soluble Organic Germanium Promotes Both Cornified Cell Envelope Formation and Ceramide Synthesis in Cultured Keratinocytes. Cosmetics 2017, 4, 33.

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